In Situ Thermal Treatment of Chlorinated Solvent Source Zones

  • Jennifer L. Triplett Kingston
  • Paul C. Johnson
  • Bernard H. Kueper
  • Kevin G. Mumford
Part of the SERDP ESTCP Environmental Remediation Technology book series (SERDP/ESTCP, volume 7)


Combining in situ heating with physical recovery, chemical reaction and biodegradation processes has led to a spectrum of in situ thermal remediation options for the cleanup of soils, rock and groundwater impacted by dense nonaqueous phase liquids. The growth in the application and understanding of these technologies over the past two decades has been significant – to the point that their potential application is considered for many sites having short target cleanup time frames (less than a few years) and for contaminants that are not accessible by other cleanup technologies (such as mass diffused into fine-grained media). This chapter presents an overview of the most practiced thermal remediation technologies. The chapter then provides a synthesis of the available data from several field applications, summarizes the lessons learned to date and finally summarizes the current understanding of their performance presents several case studies. of well-monitored field-scale applications.


Interfacial Tension Source Zone Granular Activate Carbon Thermal Technology Steam Injection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors of this chapter would like to thank Cindy Zhao and Julia Starostenko, both students at Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada, for their support and contributions to this chapter.


  1. Adamson AW. 1990. Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA.Google Scholar
  2. Ali SMF, Meldau RF. 1979. Current steamflood technology. J Petrol Technol 31:1332–1342.Google Scholar
  3. Atchley AA, Properetti A. 1989. The crevice model of bubble nucleation. J Acoust Soc Am 86:1065–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker RS, Hieste U. 2009. Large-Scale Physical Models of Thermal Remediation of DNAPL Source Zones in Aquitards. Project ER-1423 Final Report. SERDP, Arlington, VA, USA.Google Scholar
  5. Baker R, Kuhlman M. 2002. A description of the mechanics of in situ thermal destruction (ISTD) reactions. In El-Akabi H, ed, Proceedings, 2nd International Conference, Oxidation and Reduction Technologies for Soil and Groundwater. ORTs-2. San Diego, CA, USA.Google Scholar
  6. Beyke G, Fleming D. 2005. In situ thermal remediation of DNAPL and LNAPL using electrical resistance heating. Remediat J 15:5–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beyke G, Dodson ME, Powell TD, Wolf JL. 2007. Electrode heating with remediation agent. U.S. Patent No. 7,290,959.Google Scholar
  8. Buettner HM, Daily WD. 1995. Cleaning contaminated soil using electrical heating and air stripping. J Environ Eng 121:580–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Buettner HM, Daily WD, Aines RD, Newmark RL, Ramirez AL, Siegel WH. 1999. Electrode wells for powerline-frequency electrical heating of soils. U.S. Patent No. 5,907,662.Google Scholar
  10. Burghardt JM, Kueper BH. 2008. Laboratory study evaluating heating of tetrachloroethylene impacted soil. Ground Water Monit Remediat 28:95–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen F, Freedman DL, Falta RW, Murdoch LC. 2012. Henry’s Law constants of chlorinated solvents at elevated temperatures. Chemosphere 86:156–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. CRC. 2012. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 92nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.Google Scholar
  13. de Percin PR. 1991. Demonstration of in situ steam and hot-air stripping technology. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 41:873–877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dev H, Bridges J, Sresty G. 1984. Decontamination of hazardous waste substances from spills and uncontrolled waste sites by radio frequency in situ heating. EPA-600/D-84-077. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinatti, OH, USA.Google Scholar
  15. Dev H, Condorelli P, Bridges J, Rogers C, Downey D. 1987. In situ radio frequency heating process for decontamination of soil. In Exner J, ed, Solving Hazardous Waste Problems: Learning from Dioxins. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA, pp 332–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. DeVoe C, Udell KS. 1998. Thermodynamic and hydrodynamic behavior of water and DNAPLs during heating. Proceedings, First Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, May 18–21, Monterey, CA, USA. Battelle Press, Columbus, OH, USA, pp 61–66.Google Scholar
  17. Farhat S, Newell CJ. 2011. Mass Flux Toolkit. Accessed January 31, 2013.
  18. Gauglitz PA, Roberts JS, Bergsman TM, Caley SM, Heath WO, Miller MC, Moss RW, Schalla R, Jarosch TR, Eddy-Dilek CA. 1994. Six-phase soil heating accelerates VOC extraction from clay soil. Proceedings, SPECTRUM `94: International Nuclear and Hazardous Waste Management Conference, August 14–18, Atlanta, GA, USA. 10 p.Google Scholar
  19. Gill WG. 1970. Electrical method and apparatus for the recovery of oil. U.S. Patent No. 3,642,066.Google Scholar
  20. Görgényi M, Dewulf J, Van Langenhove H. 2002. Temperature dependence of Henry’s Law constant in an extended temperature range. Chemosphere 48:757–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gossett JM. 1987. Measurement of Henry’s Law constants for C1 and C2 chlorinated hydrocarbons. Environ Sci Technol 21:202–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hagedorn AR. 1976. Oil recovery by combination steam stimulation and electrical heating. U.S. Patent No. 3,946,809.Google Scholar
  23. Harvey AH, Govier JP. 1980. Petroleum production method. U.S. Patent No. 4,228,853.Google Scholar
  24. Heron G, Christensen TH, Enfield CG. 1998. Henry’s Law constant for trichloroethylene between 10 and 95 degrees C. Environ Sci Technol 32:1433–1437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Heron G, Carroll S, Nielsen SG. 2005. Full-scale removal of DNAPL constituents using steam-enhanced extraction and electrical resistance heating. Ground Water Monit Remediat 25:92–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Heron G, Parker K, Galligan J, Holmes TC. 2008. Thermal treatment of eight CVOC source zones to near nondetect concentrations. Ground Water Monit Remediat 29:56–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Imhoff PT, Frizzel A, Miller CT. 1997. Evaluation of thermal effects on the dissolution of a nonaqueous phase liquid in porous media. Environ Sci Technol 31:1615–1622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Johnson P, Dahlen P, Triplett Kingston J, Foote E, Williams S. 2009. State of Practice Overview: Critical Evaluation of State-of-the-Art In Situ Thermal Treatment Technologies for DNAPL Source Zone Treatment. ESTCP Project ER-0314. ESTCP, Arlington, VA, USA. Accessed July 20, 2012.
  29. Kasevich RS, Price SL, Marley MC, Faust DL. 1996. Thermal enhancement for site remediation using radio frequency heating (RFH). Proceedings, Annual Meeting Air Waste Management Association, Anaheim, CA, USA.Google Scholar
  30. Kaslusky SF, Udell KS. 2002. A theoretical model of air and steam co-injection to prevent the downward migration of DNAPLs during steam-enhanced extraction. J Contam Hydrol 55:213–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kingston JLT, Dahlen PR, Johnson PC. 2010. State-of-the-practice review of in situ thermal technologies. Ground Water Monit Remediat 30:64–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Knauss KG, Dibley MJ, Leif RN, Mew DA, Aines RD. 2000. The aqueous solubility of trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethene (PCE) as a function of temperature. Appl Geochem 15:501–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kueper BH, Redman JD, Starr RC, Reitsma S, Mah M. 1993. A field experiment to study the behavior of tetrachloroethylene below the watertable: Spatial distribution of residual and pooled DNAPL. Ground Water 31:756–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lacombe PJ, Burton WC. 2010. Hydrogeologic framework of fractured sedimentary rock, Newark Basin, New Jersey. Ground Water Monit Remediat 30:35–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lebrón CA, Phelan D, Heron G, LaChance J, Nielsen SG, Kueper B, Rodriguez D, Wemp A, Baston D, Lacombe P, Chapelle FH. 2012. Final Report: Dense Non Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) Removal from Fractured Rock Using Thermal Conductive Heating (TCH). Project ER-200715. ESTCP, Arlington, VA, USA.Google Scholar
  36. Lemming G, Hauschild MZ, Chambon J, Binning PJ, Bulle C, Margni M, Bjerg PL. 2010. Environmental impacts of remediation of a trichloroethene-contaminated site: Life cycle assessment of remediation alternatives. Environ Sci Technol 44:9163–9169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lide DR, Kehiaian HY. 1994. CRC Handbook of Thermophysical and Thermochemical Data. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.Google Scholar
  38. Martin EJ, Kueper BH. 2011. Observation of trapped gas during electrical resistance heating of trichloroethylene under passive venting conditions. J Contam Hydrol 126:291–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McGee BCW, Vermeulen FE, Vinsome PKW, Buettner MR, Chute FS. 1998. In situ decontamination of soil. J Can Petrol Technol 37:15–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. McMillan-McGee Corporation. 2011. Technical Description: ET-DSP™ In Situ Thermal Remediation. Accessed January 31, 2013.
  41. NRC (National Research Council). 2005. Contaminants in the Subsurface: Source Zone Assessment and Remediation. National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
  42. Pennell KD, Pope GA, Abriola LM. 1996. Influence of viscous and buoyancy forces on the mobilization of residual tetrachloroethylene during surfactant flushing. Environ Sci Technol 30:1328–1335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Perry RH, Green DW, eds. 1997. Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, 7th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA.Google Scholar
  44. Pizarro JOS, Trevisan OV. 1990. Electrical heating of oil reservoirs: Numerical simulation and field test results. J Petrol Technol 42:1320–1326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Reid RC, Prausnitz JM, Poling BE. 1987. The Properties of Liquids and Gases, 4th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA.Google Scholar
  46. Rowlinson JS, Widom B. 1982. Molecular Theory of Capillarity. Dover Publications, Mineola, NY, USA.Google Scholar
  47. Satik C, Yortsos YC. 1996. A pore-network study of bubble growth in porous media driven by heat transfer. J Heat Transfer 118:455–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sleep BE, Ma YF. 1997. Thermal variation of organic fluid properties and impact on thermal remediation feasibility. J Soil Contam 6:281–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sleep BE, McClure PD. 2001. The effect of temperature on adsorption of organic compounds to soils. Can Geotech J 38:46–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Smith LA, Hinchee RE. 1993. In Situ Thermal Technologies for Site Remediation. Lewis Publishers, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.Google Scholar
  51. Stegemeier G, Vinegar HJ. 2001. Thermal conduction heating for in situ thermal desorption of soils. In Chang HO, ed, Hazardous and Radioactive Waste Treatment Technologies Handbook. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp 1–37.Google Scholar
  52. Tiedeman CR, Lacombe PJ, Goode DJ. 2010. Multiple well-shutdown tests and site-scale flow simulation in fractured rocks. Ground Water 48:401–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Truex MJ, Gillie JM, Powers JG, Lynch KP. 2009. Assessment of in situ thermal treatment for chlorinated organic source zones. Remediat J 19:7–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Udell KS. 1996. Heat and mass transfer in clean-up of underground toxic wastes. In Tien C-L, ed, Advances in Heat Transfer Research. Begell House, Redding, CT, USA.Google Scholar
  55. USACE (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers). 2006. Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) Design: In Situ Thermal Remediation. Publication FC 3-280-05. USACE, Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
  56. USACE. 2009. Design: In Situ Thermal Remediation. Publication EM 1110-1-4015. USACE, Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
  57. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1995. In situ remediation technology status report: Thermal enhancements. EPA 542-K-94-009. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
  58. Vinegar HJ, Stegmeier GL. 2002. Low cost, self regulating heater for use in an in situ thermal desorption soil remediation system. U.S. Patent No. 6,485,232.Google Scholar
  59. Vinegar HJ, Stegmeier GL. 2003. Heater element for use in an in situ thermal desorption soil remediation system. U.S. Patent No. 6,632,047.Google Scholar
  60. Vinegar HJ, Stegmeier GL, deRouffignac EP, Chou CC. 1993. Vacuum method for removing soil contaminants utilizing thermal conduction heating. U.S. Patent No. 5,190,405.Google Scholar
  61. Vinegar HJ, Stegmeier GL, deRouffignac EP, Chou CC. 1994. Vacuum method for removing soil contaminants utilizing thermal conduction heating. U.S. Patent No. 5,318,116.Google Scholar
  62. Wattenbarger RA, McDougal FW. 1988. Oil production response to in situ electrical resistance heating (ERH). J Can Petrol Technol 27:45–50.Google Scholar
  63. Werth CJ, Reinhard M. 1997a. Effects of temperature on trichloroethylene desorption from silica gel and natural sediments. 1. Isotherms. Environ Sci Technol 31:689–696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Werth CJ, Reinhard M. 1997b. Effects of temperature on trichloroethylene desorption from silica gel and natural sediments. 1. Kinetics. Environ Sci Technol 31:697–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. White PD, Moss JT. 1983. Thermal Recovery Methods. PennWell Books, Tulsa, OK, USA. 384 p.Google Scholar
  66. Yaws CL, Yang HC. 1989. To estimate vapor pressure easily. Hydrocarb Process 68:65–70.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer L. Triplett Kingston
    • 1
  • Paul C. Johnson
    • 2
  • Bernard H. Kueper
    • 3
  • Kevin G. Mumford
    • 3
  1. 1.Haley and AldrichOverland ParkUSA
  2. 2.Arizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  3. 3.Queen’s UniversityKingstonCanada

Personalised recommendations