Screening Measures in Integrated Behavioral Health and Primary Care Settings

  • Mary R. TalenEmail author
  • Joane G. Baumer
  • Misty M. Mann


Screening is the process of measuring and detecting the signs and symptoms of a disorder before the disorder has progressed. While the evidence on the effectiveness and quality of mental health screening tools is advancing, the application of these tools into standard clinical practice has lagged behind due to implementation barriers in primary care settings. The goal of this chapter is to address the range of screening tools for specific patient populations and to address the barriers for incorporating these standardized tools into primary care. This chapter provides descriptions of reliable and valid screening tools for preschoolers, school-age children, adolescents, adults and older adults—men and women—and older adults. There are also descriptions of how screening tools are used in a clinical setting by defining roles and responsibilities for team members, identifying practice management and financial considerations, and describing relevant opportunities for quality improvement.


Screening Tool Behavioral Health Primary Care Setting United States Preventive Service Task Force Pediatric Symptom Checklist 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. American Academy of Family Physicians. (2012). Retrieved from
  2. American Association of Pediatricians. (2001). Retrieved from
  3. Ansseau, M., Dierick, M., Buntinkx, F., Cnockaert, P., De Smedt, J., Van Den Haute, M., et al. (2004). High prevalence of mental disorders in primary care. Journal of Affective Disorders, 78(1), 49–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnau, R. C., Meagher, M. W., Norris, M. P., & Bramson, R. (2001). Psychometric evaluation of the Beck Depression Inventory-II with primary care medical patients. Health Psychology, 20(2), 112–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arroll, B., Khin, N., & Kerse, N. (2003). Screening for depression in primary care with two verbally asked questions: Cross sectional study. British Medical Journal, 327, 1144–1146. doi: 10.1136/bmj.327.7424.1144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Babor, T. F., McRee, B. G., Kassebaum, P. A., Grimaldi, P. A., Ahmed, K., & Bray, J. (2007). Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT): Toward a public health approach to the management of substance abuse. Substance Abuse, 28, 7–30. doi: 10.1300/J465v28n03_03.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Badger, L., Robinson, H., & Farley, T. (1999). Management of mental disorders in rural primary care: A proposal for integrated psychosocial services. The Journal of Family Practice, 48, 813–818.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baird, G., Charman, T., Baron-Cohen, S., Cox, A., Swettenham, S., Wheelwright, S., et al. (2000). A screening instrument for autism at 18 months of age: A 6-year follow-up study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 694–702. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200006000-00007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Cox, A., Baird, G., Charman, T., Swettenham, J., et al. (2000). Early identification of autism by the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT). Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 93, 521–525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bauer, A. M., Azzone, V., Goldman, H., Alexander, L., Unutzer, J., Coleman-Beattie, B., et al. (2011). Implementation of integrated depression management at community-based primary care clinics: An evaluation. Psychiatric Services, 62, 1047–1053. doi: 10.1176/ Scholar
  11. Bischof, G., Reinhardt, S., Grothues, J., Meyer, C., John, U., & Rumpf, H. (2007). Development and evaluation of a screening instrument for alcohol-use disorders and at-risk drinking: The brief alcohol screening instrument for medical care (BASIC). Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 68, 607–614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Blanchard, L. T., Gurka, M., & Blackman, J. (2006). Emotional, developmental, and behavioral health of American children and their families: A report from the 2003 National Survey of Children’s Health. Pediatrics, 117, e1202–e1212. doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-2606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Borner, I., Braunstein, J., St Victor, R., & Pollack, J. (2010). Evaluation of a 2-question screening tool for detecting depression in adolescents in primary care. Clinical Pediatrics, 49, 947–953. doi: 10.1177/0009922810370203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Borowsky, I., Mozayeny, S., & Ireland, M. (2003). Brief psychosocial screening at health supervision and acute care visits. Pediatrics, 112, 129–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Borson, S., Scanlan, J., Brush, M., Vitaliano, P., & Dokmak, A. (2000). The mini-cog: A cognitive ‘vital signs’ measure for dementia screening in multi-lingual elderly. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15, 1021–1027.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Borson, S., Scanlan, J., Chen, P., & Ganguli, M. (2003). The mini-cog as a screen for dementia: Validation in a population-based sample. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51, 1451–1454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brickman, A., Garrity, C., & Shaw, J. (2002). Risk factors for psychosocial dysfunction among enrollees in the State Children’s Health Insurance Program. Psychiatric Services, 53, 614–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brodaty, H., Kemp, N., & Low, L. (2004). Characteristics of the GPCOG, a screening tool for cognitive impairment. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19, 870–874. doi: 10.1002/gps.1167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Retrieved from
  20. Cook, C., Freedman, J., Freedman, L., Arick, R., & Miller, M. (1996). Screening for social and environmental problems in a VA primary care setting. Health & Social Work, 21, 41–47.Google Scholar
  21. Davis, S., Whitworth, J., & Rickett, K. (2009). Clinical inquiries. What are the most practical primary care screens for post-traumatic stress disorder? The Journal of Family Practice, 58, 100–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Delgadillo, J., Payne, S., Gilbody, S., Godfrey, C., Gore, S., Jessop, D., et al. (2011). How reliable is depression screening in alcohol and drug users? A validation of brief and ultra-brief questionnaires. Journal of Affective Disorders, 134, 266–271. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.06.017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Donker, T., van Straten, A., Marks, I., & Cuijpers, P. (2011). Quick and easy self-rating of generalized anxiety disorder: Validity of the Dutch web-based GAD-7, GAD-2 and GAD-SI. Psychiatry Research, 188, 58–64. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2011.01.016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Drotar, D., Stancin, T., Dworkin, P., Sices, L., & Wood, S. (2008). Selecting developmental surveillance and screening tools. Pediatrics in Review, 29, e52–e58. doi: 10.1542/pir.29-10-e52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Earls, M., & Hay, S. (2006). Setting the stage for success: Implementation of developmental and behavioral screening and surveillance in primary care practice–the North Carolina Assuring Better Child Health and Development (ABCD) Project. Pediatrics, 118, e183–e188. doi: 10.1542/peds.2006-0475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ebell, M. H. (2008). Diagnosis of anxiety disorders in primary care. American Family Physician, 78, 501–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Edlund, M., Unutzer, J., & Wells, K. (2004). Clinician screening and treatment of alcohol, drug, and mental problems in primary care: Results from healthcare for communities. Medical Care, 42, 1158–1166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Engel, C. C., Oxman, T., Yamamoto, C., Gould, D., Barry, S., Stewart, P., et al. (2008). RESPECT-­Mil: Feasibility of a systems-level integrated care approach to depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in military primary care. Military Medicine, 173, 935–940.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Fiellin, D., Reid, M., & O’Connor, P. (2000). Screening for alcohol problems in primary care: A systematic review. Archives of Internal Medicine, 160, 1977–1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Filipek, P., Accardo, P., Ashwal, S., Baranek, G., Cook, E., Dawson, G., et al. (2000). Practice parameter: Screening and diagnosis of autism: Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Child Neurology Society. Neurology, 55, 468–479.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Folstein, M., Folstein, S., & McHugh, P. (1975). “Mini-mental state”: A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Forgey, M., Badger, L., & Krase, K. (2011). The development of an evidence based assessment protocol for intimate partner violence in the U.S. Army. Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work, 8, 323–348. doi: 10.1080/15433714.2011.533946.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Freedy, J., & Brock, C. (2010). Spotting-and treating-PTSD in primary care. The Journal of Family Practice, 59, 75–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Garcia-Esteve, L., Torres, A., Navarro, P., Ascaso, C., Imaz, M., Herreras, Z., et al. (2011). Validation and comparison of four instruments to detect partner violence in health-care setting. Medicina Clinica, 137, 390–397. doi: 10.1016/j.medcli.2010.11.038.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gardner, W., Kelleher, K., & Pajer, K. (2002). Multidimensional adaptive testing for mental health problems in primary care. Medical Care, 40, 812–823. doi: 10.1097/01.MLR.0000025436.30093.77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gardner, W., Kelleher, K., Pajer, K., & Campo, J. (2003). Primary care clinicians’ use of standardized tools to assess child psychosocial problems. Ambulatory Pediatrics, 3, 191–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gardner, W., Lucas, A., Kolko, D., & Campo, J. (2007). Comparison of the PSC-17 and alternative mental health screens in an at-risk primary care sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 611–618. doi: 10.1097/chi.0b013e318032384b.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gardner, W., Nutting, P., Kelleher, K., Werner, J., Farley, T., Stewart, L., et al. (2001). Does the family APGAR effectively measure family functioning? The Journal of Family Practice, 50, 19–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gavin, N., Gaynes, B., Lohr, K., Meltzer-Brody, S., Gartlehner, G., & Swinson, T. (2005). Perinatal depression: A systematic review of prevalence and incidence. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 106, 1071–1083. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000183597.31630.db.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gaynes, B., Gavin, N., Meltzer-Brody, S., Lohr, K., Swinson, T., Gartlehner, G., et al. (2005). Perinatal depression: Prevalence, screening accuracy, and screening outcomes. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment, 119, 1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gilbody, S., Bower, P., Fletcher, J., Richards, D., & Sutton, A. (2006). Integrated care for depression: A cumulative meta-analysis and review of longer-term outcomes. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166, 2314–2321. doi: 10.1001/archinte.166.21.2314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Glascoe, F. P. (2005). Screening for developmental and behavioral problems. Mental Retardation Developmental Disabilities Research Review, 11, 173–179. doi: 10.1002/mrdd.20068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hacker, K., Williams, S., Myagmarjav, E., Cabral, H., & Murphy, M. (2009). Persistence and change in pediatric symptom checklist scores over 10 to 18 months. Academic Pediatrics, 9, 270–277. doi:10.1016/j.acap. 2009.03.004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hamrin, V., Antenucci, M., & Magorno, M. (2012). Evaluation and management of pediatric and adolescent depression. The Nurse Practitioner, 37, 22–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hayutin, L., Reed-Knight, B., Blount, R., Lewis, J., & McCormick, M. (2009). Increasing parent-­pediatrician communication about children’s psychosocial problems. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34, 1155–1164. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsp012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Heisel, M., Duberstein, P., Lyness, J., & Feldman, M. (2010). Screening for suicide ideation among older primary care patients. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 23, 260–269. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2010.02.080163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Herman-Staab, B. (1994). Screening, management, and appropriate referral for pediatric behavior problems. The Nurse Practitioner, 19, 40–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hirschfeld, R., Holzer, C., Calabrese, J., Weissman, M., Reed, M., Davies, M., et al. (2003). Validity of the mood disorder questionnaire: A general population study. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 178–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hirschfeld, R., Williams, J., Spitzer, R., Calabrese, J., Flynn, L., Keck, P., et al. (2000). Development and validation of a screening instrument for bipolar spectrum disorder: The mood disorder questionnaire. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 1873–1875.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Howarth, D., Heath, J., & Snope, F. (1999). Beyond the Folstein: Dementia in primary care. Primary Care, 26, 299–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jellinek, M., Little, M., Murphy, J., & Pagano, M. (1995). The pediatric symptom checklist: Support for a role in a managed care environment. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 149, 740–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jellinek, M., Murphy, J., Little, M., Pagano, M., Comer, J., & Kelleher, K. (1999). Use of the pediatric symptom checklist to screen for psychosocial problems in pediatric primary care: A national feasibility study. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 153, 254–260.Google Scholar
  53. Jutte, D., Burgos, A., Mendoza, F., Ford, C., & Huffman, L. (2003). Use of the pediatric symptom checklist in a low-income, Mexican American population. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 157, 1169–1176. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.157.12.1169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kapur, N., & Windish, D. (2011). Optimal methods to screen men and women for intimate partner violence: Results from an internal medicine residency continuity clinic. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26, 2335–2352. doi: 10.1177/0886260510383034.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kessler, D., Sharp, D., & Lewis, G. (2005). Screening for depression in primary care. British Journal of General Practice, 55, 659–660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kostanecka, A., Power, T., Clarke, A., Watkins, M., Hausman, C., & Blum, N. (2008). Behavioral health screening in urban primary care settings: Construct validity of the PSC-17. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 29, 124–128. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0b013e31816a0d9e.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R., & Williams, J. (2001). The PHQ-9: Validity of a brief depression severity measure. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16, 606–613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. (2003). The patient health questionnaire-2: Validity of a two-item depression screener. Medical Care, 41, 1284–1292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Langberg, J., Froehlich, T., Loren, R., Martin, J., & Epstein, J. (2008). Assessing children with ADHD in primary care settings. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 8, 627–641. doi: 10.1586/14737175.8.4.627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lazarus, A. (1999). Screening for behavioral disorders in primary care. Managed Care Interface, 12, 52–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Leiner, M., Puertas, H., Caratachea, R., Perez, H., & Jimenez, P. (2010). Sensitivity and specificity of the pictorial pediatric symptom checklist for psychosocial problem detection in a Mexican sample. Revista de Investigacion Clinica, 62, 560–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lorentz, W. J., Scanlan, J. M., & Borson, S. (2002). Brief screening tests for dementia. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 47, 723–733.Google Scholar
  63. Lowe, B., Kroenke, K., & Grafe, K. (2005). Detecting and monitoring depression with a two-item questionnaire (PHQ-2). Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 58, 163–171. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2004.09.006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mawle, E., & Griffiths, P. (2006). Screening for autism in pre-school children in primary care: Systematic review of English Language tools. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 43, 623–636. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2005.11.011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. McCance-Katz, E., & Satterfield, J. (2012). SBIRT: A key to integrate prevention and treatment of substance abuse in primary care. The American Journal on Addictions, 21, 176–177. doi: 10.1111/j.1521-0391.2011.00213.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McGlynn, E., Cassel, C., Leatherman, S., DeCristofaro, A., & Smits, H. (2003). Establishing national goals for quality improvement. Medical Care, 41, I16–I29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. McGrady, A., Lynch, D., Nagel, R., & Tamburrino, M. (2010). Coherence between physician diagnosis and patient self reports of anxiety and depression in primary care. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198, 420–424. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3181e084ce.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mitchell, A., Bird, V., Rizzo, M., & Meader, N. (2010). Which version of the geriatric depression scale is most useful in medical settings and nursing homes? Diagnostic validity meta-analysis. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18, 1066–1077.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Murphy, J., Ichinose, C., Hicks, R., Kingdon, D., Crist-Whitzel, J., Jordan, P., et al. (1996). Utility of the Pediatric Symptom Checklist as a psychosocial screen to meet the federal Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) standards: A pilot study. Journal of Pediatrics, 129, 864–869.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Nasreddine, Z., Phillips, N., & Chertkow, H. (2012). Normative data for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in a population-based sample. Neurology, 78, 765–766. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000413072.54070.a3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence. (2012) Retrieved from
  72. Nelson, H., Nygren, P., Walker, M., & Panoscha, R. (2006). Screening for speech and language delay in preschool children: Systematic evidence review for the US preventive services task force. Pediatrics, 117, e298–e319. doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-1467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. O’Campo, P., Kirst, M., Tsamis, C., Chambers, C., & Ahmad, F. (2011). Implementing successful intimate partner violence screening programs in health care settings: Evidence generated from a realist-informed systematic review. Social Science & Medicine, 72, 855–866. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.12.019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ohayon, M., & Schatzberg, A. (2003). Using chronic pain to predict depressive morbidity in the general population. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 39–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Olson, A., Dietrich, A., Prazar, G., & Hurley, J. (2006). Brief maternal depression screening at well-child visits. Pediatrics, 118, 207–216. doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-2346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pagano, M., Cassidy, L., Little, M., Murphy, J., & Jellinek, M. (2000). Identifying psychosocial dysfunction in school-age children: The pediatric symptom checklist as self-report measure. Journal of School Psychology, 37, 91–106. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1520-6807 (200003)37:;2-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pinto-Martin, J., Dunkle, M., Earls, M., Fliedner, D., & Landes, C. (2005). Developmental stages of developmental screening: Steps to implementation of a successful program. American Journal of Public Health, 95, 1928–1932. doi: 10.2105/ajph.2004.052167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pinto-Martin, J., Souders, M., Giarelli, E., & Levy, S. (2005). The role of nurses in screening for autistic spectrum disorder in pediatric primary care. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 20, 163–169. doi: 10.1016/j.pedn.2005.01.004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Polaha, J., Dalton, W., & Allen, S. (2011). The prevalence of emotional and behavior problems in pediatric primary care serving rural children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 36, 652–660. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsq116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Prince, M., Acosta, D., Ferri, C., Guerra, M., Huang, Y., Jacob, K., et al. (2011). A brief dementia screener suitable for use by non-specialists in resource poor settings–the cross-cultural derivation and validation of the brief Community Screening Instrument for Dementia. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 26, 899–907. doi: 10.1002/gps.2622.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rausch, J., Hametz, P., Zuckerbrot, R., Rausch, W., & Soren, K. (2012). Screening for depression in Urban Latino adolescents. Clinical Pediatrics. doi: 10.1177/0009922812441665.
  82. Reijneveld, S., Vogels, A., Hoekstra, F., & Crone, M. (2006). Use of the Pediatric Symptom Checklist for the detection of psychosocial problems in preventive child healthcare. BMC Public Health, 6, 197. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Reitman, D., Currier, R., & Stickle, T. (2002). A critical evaluation of the Parenting Stress Index-­Short Form (PSI-SF) in a head start population. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31, 384–392. doi: 10.1207/S15374424JCCP3103_10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Richardson, L., Keller, A., Selby-Harrington, M., & Parrish, R. (1996). Identification and treatment of children’s mental health problems by primary care providers: A critical review of research. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 10, 293–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Richardson, L., McCauley, E., Grossman, D., McCarty, C., Richards, J., Russo, J., et al. (2010). Evaluation of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Item for detecting major depression among adolescents. Pediatrics, 126, 1117–1123. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-0852.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Robins, D. L. (2008). Screening for autism spectrum disorders in primary care settings. Autism, 12, 537–556. doi: 10.1177/1362361308094502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Royall, D., Cordes, J., & Polk, M. (1998). CLOX: An executive clock drawing task. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 64, 588–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Salerno, J., Marshall, V., & Picken, E. (2012). Validity and reliability of the rapid assessment for adolescent preventive services adolescent health risk assessment. Journal of Adolescent Health, 50, 595–599. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.10.015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sanci, L., Lewis, D., & Patton, G. (2010). Detecting emotional disorder in young people in primary care. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 23, 318–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sand, N., Silverstein, M., Glascoe, F., Gupta, V., Tonniges, T., & O’Connor, K. (2005). Pediatricians’ reported practices regarding developmental screening: Do guidelines work? Do they help? Pediatrics, 116, 174–179. doi: 10.1542/peds.2004-1809.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Saunders, J., Aasland, O., Babor, T., de la Fuente, J., & Grant, M. (1993). Development of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): WHO integrated project on early detection of persons with harmful alcohol consumption–II. Addiction, 88, 791–804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Schonwald, A., Huntington, N., Chan, E., Risko, W., & Bridgemohan, C. (2009). Routine ­developmental screening implemented in urban primary care settings: More evidence of feasibility and effectiveness. Pediatrics, 123, 660–668. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-2798.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sharp, L. K., & Lipsky, M. (2002). Screening for depression across the lifespan: A review of measures for use in primary care settings. American Family Physician, 66, 1001–1008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Sheldrick, R., Merchant, S., & Perrin, E. (2011). Identification of developmental-behavioral problems in primary care: A systematic review. Pediatrics, 128, 356–363. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-3261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sices, L., Stancin, T., Kirchner, L., & Bauchner, H. (2009). PEDS and ASQ developmental screening tests may not identify the same children. Pediatrics, 124, e640–e647. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-2628.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Simonian, S. J., & Tarnowski, K. (2001). Utility of the pediatric symptom checklist for behavioral screening of disadvantaged children. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 31, 269–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Smith, P., Schmidt, S., Allensworth-Davies, D., & Saitz, R. (2009). Primary care validation of a single-question alcohol screening test. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24, 783–788. doi: 10.1007/s11606-009-0928-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Snider, C., Webster, D., O’Sullivan, C., & Campbell, J. (2009). Intimate partner violence: Development of a brief risk assessment for the emergency department. Academic Emergency Medicine, 16, 1208–1216. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2009.00457.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Snyder, A., Stanley, M., Novy, D., Averill, P., & Beck, J. (2000). Measures of depression in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder: A psychometric evaluation. Depression and Anxiety, 11, 114–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Solberg, L., Korsen, N., Oxman, T., Fischer, L., & Bartels, S. (1999). The need for a system in the care of depression. The Journal of Family Practice, 48, 973–979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Spitzer, R., Kroenke, K., & Williams, J. (1999). Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD: The PHQ primary care study, primary care evaluation of mental disorders. Patient health questionnaire. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 282, 1737–1744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Spitzer, R., Kroenke, K., Williams, J., & Lowe, B. (2006). A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: The GAD-7. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166, 1092–1097. doi: 10.1001/archinte.166.10.1092.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Stoppelbein, L., Greening, L., Moll, G., Jordan, S., & Suozzi, A. (2012). Factor analyses of the Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17 with African-American and Caucasian pediatric populations. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 37, 348–357. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsr103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Teng, E., & Chui, H. (1987). The Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) examination. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 48, 314–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Tolan, P., & Dodge, K. (2005). Children’s mental health as a primary care and concern: A system for comprehensive support and service. American Psychologist, 60, 601–614. doi: 10.1037/0003-066x.60.6.601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2008). USPSTF Grade definitions. Retrieved from U.S. Preventive.
  107. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2009). Screening for depression in adults: U.S. preventive services task force recommendation statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 151, 784–792. Retrieved from
  108. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2010). USPSTF A and B recommendations. Retrieved from
  109. Unutzer, J., Katon, W., Callahan, C., Williams, J., Hunkeler, E., Harpole, L., et al. (2002). Integrated care management of late-life depression in the primary care setting: A randomized controlled trial. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 2836–2845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Unutzer, J., & Park, M. (2012). Strategies to improve the management of depression in primary care. Primary Care Clinics in Office Practice, 39, 415–431. doi:10.1016/j.pop. 2012.03.010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Voigt, R., Johnson, S., Mellon, M., Hashikawa, A., Campeau, L., Williams, A., et al. (2009). Relationship between parenting stress and concerns identified by developmental screening and their effects on parental medical care-seeking behavior. Clinical Pediatrics, 48, 362–368. doi: 10.1177/0009922808327058.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wallis, K. E., & Pinto-Martin, J. (2008). The challenge of screening for autism spectrum disorder in a culturally diverse society. Acta Paediatrica, 97, 539–540. doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.00720.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wasserman, R., Kelleher, K., Bocian, A., Baker, A., Childs, G., Indacochea, F., et al. (1999). Identification of attentional and hyperactivity problems in primary care: A report from pediatric research in office settings and the ambulatory sentinel practice network. Pediatrics, 103, E38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Weitzman, C., & Leventhal, J. (2006). Screening for behavioral health problems in primary care. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 18, 641–648.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wetherell, J., Birchler, G., Ramsdell, J., & Unutzer, J. (2007). Screening for generalized anxiety disorder in geriatric primary care patients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22, 115–123. doi: 10.1002/gps.1701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Williams, J., Klinepeter, K., Palmes, G., Pulley, A., & Foy, J. (2004). Diagnosis and treatment of behavioral health disorders in pediatric practice. Pediatrics, 114, 601–606. doi: 10.1542/peds.2004-0090.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Williams, S. B., O’Connor, E. Eder, M., & Whitlock, E. (2009). Screening for child and adolescent depression in primary care settings: a systematic evidence review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Rockvill, MD. Pediatrics. 2009 Apr;123(4):e716–35Google Scholar
  118. Winter, L., Steer, R., Jones-Hicks, L., & Beck, A. (1999). Screening for major depression disorders in adolescent medical outpatients with the Beck depression inventory for primary care. Journal of Adolescent Health, 24, 389–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wren, F., Bridge, J., & Birmaher, B. (2004). Screening for childhood anxiety symptoms in primary care: Integrating child and parent reports. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 1364–1371. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000138350.60487.d3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wren, F., Scholle, S., Heo, J., & Comer, D. (2003). Pediatric mood and anxiety syndromes in primary care: Who gets identified? International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 33, 1–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Zimmerman, M., Galione, J., Ruggero, C., Chelminski, I., Young, D., Dalrymple, K., et al. (2010). Screening for bipolar disorder and finding borderline personality disorder. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 71, 1212–1217. doi: 10.4088/JCP.09m05161yel.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zuckerbrot, R., Cheung, A., Jensen, P., Stein, R., & Laraque, D. (2007). Guidelines for Adolescent Depression in Primary Care (GLAD-PC): Identification, assessment, and initial management. Pediatrics, 120, e1299–e1312. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-1144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Zuckerbrot, R. A., & Jensen, P. S. (2006). Improving recognition of adolescent depression in primary care. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 160, 694–704. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.160.7.694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Zuckerbrot, R., Maxon, L., Pagar, D., Davies, M., Fisher, P., & Shaffer, D. (2007). Adolescent depression screening in primary care: Feasibility and acceptability. Pediatrics, 119, 101–108. doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-2965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mary R. Talen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Joane G. Baumer
    • 2
  • Misty M. Mann
    • 3
  1. 1.Northwestern Family Medicine Residency, Erie Family Health CenterChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Family MedicineJPS Health Network, Tarrant County Hospital DistrictFort WorthUSA
  3. 3.The Chicago School of Professional PsychologyChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations