• A. H. Louie
Part of the IFSR International Series on Systems Science and Engineering book series (IFSR, volume 29)


The interaction between a host \( H \) and a symbiont \( S \) (in the most general sense when \( S \) may be external or internal to \( H \)) may be defined by the nonempty metabolism effect or repair effect of \( S \) on \( H \): for a \( g\in \kappa (S) \), either
$$ {M_{{S\to H}}}(g) = \upsilon (H)\;\cap\;\mathrm{ran}(g)\;\,\ne\;\,\varnothing $$


Hierarchical Level Metabolism Component Repair Effect Relational Biology Infection Strategy 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. H. Louie
    • 1
  1. 1.OttawaCanada

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