Vitamin D Fortification in North America: Current Status and Future Considerations

  • Mona S. CalvoEmail author
  • Susan J. Whiting
Part of the Nutrition and Health book series (NH)


Until the last decade, adequacy of vitamin D status was not a public health concern, because vitamin D synthesis from sun exposure was thought to meet most of the North American populations’ needs and the ubiquitous fortification of milk was thought to provide sufficient intake when sun exposure was limited. More recently, a growing incidence of rickets in infants and evidence from national surveys showing high prevalence of poor vitamin D status in children and adults is slowly eroding our confidence in the vitamin D adequacy of many Americans and Canadians, as well as in other developed countries [1–3]. Concern about the high prevalence of poor vitamin D status stems from the significant association of low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D {25(OH)D} levels with the increased risk of both chronic and infectious disease, but most strongly with the chronic bone diseases, osteoporosis, and rickets in children [1–4].


Vitamin D fortification Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) Future considerations North America 



1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D


25-Hydroxyvitamin D


Adequate intake


Canadian health measures survey


Dietary Recommended Intake


Estimated average requirement


Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences


National Health and Nutrition Education Survey


Recommended Daily Allowance


Upper level of safe intake


US Department of Agriculture

Vitamin D2


Vitamin D3



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Health and Human Services, Center for Food Safety and Applied NutritionU.S. Food and Drug AdministrationLaurelUSA
  2. 2.College of Pharmacy and NutritionUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada

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