Arsenic Stress in Plants: An Inside Story

  • Iti Sharma


Arsenic (As) toxicity is a global concern due to increasing contamination of metalloid in water, soil and crops especially in South East Asia. Arsenic poses a serious threat of food chain contamination by accumulating in various crops through the phosphate transporters as a phosphate analogue. After accumulating in plant tissues arsenic interferes with various metabolic processes and thereby adversely affects the plant metabolism, and ultimately leads to reduced plant productivity. Alteration of phosphate, nitrogen, sulfur metabolism and disorder in major physiological reactions like respiration, photosynthesis and transpiration are responsible for metabolic dysfunction of plants exposed to arsenic. This chapter discusses recent advances in plant arsenic interaction at molecular, biochemical and physiological levels. It is necessary to develop a detailed biochemical understanding about interaction of arsenic with plants to limit detrimental effects of arsenic on crops and also for better agronomic production.


Arsenic Species Arsenic Toxicity Arsenate Reductase Root Border Cell Inorganic Arsenic Species 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



I thank to Professor Aditya Shastri, Director, Banasthali University for his kind support and necessary facilities for carrying out the present study. The sincere cooperation and support of my mentor Dr. Bhumi Nath Tripathi is also gratefully acknowledged. The work was financially supported by Department of Science and Technology (DST), Govt. of India, New Delhi, in the form of Women Scientist-A Scheme (WOS-A).


  1. Abercrombie JM, Halfhill MD, Ranjan P, Rao MR, Saxton AM, Yuan JS, Stewart CNJr (2008) Transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to As(V) stress. BMC Plant Biol 8:87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adriano DC (2001) Trace elements in the terrestrial environment. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahsan N, Lee DG, Kim KH, Alam I, Lee SH, Lee KW, Lee H, Lee BH (2010) Analysis of arsenic stress-induced differentially expressed proteins in rice leaves by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. Chemosphere 78:224–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ali W, Isner JC, Isayenkov SV, Liu W, Zhao FJ, Maathuis FJM (2012) Heterologous expression of the yeast arsenite efflux system ACR3 improves Arabidopsis thaliana tolerance to arsenic stress. New Phytol 194:716–723PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Araújo WL, Nunes-Nesi A, Trenkamp S, Bunik VI, Fernie AR (2008) Inhibition of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase in potato tuber suggests the enzyme is limiting for respiration and confirms its importance in nitrogen assimilation. Plant Physiol 148:1782–1796PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Avron M, Jagendorf A (1959) Evidence concerning the mechanism of adenosine triphosphate formation by spinach chloroplasts. J Biol Chem 234:967–972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Azcue JM, Nriagu JO (1994) Arsenic: historical perspectives. In: Nriagu JO (ed) Arsenic in the environment. Part I: cycling and characterization. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp 1–15Google Scholar
  8. Benton MA, Rager JE, Smeester L, Fry RC (2011) Comparative genomic analyses identify common molecular pathways modulated upon exposure to low doses of arsenic and cadmium. BMC Genomics 12:173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bergqvist C (2012) Arsenic accumulation and speciation in plants from different habitats. Appl Geochem 27(3):615–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bergquist ER, Fischer RJ, Sugden KD, Martin BD (2009) Inhibition by methylated organo arsenicals of the respiratory 2-oxo-acid dehydrogenases. J Organomet Chem 694:973–980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Biehler K, Migge A, Fock H (1996) The role the malate dehydrogenase in dissipating excess energy under water stress in two wheat species. Photosynthetica 32:431–438Google Scholar
  12. Bleeker PM, Hakvoort HWJ, Bliek M, Souer E, Schat H (2006) Enhanced arsenate reduction by a CDC25-like tyrosine phosphatase explains increased phytochelatin accumulation in arsenate-tolerant Holcus lanatus. Plant J 45:917–929PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bona E, Cattaneo C, Cesaro P, Marsano F, Lingua G, Cavaletto M, Berta G (2010) Proteomic analysis of Pteris vittata fronds: two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi differentially modulate protein expression under arsenic contamination. Proteomics 10:3811–3834PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bürstenbinder K, Sauter M (2012) Early events in the ethylene biosynthetic pathway–regulation of the pools of methionine and S-adenosylmethionine. In: McManus MT (ed) Annual plant reviews, vol. 44. Wiley, Hoboken pp 19–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chakrabarty D, Trivedi PK, Misra P, Tiwari M, Shri M, Shukla D, Kumar S, Rai A, Pandey A, Nigam D, Tripathi RD, Tuli R (2009) Comparative transcriptome analysis of arsenate and arsenite stresses in rice seedlings. Chemosphere 74:688–702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen W, Chi Y, Taylor, NL, Lambers H, Finnegan PM (2010) Disruption of ptLPD1or ptLPD2, genes that encode isoforms of the plastidial lipoamide dehydrogenase, confers arsenate hypersensitivity in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 153:1385–1397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cherian S, Oliveira MM (2005) Transgenic plants in phytoremediation: recent advances and new possibilities. Environ Sci Technol 39:9377–9390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cullen WR, Hettipathirana DI (1994) Application of whole cell NMR techniques to study the interaction of arsenic compounds with Catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures. Appl Organomet Chem 8:463–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dhankher OP, Rosen BP, McKinney EC, Meagher RB (2006) Hyperaccumulation of arsenic in the shoots of Arabidopsis silenced for arsenate reductase (ACR2). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:5413–5418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Duan G, Zhou Y, Tong Y, Mukhopadhyay R, Rosen BP, Zhu Y (2007) A CDC25 homologue from rice functions as an arsenate reductase. New Phytol 174:311–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Duana GL, Hu Y, Liu Wen-Ju, Kneer R, Zhao F-J, Zhu Y-G (2011) Evidence for a role of phytochelatins in regulating arsenic accumulation in rice grain. Environ Exp Bot 71:416–421Google Scholar
  22. Duman F, Ozturk F, Aydin Z (2010) Biological responses of duck weed (Lemna minor L.) exposed to the inorganic arsenic species As(III) and As(V): effects of concentration and duration of exposure. Ecotoxicology 19:983–993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Duquesnoy I, Goupil P, Nadaud I, Branlard G, Piquet-Pissaloux A, Ledoigt G (2009) Identification of Agrostis tenuis leaf proteins in response to As(V) and As(III) induced stress using a proteomics approach. Plant Sci 176:206–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dwivedi S, Tripathi RD, Tripathi P, Kumar A, Dave R, Mishra S, Singh R, Sharma D, Rai UN, Chakrabarty D, Trivedi PK, Adhikari B, Bag MK, Dhankher OP, Tuli R (2010) Arsenate exposure affects amino acids, mineral nutrient status and antioxidants in rice(Oryza sativa L.) genotypes. Environ Sci Technol 44:9542–9549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ellis DR, Gumaelius L, Indriolo E, Pickering I, Banks JA, Salt DE (2006) A novel arsenate reductase from the arsenic hyperaccumulating Pteris vittata. Plant Physiol 141:1544–1554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Faria D, Wanda C, Mucciarelli M, Fusconi A, (2010) Arsenate toxicity on the apices of Pisum sativum L. seedling root: effect on mitotic activity, chromatin integrity and microtubules. Environ Exp Bot 69(1):17–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ghosh M, Shen J, Rosen BP (1999) Pathways of As(III) detoxification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:5001–5006PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gomes MP, Carvalho M, Marques TCLSáe Melo, Duarte DM, Nogueira COG, Soares AM, Garcia QS (2012) Arsenic-sensitivity in Anadenanthera Peregrina eue to arsenic-induced lipid peroxidation. Int J Appl Sci Technol 2(2):55–63Google Scholar
  29. Gresser MJ (1981) ADP-arsenate formation by submitochondrial particles under phosphorylating conditions. J Biol Chem 256:5981–5983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Grill E, Winnacker EL, Zenk MH (1987) Phytochelatins a class of heavy-metal-binding peptides from plants are functionally analogous to metallothioneins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:439–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hartley-Whitaker J, Ainsworth G, Meharg AA (2001) Copper and arsenate-induced oxidative stress in Holcus lanatus L. clones with differential sensitivity. Plant Cell Environ 24:713–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jia Y, Huang H, Sun GX, Zhao FJ, Zhao FJ, Zhu YG (2012) Pathways and relative contributions to arsenic volatilization from rice plants and paddy soil. Environ Sci Technol 46(15):8090–8096PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kish MM, Viola RE (1999) Oxy anion specificity of aspartate beta-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Inorg Chem 38:818–820PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kopittke PM, Jonge MD, Menzies NW, Peng W, Donner E, McKenna BA, Paterson D, Howard DL, Lombi E (2012) Examination of the distribution of arsenic in hydrated and fresh cowpea roots using two- and three-dimensional techniques. Plant Physiol 159(3):1149–1158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Krammer U (2005) Phytoremediation: novel approaches to cleaning up polluted soils. Curr Opin Biotechnol 16:133–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kumar S, Asif MH, Chakrabarty D, Tripathi RD, Trivedi PK (2011) Differential expression and alternative splicing of rice sulphate transporter family members regulate sulphur status during plant growth, development and stress conditions. Funct Integr Genomics 11:259–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Leterrier M, Airaki M, Palma JM, Chaki M, Barroso JB, Corpas FJ (2012) Arsenic triggers the nitric oxide (NO) and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) metabolism in Arabidopsis. Environ Poll 166:136–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Levi C, Preiss J (1978) Amylo pectin degradation in pea chloroplast extracts. Plant Physiol 61:218–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Li Y, Dhankher OP, Carreira L, Lee D, Chen A, Schroeder JI, Balish RS, Meagher RB (2004) Overexpression of phytochelatin synthase in Arabidopsis leads to enhanced arsenic tolerance and cadmium hypersensitivity. Plant Cell Physiol 45:1787–1797PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Li Y, Dhankher OP, Carreira L, Balish R, Meagher R (2005) Engineered overexpression of g-glutamylcysteine synthetase in plants confers high level arsenic and mercury tolerance. Environ Toxicol Chem 24:1376–1386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Liu X, Zhang S, Shan X, Zhu YG (2005) Toxicity of arsenate and arsenite on germination, seedling growth and amylolytic activity of wheat. Chemosphere 61:293–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lomax C, Liu WJ, Wu L, Xue K, Xiong J, Zhou J, McGrath SP, Meharg AA, Miller AJ, Zho FJ (2012) Methylated arsenic species in plants originate from soil microorganisms. New Phytol 193(3):665–672PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Maciaszczyk-Dziubinska E, Wawrzycka D, Wysocki R (2012) Arsenic and antimony transporters in eukaryotes. Int J Mol Sci 13(3):3527–3548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Marin AR, Masscheleyn PH, Patrick WH (1993) Soil redox-pH stability of arsenic species and its influence on arsenic uptake by rice. Plant Soil 152:245–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Marques IA, Anderson LE (1986) Effects of arsenite, sulfite, and sulfate on photosynthetic carbon metabolism in isolate pea (Pisum sativum L.,cv Little Marvel) chloroplasts. Plant Physiol 82:488–493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mascher R, Lippmann B, Holzinger S, Bergmann H (2002) Arsenate toxicity:effects on oxidative stress response molecules and enzymes in red clover plants. Plant Sci 163:961–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Matscullat J (2000) Arsenic in the geosphere-a review. Sci Total Environ 249:297–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Meharg AA (2004) Arsenic in rice—understanding a new disaster for SouthEast Asia. Trends Plant Sci 9:415–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Meharg AA, Hartley-Whitaker J (2002) Arsenic uptake and metabolism in arsenic resistant and non resistant plant species. New Phytol 154:29–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Meharg AA, Jardine L (2003) Arsenite transport into paddy rice (Oryza sativa) roots. New Phytol 157:39–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Melanen M, Ekqvist M, Mukherjee AB, Aune la-Tapola L, Verta M, Salmikan gas T (1999) Raskasmetallien päästöt ilmaan Suomes sa 1990)-luvulla. Suomen Ym päristö Suomen Ym päristökeskus, Edita (distributor), Hel sin ki 329, 92 ppGoogle Scholar
  52. Miteva E, Merakchiyska M (2002) Response of chloroplasts and photosynthetic mechanism of bean plants to excess arsenic in soil. Bulg J Agric Sci 8:151–156Google Scholar
  53. Moreno-Jiménez E, Esteban E, Penalosa JM (2012) The fate of arsenic in soil-plant systems. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 215:1–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mosa KA, Kumar K, Chhikara S, McDermott J, Liu Z, Musante C, White JC, Dhankher OP (2012) Members of rice plasma membrane intrinsic proteins subfamily are involved in arsenite permeability and tolerance in plants. Transgenic Res. doi:.1007/s11248-012-9600-8.Google Scholar
  55. Muñoz-Bertomeu J, Cascales-Miñana B, Mulet JM, Baroja-Fernández E, Pozueta-Romero J, Kuhn JM, Segura J, Ros R (2009) Plastidial glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency leads to altered root development and affects the sugar and amino acid balance in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 151:541–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mylona PV, Polidoros AN, Scandalios JG (1998) Modulation of antioxidant responses by arsenic in maize. Free Radical Biol Med 25:576–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nissen P, Benson AA (1982) Arsenic metabolism in freshwater and terrestrial plants. Physiol Plantarum 54:446–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Norton GJ, Lou-Hing Daniel E, Meharg AA, Adam H (2008) Rice-arsenate interactions in hydroponics: whole genome transcriptional analysis. J Exp Bot 59:2267–2276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Norton GJ, Pinson SR, Alexander J, McKay S, Hansen H, Duan GL, Rafiqul Islam M, Islam S, Stroud JL, Zhao FJ, McGrath SP, Zhu YG, Lahner B, Yakubova E, Guerinot ML, Tarpley L, Eizenga GC, Salt DE, Meharg AA, Price AH (2012) Variation in grain arsenic assessed in a diverse panel of rice (Oryza sativa) grown in multiple sites. New Phytol 193(3):650–664PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Orsit BA, Cleland WW (1972) Inhibition and kinetic mechanism of rabbit muscle glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Biochemistry 11:102–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pajuelo E, Rodríguez-Llorente ID, Dary M, Palomares AJ (2008) Toxic effects of arsenic on Sino rhizobiume-Medicago sativa symbiotic interaction. Environ Pollut 154:203–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pal M, Horvath E, Janda T, Paldi E, Szalai G (2006) Physiological changes and defence mechanisms induce by cadmium stress in maize. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 169:239–246Google Scholar
  63. Panda SK, Upadhyay RK, Nath S (2009) Arsenic stress in plants. J Agron Crop Sci. doi: 10.1111/j1439-037X.2009.00407.xGoogle Scholar
  64. Park RE Jr, Agrawal RP (1972) Purine nucleoside phosphorylase. In: Boyer PD (ed) The enzymes. Academic Press, New York, pp 483–514Google Scholar
  65. Peters RA, Sinclair HM, Thompson RHS (1946) An analysis of the inhibition of pyruvate oxidation by arsenicals in relation to the enzyme theory of vesication. Biochem J 40:516–524Google Scholar
  66. Picault N et al (2006) Chloroplast targeting of phytochelatin synthase in Arabidopsis: effects on heavy metal tolerance and accumulation. Biochimie 88:1743–1750PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Porter JR, Sheridan RP (1981) Inhibition of nitrogen fixation in alfalfa by arsenate, heavy metals, fluoride, and simulated acid rain. Plant Physiol 68:143–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Puckett EE, Serapiglia MJ, DeLeon AM, Long S, Minochac R, Smart LB (2011) Differential expression of genes encoding phosphate transporters contributes to arsenic tolerance and accumulation in shrub willow (Salix spp.). Environ Exp Bot. doi:10.1016/j.envexpbot.2011.07.008Google Scholar
  69. Quaghebeur M, Rengel Z (2003) The distribution of arsenate and arsenite in shoots and roots of Holcus lanatus is influenced by arsenic tolerance and arsenate and phosphate supply. Plant Physiol 132:1600–1609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rahman MA, Hasegawa H, Rahman MM, Islam MN, Miah M AM, Tasmen A (2007) Effect of arsenic on photosynthesis, growth and yield of five widely cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties in Bangladesh. Chemosphere 67:1072–1079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ranocha P, McNeil SD, Ziemak MJr, Li C, Tarczynski MC, Hanson Adb (2001) The S-methylmethionine cycle in angiosperms:ubiquity, antiquity and activity. Plant J 25:575–584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rea PA, Li Z, Lu Y, Drozdowicz YM, Martinoia E (1998) From vacuolar GS-X pumps to multi specific ABC transporters. Ann Rev Plant Biol 49:727–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Requejo R, Tena M (2005) Proteome analysis of maize roots reveals that oxidative stress is a main contributing factor to plant arsenic toxicity. Phytochemistry 66:1519–1528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Requejo R, Tena M (2006) Maize response to acute arsenic toxicity as revealed by proteome analysis of plant shoots. Proteomics 6:156-162Google Scholar
  75. Rosen, BP (2002) Biochemistry of arsenic detoxification. FEBS Lett 529:86–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Scott N, Hatlelid KM, MacKenzie NE, Carter DE (1993) Reactions of arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) species with glutathione. Chem Res Toxicol 6:102–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sharma I, Singh R, Tripathi BN (2007) Biochemistry of arsenic toxicity and tolerance in plants. Biochem Cell Arch 7:165–170Google Scholar
  78. Sharma I (2012) Arsenic induced oxidative stress in plants. Biologia 67(3):447–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Singh N, Ma LQ, Srivastava M, Rathinasabapathi B (2006) Metabolic adaptations to arsenic induced oxidative stress in Pteris vittata L. and Pteris ensiformis L. Plant Sci 170:274–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Singh HP, Batish DR, Kohali RK, Arora K (2007) Arsenic- induced root growth inhibition in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) is due to oxidative stress resulting from enhanced lipid peroxidation. Plant Growth Regul 53:65–73Google Scholar
  81. Srivastava S, Mishra S, Trtpathi RD, Dwivedi S, Trivedi PK, Tandon PK (2007) Phytochelatins and antioxidant systems respond differentially during arsenite and arsenate stress in Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle. Environ Sci Technol 41:2930–2936PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Srivastava S, Srivastava AK, Suprasanna P, D’Souza SF (2009) Comparative biochemical and transcriptional profiling of two contrasting varieties of Brassica juncea L. in response to arsenic exposure reveals mechanisms of stress perception and tolerance. J Exp Bot 60:3419–3431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Srivastava S, Shrivastava M, Suprasanna P, Souza SFD (2011) Phytofiltration of arsenic from simulated contaminated water using Hydrilla verticillata in field conditions. Ecol Eng 37:1937–1941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Stoeva N, Berova M, Zlaten Z (2005) Effect of arsenic on some physiological parameters in bean plants. Biologia Plantarum 49:293–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Stoeva N, Bineva T (2003) Oxidative changes and photosynthesis in oat plants grown in As-contaminated soil. Bulg J Plant Physiol 29:87–95Google Scholar
  86. Sultana R, Katsuichiro K (2011) Potential of barnyard grass to remediate arsenic-contaminated soil. Weed Biol Manag 11:12–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sung DY, Kim TH, Komives EA, Mendoza-Cózatl DG, Schroeder JI (2009) ARS5 is a component of the 26S proteasome complex, and negatively regulates thiol biosynthesis and arsenic tolerance in Arabidopsis. Plant J 59:802–812PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Takamatsu T, Aoki H, Yoshida T (1982) Determination of arsenate, arsenite, monomethylarsonate, and dimethylarsinate in soil polluted with arsenic. Soil Sci 133:239–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Tangahu BV, Abdullah SRS, Basri H, Idris M, Anuar N, Mukhlisin M (2011) A review on heavy metals (As, Pb, and Hg) uptake by plants through phytoremediation. Int J Chem Eng 939161:1–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tripathi RD, Tripathi P, Dwivedi S, Dubey S, Chatterjee S, Chakrabarty D, Trivedi PK (2012a) Arsenomics: omics of arsenic metabolism in plants. Front Physiol 3(275):1Google Scholar
  91. Tripathi P, Mishra A, Dwivedi S, Chakrabarty D, Trivedi PK, Singh RP, Tripathi RD (2012b) Differential response of oxidative stress and thiol metabolism in contrasting rice genotypes for arsenic tolerance. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 79:189–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tuli R, Chakrabarty D, Trivedi PK and Tripathi RD (2010) Recent advances in arsenic accumulation and metabolism in rice. Mol Breed 26:307–323Google Scholar
  93. Ullrich-Eberius CI, Sanz A, Novacky AJ (1989) Evaluation of arsenate and vanadate-associated changes of electrical membrane potential and phosphate transport in Lemna gibba G I. J Exp Bot 40:119–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Watling-Payne AS, Selwyn MJ (1974) Inhibition and uncoupling of photophosphorylation in isolated chloroplasts by organotin, organomercury and diphenyleneiodonium compounds. Biochem J 142:65–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Webb S.M, Gaillard JF, Ma LQ, Tu C (2003) XAS speciation of arsenic in a hyperaccumulating fern. Environ Sci Technol 37:754–760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wells BR, Gilmor J (1997) Sterility in rice cultivars as influenced by MSMA rate and water management. Agron J 69:451–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. WHO (2002) United Nations synthesis report on arsenic in drinking water. Accessed 01 July 2002
  98. WHO (2008) Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edition incorporating 1st and 2nd addenda, vol. 1. Recommendations. World Health Organization, Geneva, pp 306–308b.
  99. Wickes WA, Wiskich JT (1975) Arsenate uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in isolated plant mitochondria. Aust J Plant Physiol 3:153–162Google Scholar
  100. Wingler A, Lea PJ, Leegood RC (1999) Photorespiratory metabolism of glyoxylate and formate in glycine-accumulating mutants of barley and Amaranthus edulis. Planta 207:518–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wu C, Ye Z, Shu W, Zhu Y, Wong M (2011) Arsenic accumulation and speciation in rice are affected by root aeration and variation of genotypes. J Exp Bot 1–10. doi:10.1093/jxb/erq462Google Scholar
  102. Wu JH, Zhang R, Lilley RM (2002) Methylation of arsenic in vitro by cell extract from bentgrass (Agrostis tenuis): effect of acute exposure of plants to arsenate. Funct Plant Biol 29:73–80Google Scholar
  103. Yu LJ, LuoYF, Liao B, Xie LJ, Chen L, Xiao S, Li JT, Hu SN, Shu WS (2012) Comparative transcriptome analysis of transporters, phytohormone and lipid metabolism path ways in response to arsenic stress in rice (Oryzasativa). New Phytol 195:97–112Google Scholar
  104. Zaman K, Pardini RS (1996) An overview of the relationship between oxidative stress and mercury and arsenic. Toxic Subst Mech 15:151–181Google Scholar
  105. Zhang X, Uroic MK, Xie WY, Zhu YG, Chen BD, McGrath SP, Feldmann J, Zhao FJ (2012) Phytochelatins play a key role in arsenic accumulation and tolerance in the aquatic macrophyte Wolffia globosa. Environ Pollut 165:18–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Bioscience and BiotechnologyBanasthali UniversityBanasthaliIndia

Personalised recommendations