Fortification of Fish Sauce and Soy Sauce

  • Visith ChavasitEmail author
  • Siriporn Tuntipopipat
  • Ratana Watanapaisantrakul
Part of the Nutrition and Health book series (NH)


Fish sauce is produced in many parts of the world, including Europe and Asia, though using different production methods. Fish sauces produced in China and Southeast Asian countries use a similar production technique [1]. Soy sauce originated in China, though from different parts of the country. Both sauces are necessary condiments for the cuisines of many countries in Southeast and East Asia and have been so for hundreds of years [1, 2]. Although these sauces are made from different components, both plant and animal, both sauces are protein-hydrolyzed condiments which provide salty and umami tastes [3] as well as unique aromas. The sauces’ complicated flavor profiles derive from peptides, amino acids, products from browning reaction, and halophilic microorganisms, as well as volatile compounds developed from biochemical reactions.


Fish sauce Soy sauce Fortification Iron Iodine 





Ferrous sulfate










Sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid


Part per million


Recommended daily intake


Serum ferritin




Universal salt iodization




  1. 1.
    Thongthai C, Gildberg A. Asian fish sauce as a source of nutrition. In: Shi J, Ho CT, Shahidi F, editors. Asian functional foods (nutraceutical science and technology). New York: CRC Press; 2005. p. 215–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Luh BS. Industrial production of soy sauce. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 1995;14:467–71.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yamaguchi S, Ninomiya K. What is umami? Food Rev Int. 1998;14:123–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chunming C. Iron fortification of soy sauce in China. Food Nutr Agric. 2003;32:76–84.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    WHO. WHO global database on anaemia. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2008.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mackie TM, Hardy R, Hobbs G. Fermented fish product. FAO, Fisheries reports, No. 100, Rome; 1971. p. 1–54.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lopetcharat K, Choi YJ, Park JW, Daeschel MA. Fish sauce products and manufacturing: a review. Food Rev Int. 2001;17:65–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chavasit V, Nopburabutr P, Kongkachuichai R. Combating iodine and iron deficiencies through the double fortification of fish sauce, mixed fish sauce, and salt brine. Food Nutr Bull. 2003;24(2):200–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Food and Drug Administration. Food notification. Nonthaburi, Thailand: Food and Drug Administration; 1979.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mongkolwai T, Assavanig A, Amnajsongsiri C, Flegel TW, Bhumiratana A. Technology transfer for small and medium soy sauce fermentation factories in Thailand: a consortium approach. Food Res Int. 1997;30(8):555–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sasaki M, Nunomura N. Fermented foods/soy (soya) sauce. Encyclopedia Food Sci Nutr. 2003;9:2359–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fukushima D. Industrialization of fermented soy sauce production centering around Japanese soyu. In: Streinkrans KH, editor. Industrialization of indigenous fermented foods. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1989. p. 1–88.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sritongkul N. Tuntawiroon M. Improvement of iron nutrition by adding fish and soy sauces to a simple Thai meals. In: Presented at the 37th annual scientific meeting of the royal college of radiologists and radiological society of Thailand during March 23–25, 2000, Bangkok; 2000.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Baynes RD, Macfarlane BJ, Bothwell TH, Siegenberg D, Bezwoda WR, Schmidt U, et al. The promotive effect of soy sauce on iron absorption in human subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1990;44:419–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Macfarlane BJ, van der Riet WB, Bothwell TH, Baynes RD, Siegenberg D, Schmidt U, et al. Effect of traditional oriental soy products on iron absorption. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;51:873–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD). External Review of the IDD Elimination Programme in Thailand. Tracking progress towards sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency disorders in Thailand. Bangkok: Keen Media (Thailand); 2009.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chavasit V, Winichagoon P, Chareonkiatkul S, Rojroongwasinkul N, Judprasong K, Thongplave C. Salt iodization in Thailand and factors affecting quality of iodized salt. Nakhon Pathom, Thailand: Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University; 2009.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chanthilah B, Chavasit V, Chareonkiatkul S, Judprasong K. Iodine stability and sensory quality of fermented fish and fish sauce produced with the use of iodated salt. Food Nutr Bull. 2009;30(2):183–8.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Garby L, Areekul S. Iron Supplementation in Thai fish sauce. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1974;68:467–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Suwanik R, Pleehachinda R, Pattanachak S. Double fortification. Bangkok: I&I Project; 1997. p. 1–3.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Thuy PV, Berger J, Davidsson L, Khan NC, Lam NT, Cook JD, et al. Regular consumption of NaFeEDTA-fortified fish sauce improves iron status and reduces the prevalence of anemia in anemic Vietnamese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78:284–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Longfils P, Monchy D, Weinheimer H, Chavasit V, Nakanishi Y, Schümann K. A comparative intervention trial on fish sauce fortified with NaFe-EDTA and FeSO4+citrate in iron deficiency anemic school children in Kampot, Cambodia. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(2):250–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hurrell RF. Fortification: overcoming technical and practical barriers. J Nutr. 2002;132:8065–125.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Allen L, de Benoist B, Dary O, Hurrell RF. Guidelines on food fortification with micronutrients. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2006.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dary O. Staple food fortification with iron: multifactorial decision. Nutr Rev. 2002;60:S34–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    FAO/WHO additives and contaminants-fifty-third meeting, 1–10 June 1999. Rome, Italy: FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA); 1999. p. 3.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Huo J, Yang X, Piao J, Gao J, Miao H, Yu B, et al. NaFeEDTA fortified soy sauce showed higher iron absorption rate in Chinese females. Biomed Environ Sci. 2007;20:126–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Watanapaisantrakul R, Chavasit V, Kongkachuichai R. Fortification of soy sauce using various iron sources: sensory acceptability and shelf stability. Food Nutr Bull. 2006;27(1):19–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fidler MC, Davidsson L, Walczyk T, Hurrell RF. Iron absorption from fish sauce and soy sauce fortified with sodium iron EDTA. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78:274–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Walczyk T, Tuntipopipat S, Zeder C, Sirichakwal P, Wasantwisut E, Hurrell RF. Iron absorption by human subjects from different iron fortification compounds added to Thai fish sauce. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005;59(5):668–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wang B, Zhan S, Sun J, Lee L. Social mobilization and social marketing to promote NaFeEDTA-fortified soya sauce in an iron-deficient population through a public-private partnership. Public Health Nutr. 2008;12(10):1751–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Watanapaisaltrakul R. Iron fortification in different kinds of soy sauce by using various fortificants: sensory acceptability, shelf stability and dialyzability. Master’s degree thesis. Nakhon Pathom, Thailand: Graduate School, Mahidol University; 2004.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Visith Chavasit
    • 1
    Email author
  • Siriporn Tuntipopipat
    • 1
  • Ratana Watanapaisantrakul
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol UniversitySalaya, PhutthamonthonThailand

Personalised recommendations