Learnings from the Postmenopausal Health Study for the Effect of Dairy Products Fortified with Calcium and Vitamin D on Bone Metabolism

  • George Moschonis
  • Angeliki Giannopoulou
  • Yannis ManiosEmail author
Part of the Nutrition and Health book series (NH)


Osteoporosis and the subsequent risk of bone fracture occur most commonly among postmenopausal women who are middle-aged and older. These disorders account for a significant burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide and have become a major public health problem [1]. Recent data reveal an increased incidence of hip fractures more likely of osteoporotic etiology in women >50 years old from several European countries (Table 16.1).


Calcium and vitamin D Bone metabolism Fortified dairy products Postmenopausal women Intervention Growth and calciotropic hormones Osteoclastic differentiation molecules Bone-remodelling indices Bone mineral density 



Dietary Recommended Intakes


Institute of Medicine


Parathyroid hormone


Insulin-like growth factor I


Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand




Type I collagen cross-linked C-telopeptide




Bone mineral density


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • George Moschonis
    • 1
  • Angeliki Giannopoulou
    • 1
  • Yannis Manios
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Nutrition and DieteticsHarokopio UniversityKallithea, AthensGreece

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