Smooth Muscle Tumors
Tumors of smooth muscle cells are relatively common. They occur in skin and in superficial and deep soft tissues, including the retroperitoneum and the paratesticular region. Clinically distinctive smooth muscle tumors also arise in the male and female genital tracts, head and neck region, and viscera, including gastrointestinal sites. However, in the abdomen they now are diagnosed less frequently than in the past owing to the recognition of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Most smooth muscle tumors arise spontaneously, and there are no consistent translocations. A t(7;8)(p13;q11.2) has been described in a leiomyoma of the vulva. Rare hereditary leiomyomas are associated with mutations in the MCUL-1 gene that encodes fumarate dehydrogenase. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated smooth muscle tumors may arise in immunosuppressed individuals, and leiomyosarcomas are one of the more common histologic subtypes of postradiation sarcoma.
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