Tourism, Migration and the Politics of Built Heritage in Lijiang, China

  • Xiaobo Su


The Lijiang government has called for a “new Lijiang ren” (person). Meanwhile, Han migrant businesspersons are succeeding in the tourism industry, but at the expense of the local, non-Han business owners whom they are displacing. This chapter deconstructs the discourse and goals of local authorities and examines the complex relationship migrant Han possess with Lijiang, including its natives and its tourists. While migration literature in Chinese studies has emphasized rural-to-urban and western-to-eastern flows, this chapter examines a reversed flow in order to unravel how the borderland is integrated into the global tourism industry, in part through migrant businesspersons’ efforts.


Tourism Industry Tourism Development Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome World Heritage Site Residential House 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abbas, Ackbar. 2000. Cosmopolitan de-scriptions: Shanghai and Hong Kong. Public Culture 12(3): 769–786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brett, David. 1996. The Construction of Heritage. Cork: Cork University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Britton, Stephen. 1991. Tourism, capital and place: Towards a critical geography of tourism. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 9(4): 451–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chang, T.C. 1999. Local uniqueness in the global village: Heritage tourism in Singapore. Professional Geographer 51(1): 91–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Clifford, James. 1997. Routes: Travel and Translation in the Late Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Dirlik, Arif. 1996. The global in the local. In Cultural production and the transnational imaginary, ed. Rob Wilson and W. Dissanayake, 21–45. Durham and London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Fan, Cindy C. 1999. Migration in a socialist transitional economy: Heterogeneity, socioeconomic and spatial characteristics of migrants in china and Guangdong province. International Migration Review 33(4): 954–987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gillian Patricia, Hart. 2002. Disabling Globalization: Places of Power in Post-apartheid South Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  9. Gotham, K.Fox. 2005. Tourism gentrification: The case of New Orleans’ Vieux Carré (French Quarter). Urban Studies 42(7): 1099–1121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Guo, Dalie, and Zhiwu He. 1999. The history of Naxi groups (Naxi zu Shi). Chengdu: Sichuan minzhu chubanshe.Google Scholar
  11. Harvey, David. 2006. Neo-liberalism as creative destruction. Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography 88(2): 145–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hewison, Robert. 1987. The Heritage Industry: Britain in a Climate of Decline. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  13. Litzinger, Ralph. 2004. The mobilization of “nature”: Perspectives from North-West Yunnan. The China Quarterly 178(1): 488–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Logan, William S. (ed.). 2011. The disappearing ‘Asian’ city: Protecting Asia’s urban heritage in a globalizing world. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Miles, Steven, and Ronan Paddison. 2005. Introduction: The rise and rise of culture-led urban regeneration. Urban Studies 42(5–6): 833–839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Oakes, Tim. 1998. Tourism and Modernity in China. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Pratt, Andy. 2009. Urban regeneration: From the arts ‘feel good’ factor to the cultural economy: A case study of Hoxton, London. Urban Studies 46(5–6): 1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pun, Ngai. 2006. Made in China: Women Factory Workers in a Global Workplace. Durham and London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Shepherd, Robert. 2006. UNESCO and the politics of cultural heritage in Tibet. Journal of Contemporary Asia 36(2): 243–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sofield, Trevor H.B., and F.M.S. Li. 1998. Tourism development and cultural policies in China. Annals of Tourism Research 25(2): 362–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Strange, Ian. 1996. Local politics, new agendas and strategies for change in English historic cities. Cities 13(6): 431–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Su, Xiaobo, and Peggy Teo. 2009. The Politics of Heritage Tourism in China: A View from Lijiang. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Swain, Margaret B. 1990. Commoditizing ethnicity in Southwest China. Cultural Survival 14(1): 26–32.Google Scholar
  24. Teo, Peggy. 2003. The limits of imagineering: a case study of Penang. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 27(3): 545–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Teo, Peggy, and Brenda S.A. Yeoh. 1997. Remaking local heritage for tourism. Annals of Tourism Research 24(1): 192–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Terkenli, Theano S. 2002. Landscapes of tourism: Towards a global cultural economy of space? Tourism Geographies 4(3): 227–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. The World Bank. 2000. Case study: Lijiang, China–earthquake reconstruction and heritage conservation. Washington: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  28. Thornton, Patricia M. 2010. From liberating production to unleashing consumption: Mapping landscapes of power in Beijing. Political Geography 29: 302–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. UNESCO. 1999. Brief Descriptions of Sites Inscribed on the World Heritage List. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  30. Waitt, Gordon, and Pauline M. McGuirk. 1996. Marking time: Tourism and heritage representation at millers point, Sydney. Australian Geographer 27(1): 11–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wilson, Elizabeth. 1995. The rhetoric of urban space. New Left Review 209: 146–160.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of OregonEugeneUSA

Personalised recommendations