Neural Tube Defects in Australia and Food Fortification with Folic Acid
A review of Australian data on neural tube defects (NTD) from 1942 to 1981, published in 1984 , reported total NTD rates ranging from 0.8 per 1,000 births to 2.7 per 1,000, with the rates for anencephaly similar to those for spina bifida. For the four states that provided data by year of birth from 1975 to 1981 (New South Wales, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia), there was a decline in NTD rates from around 2 per 1,000 or more to 1.6 per 1,000 or less .
KeywordsNeural tube defects Folate Folic acid Fortification Australia
Food Standards Australia New Zealand
Neural tube defects
National Health and Medical Research Council
- 8.NHMRC Folate Fortification. Report of the Expert Panel on folate fortification. Sydney: NHMRC; 1994. http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/_files_nhmrc/publications/attachments/n19.pdf. Accessed 31 Oct 2011.
- 9.Abraham B, Webb K. Interim evaluation of the voluntary folate fortification policy. Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care; 2001.Google Scholar
- 10.Lawrence MA, Rutishauser IHE, Lewis JL. Knowledge about folate and the contribution of nutrient supplements to the intake of folic acid and vitamin B12 in Australian adults in 1995 and 1996. Aust J Nutr Diet. 2001;58:12–20.Google Scholar
- 11.Bower C, Blum L, O’Daly K, Higgins C, Loutsky F, Kosky C. Promotion of folate for the prevention of neural tube defects: knowledge and use of periconceptional folic acid supplements in Western Australia, 1992–1995. Aust N Z J Public Health. 1997;21:716–21. Erratum: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 1998;1922:1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Bower C, Ryan A, Rudy E, Miller M. Trends in neural tube defects in Western Australia. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2002;346:725–30.Google Scholar
- 19.Initial Assessment Report. http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/foodstandards/proposals/proposalp295considerationofmandatoryfortificationwithfolicacid/index.cfm (2004). Accessed 31 Oct 2011.
- 20.Draft Assessment Report. http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/foodstandards/proposals/proposalp295considerationofmandatoryfortificationwithfolicacid/p295finalassessmentr3568.cfm (2006). Accessed 31 Oct 2011.
- 23.FSANZ Final Assessment Report. http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/foodstandards/proposals/proposalp295considerationofmandatoryfortificationwithfolicacid/p295finalassessmentr3568.cfm (2006). Accessed 31 Oct 2011.
- 24.FSANZ First Review Report. http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/84026385A0EC6DC9CA256F190004C8E1/$File/folate.pdf (2007). Accessed 31 Oct 2011.
- 25.AFN (ausfoodnews). http://www.ausfoodnews.com.au/2012/09/06/new-zealand-decides-voluntary-instead-of-mandatory-folic-acid-fortification-in-bread.html (2012). Accessed 15 Apr 2013.
- 26.Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Mandatory folic acid and iodine fortification in Australia and New Zealand: baseline report for monitoring. Cat. no. PHE 139. Canberra: AIHW; 2011. http://www.aihw.gov.au/publication-detail/?id=10737418875. Accessed 4 Nov 2011.
- 27.Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Mandatory folic acid and iodine fortification in Australia and New Zealand: supplement to the baseline report for monitoring. Cat. no. PHE 153. Canberra: AIHW; 2011. http://www.aihw.gov.au/publication-detail/?id=10737420085. Accessed 4 Nov 2011.
- 28.Abeywardana S, Bower C, Halliday J, Chan A, Sullivan EA. Prevalence of neural tube defects in Australia prior to mandatory folic acid fortification of bread flour. ANZ J Public Health. 2010;34:351–5.Google Scholar
- 29.Abeywardana S, Sullivan EA. Neural tube defects in Australia. An epidemiological report. Cat no. PER 45. Sydney: AIHW, National Perinatal Statistics Unit; 2008.Google Scholar