# The Constantly Underestimated Challenge of Improving Mathematics Instruction

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## Abstract

Many U.S. efforts to improve mathematics learning opportunities for students have not made it through the classroom door. Teaching is the single common pathway along which improvements reach students. But mathematics teaching has not changed much over the past century. Why is teaching so hard to change? The reasons seem to lie in an incomplete understanding of why mathematics teaching looks like it does, what aspects of teaching should change, and how teachers learn to teach mathematics in different ways. Examining these issues reveals a number of challenging research agendas.

## Keywords

Preservice Teacher Teaching Quality Cultural Activity Teacher Preparation Learning Goal
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