Advertisement

Re-engineering the Schools of Tomorrow: Towards Community Sponsorship

  • David J. Shernoff
Chapter
  • 4.3k Downloads
Part of the Advancing Responsible Adolescent Development book series (ARAD)

Abstract

In this chapter, it is argued that to keep pace with large demographic shifts and the speed of information technologies, schools will have to transform themselves in the direction of optimal learning environments presented in this book in order to survive. The key characteristic of optimal learning environments is consistently demonstrated to be environmental complexity, or providing a powerful combination of environmental challenge and support. While creating optimal learning environments remains a great challenge, much will be accomplished if greater priority is placed on meeting all individual students’ needs, as illustrated by many of the models presented in this book. Youth can be very valuable societal resources, and can thrive when they feel a sense that they matter and belong through taking valued roles to contribute. There is great demand for adding more time to the school day that has already gained traction among policy makers, and is already occurring in a variety of states and cities. The main question for the future of schools appears to be how future schools will be reengineered with respect to time, resources, and staff. Forming strong community partnerships may be the essential ingredient in adapting to the times, expanding not only school time but the number and diversity of community-based engaged learning opportunities. Models of Extended Learning Time and Opportunities (ELTOs) suggest that schools that effectively engage youth in the future will likely move towards an intentionally blending of academic, physical, social, and emotional goals and activities throughout an extended school day.

Keywords

Community Partner School Reform Community Partnership Traditional School Engaging Youth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. American Psychological Association. (1997). Learner-centered psychological principles: A framework for school redesign and reform. http://www.cdl.org/resource-library/articles/learner_centered.php. Accessed 13 Oct 2010.
  2. Bempechat, J., & Shernoff, D. J. (2012). Parental influences on achievement motivation and student engagement. In S. L. Christenson, A. L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), The handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 315–342). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Black, A. E., & Deci, E. L. (2000). The effects of instructors’ autonomy support and students’ autonomous motivation on learning organic chemistry: A self-determination theory perspective. Science Education, 84(6), 740–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development. (1989). Turning points: Preparing American youth for the 21st century. New York: Carnegie Corporation.Google Scholar
  5. Connell, J. P., & Wellborn, J. G. (1991). Competence, autonomy, and relatedness: A motivational analysis of self-system processes. In M. R. Gunnar & L. A. Sroufe (Eds.), Self processes and development. The minnesota symposium on child psychology (Vol. 23, pp. 43–77). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  6. Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Schneider, B. (2000). Becoming adult: How teenagers prepare for the world of work. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  7. Damon, W. (2008). The path to purpose: How young people find their calling in life. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  8. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior (Perspectives in social psychology). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dewey, J. (1896/1973). Interest in relation to training of the will. In J. J. McDermott (Ed.), The philosophy of John Dewey: Two volumes in one. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  10. Dewey, J. (1916/1944). Democracy and education: An introduction to the philosophy of education (1st Free Press paperback ed.). New York: Collier-Macmillan.Google Scholar
  11. Dewey, J. (1975). Interest and effort in education. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Eccles, J. S., & Gootman, J. A. (2002). Community programs to promote youth development. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  13. Einstein, A. (1954). In Modern Library (Ed.), Ideas and opinions. New York: Modern Library.Google Scholar
  14. Epstein, J. L. (1995). School/family/community partnerships: Caring for the children we share. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(9), 701–712.Google Scholar
  15. Farbman, D. A. (2009). Tracking an emerging movement: A report on expanded time schools in America. Boston: National Center for Time & Learning.Google Scholar
  16. Fischer, N., Kuhn, H. P., Zuechner, I., & Theis, D. (2011, August). Quality and dosage of extracurricular activities: Effects on motivational and social development. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI), Exeter.Google Scholar
  17. Frazier, J. A., & Morrison, F. J. (1998). The influence of extended-year schooling on growth of achievement and perceived competence in early elementary school. Child Development, 69, 495–517. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1998.tb06204.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Glasser, W. (1998). Choice theory: A new psychology of personal freedom. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  19. Kaestle, C. (1985). Education reform and the swinging pendulum. Phi Delta Kappan, 66(6), 422–423.Google Scholar
  20. Kohn, A. (2000). The case against standardized testing: Raising the scores, ruining the schools. Portsmouth: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  21. Lerner, R. M. (2004). Liberty: Thriving and civic engagement among America’s youth. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  22. Lerner, R. M., Lerner, J. V., Almerigi, J. B., Theokas, C., Phelps, E., Gestsdottir, S., et al. (2005). Positive youth development, participation in community youth development programs, and community contributions of fifth-grade adolescents: Findings from the first wave of the 4-Hstudy of positive youth development. Journal of Early Adolescence, 25(1), 17–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Malone, H. J. (Ed.). (2011). Expanded learning time and opportunities (New directions for youth development: Theory, practice and research, Vol. 131). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  24. Malone, H. J., & Noam, G. G. (2011). Next steps in the expanded learning discourse. In H. J. Malone (Ed.), Expanded learning time and opportunities (New directions for youth development: Theory, practice and research, Vol. 131, pp. 119–136). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  25. Martin, J. R. (2011). Education reconfigured: Culture, encounter, and change. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. MASS 2020. (2008). Redisigning today’s schools to build a stronger tomorrow: The Massachusetts expanded learning time initiative 2007–2008 annual report. Boston: Mass 2020Google Scholar
  27. Montessori, M. (1967). The absorbent mind (1st ed.). New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  28. Noam, G. G. (Ed.). (2004). After school worlds: Creating a new social space for development and learning (New directions for youth development, Vol. 101). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  29. Reeve, J. (2009). Why teachers adopt a controlling motivating style toward students and how they can become more autonomy supportive. Educational Psychologist, 44(3), 159–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. The American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Schmidt, J. A., Shernoff, D. J., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2007). Individual and situational factors related to the experience of flow in adolescence: A multilevel approach. In A. D. Ong & M. v. Dulmen (Eds.), The handbook of methods in positive psychology (pp. 542–558). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Schutz, A. (2006). Home is a prison in the global city: The tragic failure of school-based community engagement strategies. Review of Educational Research, 76(4), 691–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schwartz, E., & McCann, E. (2011). Citizen schools’ partner-dependent expanded learning model. In H. J. Malone (Ed.), Expanded learning time and opportunities (New directions for youth development: Theory, practice and research, Vol. 131, pp. 93–106). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  33. Schweinle, A., & Helming, L. M. (2011). Social psychology of education. Social Psychology of Education, 14(4), 529–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Seligman, M. E. P., Ernst, R. M., Gillham, J., Reivich, K., & Linkins, M. (2009). Positive education: Positive psychology and classroom interventions. Oxford review of education, 35(3), 293–311. doi:  10.1080/03054980902934563.Google Scholar
  35. Shernoff, D. J., Csikszentmihalyi, M., Schneider, B., & Shernoff, E. S. (2003). Student engagement in high school classrooms from the perspective of flow theory. School Psychology Quarterly, 18(2), 158–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Shernoff, D. J., & Vandell, D. L. (2007). Engagement in after-school program activities: Quality of experience from the perspective of participants. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 891–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sims, P. (2011, April 5). The Montessori Mafia. The Wall Street Journal. http://blogs.wsj.com/ideas-market/2011/04/05/the-montessori-mafia/. Accessed 12 Apr 2013.
  38. Sizer, T. R. (1984). Horace’s compromise: The dilemma of the American high school. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  39. Smith, C., & Avika, T. (2008). Quality accountability: Improving fidelity of broad developmentally focused interventions. In M. Shinn & H. Yoshikawa (Eds.), Toward positive youth development: Transforming schools and community programs (pp. 192–212). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Steinberg, L. (1996). Beyond the classroom: Why school reform has failed and what parents need to do. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  41. Traphagen, K., & Johnson-Staub, C. (2010). Expanded time, enriching experiences: Expanded learning time schools and community organization partnerships. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress.Google Scholar
  42. Walker, J., Marczak, M., Blyth, D., & Borden, L. (2005). Designing youth development programs: Toward a theory of developmental intentionality. In J. L. Mahoney, R. W. Larson, & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after-school and community programs (pp. 399–418). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  43. Willms, J. D. (2003). Student engagement at school: A sense of belonging and participation: Results from PISA 2000. In J. D. Wilms (Ed.), Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.Google Scholar
  44. Yonezawa, S., Jones, M., & Joselowsky, F. (2009). Youth engagement in high schools: Developing a multidimensional, critical approach to improving engagement for all students. New York: Academy for Educational Development and UCSD-CREATE.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • David J. Shernoff
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Leadership, Educational Psychology and Foundations College of EducationNorthern Illinois UniversityDeKalbUSA

Personalised recommendations