Skip to main content

Neurofeedback for Autistic Disorders: Emerging Empirical Evidence

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Imaging the Brain in Autism

Abstract

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of pervasive developmental disorders impacting communication, social skills, behavioral interests, and daily functioning. With rates rising to as high as 1 in 80 in the Unites States alone, their impact on children, families, and our society is immense. Despite this, treatment for these conditions is poorly understood, and most have limited empirical support. While ASD can be conceptualized as having system-wide effects in the human body, many of the primary symptoms we associate with these children are clearly related to dysfunction of the central nervous system. While certain brain regions have been shown susceptibility, connectivity across regions of the brain appears to be the primary dysfunction leading to symptoms and developmental delays in these children. Any successful treatment should be able to demonstrate the ability to change and improve these primary effects. Neurofeedback is currently being studied as a noninvasive intervention with the potential to do just that. Empirical evidence is emerging, demonstrating this as a potentially effective and safe form of intervention for ASD. There is also preliminary data suggesting that this intervention may facilitate therapeutic enhancements in brain functioning and connectivity and that the results of treatment may endure even after the therapy has ended. Clearly, more research is needed to demonstrate the efficacy of this intervention, mechanisms that underlie these changes, and studies looking at the duration of enduring effects.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 149.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Adams JB, Baral M, Geis E, Mitchell J, Ingram J, Hensley A, Zappia I, Newmark S, Gehn E, Rubin RA, Mitchell K, Bradstreet JJ, El-Dahr J (2009) Safety and efficacy of oral DMSA therapy for children with autism spectrum disorders: part A—medical results. BMC Clin Pharmacol 9:16

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Aman MG, Singh NN, Stewart AW, Field CJ (1985) The aberrant behavior checklist: a behavior rating scale for the assessment of treatment effects. Am J Ment Defic 89:485–491

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. American Psychiatric Publishing, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Amminger GP, Berger GE, Schäfer MR, Klier C, Friedrich MH, Feucht M (2007) Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in children with autism: a double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. Biol Psychiatry 61:551–553

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Anderson SR, Avery DL, DiPietro EK, Edwards GL, Christian WP (1987) Intensive home-based early intervention with autistic children. Education and Treatment of Children, 10:352–366

    Google Scholar 

  • Association for Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback (2006). Efficacy: How we rate theefficacy of our treatments or how to know if our treatments actually work. Retrieved February 22, 2006 from http://www.aapb.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3336

  • Attwood T (1998) Asperger’s syndrome: a guide for parents and professionals. Jessica Kingsley, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Barnard L, Young AH, Pearson J, Geddes J, O’Brien G (2002) A systematic review of the use of atypical antipsychotics in autism. J Psychopharmacol 16:93–101

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bassett K, Kazanjian A, Green CJ (2000) Autism and Lovaas treatment: a systematic review of effectiveness evidence. British Columbia Office of Health Technology Assessment, Vancouver

    Google Scholar 

  • Bell JG, Sargent JR, Tocher DR, Dick JR (2000) Red blood cell fatty acid compositions in a patient with autistic spectrum disorder: a characteristic abnormality in neurodevelopmental disorders? Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 63:21–25

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bell JG, MacKinlay EE, Dick JR, MacDonald DJ, Boyle RM, Glen ACA (2004) Essential fatty acids and phospholipase A2 in autistic spectrum disorders. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 71:201–204

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ben-Itzchak E, Zachor DA (2007) The effects of intellectual functioning and autism severity on outcome of early behavioral intervention for children with autism. Res Dev Disabil. 2007 May-Jun; 28(3):287–303

    Google Scholar 

  • Bernard S, Enayati A, Binstock T, Roger H, Redwood L, McGinnis W (2000) Autism: a unique type of mercury poisoning. Accessed http://whale.to/a/autism7.html

  • Blaxill MF (2004) What’s going on? The question of time trends in autism. Public Health Rep 119:536–551

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bradstreet JJ, Geier DA, Kartzinel JJ, Adams JB, Geier MR (2003) A case-control study of mercury burden in children with autistic spectrum disorders. J Am Physicians Surg 8:76–79

    Google Scholar 

  • Cade R, Privette M, Fregly M, Rowland N, Sun Z, Zele V, et al (1999) Autism and schizophrenia: Intestinal disorders. Nutritional Neuroscience, 2:57–72

    Google Scholar 

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009) Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders—autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, United States, 2006. Morb Mort Wkly Rep 58(SS-10):1–20

    Google Scholar 

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012) Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders—autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 14 sites, United States, 2008. Morb Mort Wkly Rep 61(SS-3):1–19

    Google Scholar 

  • Coben R (2007, September) Autistic spectrum disorder: a controlled study of EEG coherence training targeting social skill deficits. Presented at the 15th annual conference of the international society for neurofeedback and research, San Diego, California.

    Google Scholar 

  • Coben R (2009) Efficacy of connectivity guided neurofeedback for autistic spectrum disorder: controlled analysis of 75 cases with a 1 to 2 year follow-up. J Neurother 13:81

    Google Scholar 

  • Coben R, Hudspeth W (2006) Mu-like rhythms in autistic spectrum disorder: EEG analyses and neurofeedback outcome. In: 14th Annual conference of the international society for neuronal regulation, Atlanta

    Google Scholar 

  • Coben R, Myers TE (2008) Connectivity theory of autism: use of connectivity measures in assessing and treating autistic disorders. J Neurother 12:161–179

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Coben R, Padolsky I (2007) Assessment-guided neurofeedback for autistic spectrum disorder. J Neurother 11:5–23

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Coben R, Sherlin L, Hudspeth WJ, McKeon K (2009) Connectivity guided EEG biofeedback for autism spectrum disorder: evidence of neurophysiological changes. J Autism Develop Disord (under review).

    Google Scholar 

  • Coben R, Arns M, Kouijzer MEJ (2010a) Enduring effects of neurofeedback in children. In: Coben R, Evans JR (eds) Neurofeedback and neuromodulation techniques and applications. Academic, London, pp 403–422

    Google Scholar 

  • Coben R, Linden M, Myers TE (2010b) Neurofeedback for autistic spectrum disorder: a review of the literature. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 35:83–105

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Coben R, Chabot RJ, Hirshberg L (2013) EEG analyses in the assessment of autistic disorders. In: Casanova MF, El-Baz AS, Suri JS (eds) Imaging the brain in autism, pp 349–370. Springer, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Committee on Children with Disabilities (2001) Technical report: the pediatrician’s role in the diagnosis and management of autistic spectrum disorder in children. Pediatrics 107:e85

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cook EH Jr, Rowlett R, Jaselskis C, Leventhal BL (1992) Fluoxetine treatment of children and adults with autistic disorder and mental retardation. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 31:739–745

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Couper J (2004) Who should pay for intensive behavioural intervention in autism? A parent’s view. J Paediatr Child Health 40:559–561

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Couturier JL, Nicolson R (2002) A retrospective assessment of citalopram in children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorders. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 12:243–248

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • DeLong GR, Ritch CR, Burch S (2002) Fluoxetine response in children with autistic spectrum disorders: correlation with familial major affective disorder and intellectual achievement. Dev Med Child Neurol 44:652–659

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Demos JN (2005) Getting started with neurofeedback. W.W. Norton, New York, NY

    Google Scholar 

  • Deprey LJ, Brule N, Widjaja F, Sepheri S, Blank J, Neubrander J, et al (2006) Double-blind placebo-controlled, cross-over trial of subcutaneous methylcobalamin in children with autism: preliminary results. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the American academy of child and adolescent psychiatry, San Diego, CA, October

    Google Scholar 

  • Doja A, Roberts W (2006) Immunizations and autism: A review of the literature. The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 33:341–346

    Google Scholar 

  • Elder JH, Shankar M, Shuster J, Theriaque D, Burns S, Sherrill L (2006) The gluten-free, casein-free diet in autism: results of a preliminary double blind clinical trial. J Autism Dev Disord 36:413–420

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Esch BE, Carr JE (2004) Secretin as a treatment for autism: a review of the evidence. J Autism Dev Disord 34:543–556

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ganz ML (2006) The costs of autism. In: Moldin SO, Rubenstein JLR (eds) Understanding autism: from basic neuroscience to treatment. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 475–498

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Geller DA, Hoog SL, Heiligenstein JH, Ricardi RK, Tamura R, Kluszynski S, Jacobson JG, Fluoxetine Pediatric OCD Study Team (2001) Fluoxetine treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents: a placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:773–779

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • George MS, Costa D, Kouris K, Ring HA, Ell PJ (1992) Cerebral blood flow abnormalities in adults with infantile autism. J Nerv Ment Dis 180:413–417

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gioia GA, Isquith PK, Guy SC, Kenworthy L (2000) Behavior rating inventory of executive function. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources

    Google Scholar 

  • Gilliam JE (2001) Gilliam asperger’s disorder scale examiner’s manual. Austin, Texas: Pro-Ed.

    Google Scholar 

  • Golden ZL, Neubauer R, Golden CL, Greene L, Marsh J, Mleko A (2002) Improvement in cerebral metabolism in chronic brain injury after hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Int J Neurosci 112:119–131

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Granpeesheh D, Tarbox J, Dixon DR, Wilke AE, Allen MS, Bradstreet JJ (2010) Randomized trial of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for children with autism. Res Autism Spectr Disord 4:268–275

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Green VA, Pituch KA, Itchon J, Choi A, O’Reilly M, Sigafoos J (2006) Internet survey of treatments used by parents of children with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities 27:70–84

    Google Scholar 

  • Hamilton LM (2000) Facing autism: giving parents reasons for hope and guidance for help. WaterBrook Press, Colorado Springs, CO

    Google Scholar 

  • Hammond DC (2005) “Neurofeedback with anxiety and affective disorders.” Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America 14.1 (2005): 105

    Google Scholar 

  • Hediger ML, England LJ, Molloy CA, Yu KF, Manning-Courtney P, Mills JL (2008) Reduced bone cortical thickness in boys with autism or autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord 38:848–856

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Herbert JD, Sharp IR, Gaudiano BA (2002) Separating fact from fiction in the etiology and treatment of autism. Sci Rev Ment Health Pract 1:23–43

    Google Scholar 

  • Hill EL (2004) Executive dysfunction in autism. Trends Cogn Sci 8:26–32

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hollander E, Phillips A, Chaplin W, Zagursky K, Novotny S, Wasserman S, Iyengar R (2005) A placebo controlled crossover trial of liquid fluoxetine on repetitive behaviors in childhood and adolescent autism. Neuropsychopharmacology 30:582–589

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Holmes AS (2001) Chelation of mercury for the treatment of autism. Forum on alternative and innovative therapies for children with developmental delays, brain injury and related neurometabolic conditions and disorders. http://www.healing-arts.org/children/holmes.htm. Accessed 30 Mar 2010

  • Howard JS, Sparkman CR, Cohen HG, Green G, Stanislaw H (2005) A comparison of intensive behavior analytic and eclectic treatments for young children with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 26(4):359–383

    Google Scholar 

  • Hughes JR, John ER (1999) Conventional and quantitative electroencephalography in psychiatry. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 11:190–208

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jarusiewicz B (2002) Efficacy of neurofeedback for children in the autistic spectrum: A pilot study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 6(4):39–49

    Google Scholar 

  • Jasper HH (1958) The ten–twenty electrode system of the International Federation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, 10:371–5

    Google Scholar 

  • Jeffrey S Anderson, Nicholas Lange, Alyson Froehlich, Molly B DuBray, T Jason Druzgal, Michael P Froimowitz, Andrew L Alexander, Erin D Bigler, Janet E Lainhart (2010) Decreased left posterior insular activity during auditory language in autism American Journal of Neuroradiology, 31, 1:131–139

    Google Scholar 

  • Jensen PS, Arnold LE, Swanson JM, Vitiello B, Abikoff HB, Greenhill LL, Hechtman L, Hinshaw SP, Pelham WE, Wells KC, Conners CK, Elliott GR, Epstein JN, Hoza B, March JS, Molina BSG, Newcorn JH, Severe JB, Wigal T, Gibbons RD, Hur K (2007) 3-year follow-up of the NIMH MTA study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 46:989–1002

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jesner OS, Aref-Adib M, Coren E (2007) Risperidone for autism spectrum disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007:CD005040

    Google Scholar 

  • Just MA, Cherkassky VL, Keller TA, Minshew NJ (2004) Cortical activation and synchronization during sentence comprehension in high-functioning autism: evidence of underconnectivity. Brain 127:1811–1821

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kidd PM (2002) Autism, an extreme challenge to integrative medicine, part II: medical management. Altern Med Rev 7:472–499

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kirby D (2005) Evidence of harm: Mercury in vaccines and the autism epidemic: A medical controversy. New York: St. Martin’s Press

    Google Scholar 

  • Knivsberg A-M, Reichelt K-L, Høien T, Nødland M (2002) A randomised, controlled study of dietary intervention in autistic syndromes. Nutr Neurosci 5:251–261

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kouijzer MEJ, de Moor JMH, Gerrits BJL, Buitelaar JK, van Schie HT (2009a) Long-term effects of neurofeedback treatment in autism. Res Autism Spectr Disord 3:496–501

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kouijzer MEJ, de Moor JMH, Gerrits BJL, Congedo M, van Schie HT (2009b) Neurofeedback improves executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorders. Res Autism Spectr Disord 3:145–162

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kouijzer MEJ, van Schie HT, de Moor JMH, Gerrits BJL, Buitelaar JK (2010) Neurofeedback treatment in autism: preliminary findings in behavioral, cognitive, and neurophysiological functioning. Res Autism Spectr Disord 4:386–399

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lachar D, Gruber CP (2001) Personality inventory for children, second edition. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services

    Google Scholar 

  • Linden M, Habib T, Radojevic V (1996) A controlled study of the effects of EEG biofeedback on cognition and behavior of children with attention deficit disorder and learning disabilities. Biofeedback Self Regul 21:35–49

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Linden M (2004) Case studies of QEEG mapping and neurofeedback with autism. Presented at the 12th Annual Conference of the International Society for Neuronal Regulation, Fort Lauderdale, Florida

    Google Scholar 

  • Lovaas OI, Koegel R, Simmons JQ, Stevens Long J (1973) Some generalization and follow-up measures on autistic children in behavior therapy. J Appl Behav Anal 6:131–165

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lubar JF (1995) Neurobiological foundation for neurofeedback treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/HD). Biofeedback 25(10):4–23

    Google Scholar 

  • Lubar JF, Swartwood MO, Swartwood JN, O’Donnell PH (1995) Evaluation of the effectiveness of EEG training for ADHD in a clinical setting as measured by TOVA scores, behavioral ratings, and WISC-R performance. Biofeedback&Self-Regulation, 20(1):83–99

    Google Scholar 

  • Lubar JF (1997) Neurobiological foundation for neurofeedback treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/HD). Biofeedback 25(10):4–23

    Google Scholar 

  • Malone RP, Maislin G, Choudhury MS, Gifford C, Delaney MA (2002) Risperidone treatment in children and adolescents with autism: short-and long-term safety and effectiveness. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(2):140–147

    Google Scholar 

  • Mariani P, Viti MG, Montuori M, La Vecchia A, Cipolletta E, Calvani L, Bonamico M (1998) The gluten-free diet: a nutritional risk factor for adolescents with celiac disease? J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 27:519–523

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Martin A, Scahill L, Klin A, Volkmar FR (1999) Higher functioning pervasive developmental disorders: Rates and patterns of psychotropic drug use. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38:923–931

    Google Scholar 

  • Martin A, Koenig K, Anderson GM, Scahill L (2003) Low-dose fluvoxamine treatment of children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorders: a prospective, open-label study. J Autism Dev Disord 33:77–85

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • McAlonan GM, Cheung V, Cheung C, Suckling J, Lam GY, Tai KS, Yip L, Murphy DGM, Chua SE (2005) Mapping the brain in autism: a voxel-based MRI study of volumetric differences and intercorrelations in autism. Brain 128:268–276

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • McCandless J (2005) Children with starving brains: a medical treatment guide for autism spectrum disorders. Bramble Books, Putney

    Google Scholar 

  • McDougle CJ, Kresch LE, Goodman WK, Naylor ST, Volkmar FR, Cohen DJ, Price LH (1995) A case-controlled study of repetitive thoughts and behavior in adults with autistic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 152:772–777

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • McDougle CJ, Naylor ST, Cohen DJ, Volkmar FR, Heninger GR, Price LH (1996) A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of fluvoxamine in adults with autistic disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 53:1001–1008

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • McDougle CJ, Brodkin ES, Naylor ST, Carlson DC, Cohen DJ, Price LH (1998) Sertraline in adults with pervasive developmental disorders: a prospective open-label investigation. J Clin Psychopharmacol 18:62–66

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • McDougle CJ, Kresch LE, Posey DJ (2000) Repetitive thoughts and behavior in pervasive developmental disorders: treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors. J Autism Dev Disord 30:427–435

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • McEachin JJ, Smith TH, Lovaas OI (1993) Long-term outcome for children with autism who received early intensive behavioral treatment. Am J Ment Retard 97:359–391

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Monastra VJ, Lynn S, Linden M, Lubar JF, Gruzelier J, La Vaque TJ (2005) Electroencephalographic biofeedback in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 30:95–114

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Montgomery DL, Goldberg J, Amar M, Lacroix VJ, Lecomte JM, Lambert J, Vanasse M, Marois P (1999) Effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy: a pilot project. Undersea Hyperb Med 26:235–242

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mountz JM, Tolbert LC, Lill DW, Katholi CR, Liu H-G (1995) Functional deficits in autistic disorder: characterization by technetium-99 m-HMPAO and SPECT. J Nucl Med 36:1156–1162

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nakano K, Noda N, Tachikawa E, Urano M, Miyuki T, Nakayama T, Sasaki K, Osawa M (2005) A preliminary study of methylcobalamin therapy in autism. J Tokyo Women’s Med Univ 75:64–69

    Google Scholar 

  • National Institute of Mental Health (2006) Autism spectrum disorders (pervasive developmental disorders). Retrieved 12 Feb 2010 from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/autism/complete-index.shtml

  • Nighoghossian N, Trouillas P, Adeleine P, Salord F (1995) Hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 26:1369–1372

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Oberman LM, Hubbard EM, McCleery JP, Altschuler EL, Ramachandran VS, Pineda JA (2005) EEG evidence for mirror neuron dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders. Cogn Brain Res 24:190–198

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ohnishi T, Matsuda H, Hashimoto T, Kunihiro T, Nishikawa M, Uema T, Sasaki M (2000) Abnormal regional cerebral blood flow in childhood autism. Brain 123:1838–1844

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Owley T, Walton L, Salt J, Guter SJ Jr, Winnega M, Leventhal BL, Cook EH Jr (2005) An open-label trial of escitalopram in pervasive developmental disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 44:343–348

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ozonoff S, Cathcart K (1998) Effectiveness of a home program intervention for young children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 28:25–32

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pelphrey K, Adolphs R, Morris JP (2004) Neuroanatomical substrates of social cognition dysfunction in autism. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 10:259–271

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pineda JA, Hecht E (2009) Mirroring and mu rhythm involvement in social cognition: are there dissociable subcomponents of theory of mind? Biol Psychiatry 80:306–314

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rangaswamy M, Porjez B, Chorlian DB, Wang K, Jones KA, Bauer LO, Rohrbaugh J, O’Connor SJ, Kuperman S, Reich T, Begleiter H (2002) Beta power in the EEG of alcoholics. Biol Psychiatry 52:831–842

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Reichelt K (2001, October) Opioid peptides. Paper presented at the defeat autism now conference, San Diego, CA

    Google Scholar 

  • Reichelt K, Knivsberg AM (2003, October). Why use the gluten-free and casein-free diet in autism and what the results have shown so far: Peptides and autism. Paper presented at the defeat autism now conference, Portland, OR

    Google Scholar 

  • Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network (2005) Risperidone treatment of autistic disorder: longer-term benefits and blinded discontinuation after 6 months. Am J Psychiatry 162:1361–1369

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rimland B, Edelson SM (2000) Autism treatment evaluation checklist (ATEC). Autism Research Institute, San Diego

    Google Scholar 

  • Rippon G, Brock J, Brown CC, Boucher J (2007) Disordered connectivity in the autistic brain: challenges for the ‘new psychophysiology’. Int J Psychophysiol 63:164–172

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rossignol DA, Rossignol LW (2006) Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may improve symptoms in autistic children. Med Hypotheses 67:216–228

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rossignol DA, Rossignol LW, James SJ, Melnyk S, Mumper E (2007) The effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on oxidative stress, inflammation, and symptoms in children with autism: an open-label pilot study. BMC Pediatr 7:36

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Santangelo SL, Tsatsanis K (2005) What is known about autism: genes, brain, and behavior. Am J Pharmacogenomics 5:71–92

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schmitz N, Rubia K, Daly EM, Smith AB, Williams SCR, Murphy DGM (2006) Neural correlates of executive function in autistic spectrum disorders. Biol Psychiatry 59:7–16

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schopler E, Reichler RJ (1971) Parents as cotherapists in the treatment of psychotic children. J Autism Child Schizophr 1:87–102

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schopler E, Reichler RJ, DeVellis RF and Daly K (1980) Toward objective classification of child-hood autism: Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 10(1):91–103

    Google Scholar 

  • Sicile-Kira C (2004) Autism spectrum disorders: the complete guide to understanding autism, Asperger’s syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder, and other ASDs. Berkley Publishing Group, New York, NY

    Google Scholar 

  • Siegel B (1996) The world of the autistic child: understanding and treating autistic spectrum disorders. Oxford University Press, New York, NY

    Google Scholar 

  • Sinha Y, Silove N, Williams K (2006) Chelation therapy and autism. BMJ 333:756

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Starkstein SE, Vazquez S, Vrancic D, Nanclares V, Manes F, Piven J, Plebst C (2000) SPECT findings in mentally retarded autistic individuals. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 12:370–375

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Stoller KP (2005) Quantification of neurocognitive changes before, during, and after hyperbaric oxygen therapy in a case of fetal alcohol syndrome. Pediatrics 116:e586–e591

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tansey MA (1993) Ten year stability of EEG biofeedback results for a 10 year old hyperactive boy who failed fourth grade in a class for the perceptually impaired. Biofeedback Self Regul 18:33–44

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Thompson M, Thompson L (2003a) The neurofeedback book: an introduction to basic concepts in applied psychophysiology. Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Wheat Ridge, CO

    Google Scholar 

  • Thompson L, Thompson M (2003b) Neurofeedback treatment for autistic spectrum disorders: review of 60 cases-principles and outcome. Citation paper presented at the 34th annual meeting of the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Jacksonville, FL, March.

    Google Scholar 

  • Troost PW, Lahuis BE, Steenhuis M-P, Ketelaars CEJ, Buitelaar JK, van Engeland H, Scahill L, Minderaa RB, Hoekstra PJ (2005) Long-term effects of risperidone in children with autism spectrum disorders: a placebo discontinuation study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 44:1137–1144

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Vancassel S, Durand G, Barthélémy C, Lejeune B, Martineau J, Guilloteau D, Andrès CR, Chalon S (2001) Plasma fatty acid levels in autistic children. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 65:1–7

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wainwright PE (2002) Dietary essential fatty acids and brain function: a developmental perspective on mechanisms. Proc Nutr Soc 61:61–69

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Welchew DE, Ashwin C, Berkouk K, Salvador R, Suckling J, Baron-Cohen S, Bullmore E (2005) Functional disconnectivity of the medial temporal lobe in Asperger’s syndrome. Biol Psychiatry 57:991–998

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yucha C, Montgomery D (2008) Evidence-based practice in biofeedback and neurofeedback. Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Wheat Ridge

    Google Scholar 

  • Zilbovicius M, Boddaert N, Belin P, Poline J-B, Remy P, Mangin J-F, Thivard L, Barthélémy C, Samson Y (2000) Temporal lobe dysfunction in childhood autism: a PET study. Am J Psychiatry 157:1988–1993

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zuddas A, Di Martino A, Muglia P, Cianchetti C (2000) Long-term risperidone for pervasive developmental disorder: efficacy, tolerability, and discontinuation. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 10:79–90

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Robert Coben Ph.D. .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2013 Springer New York

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Coben, R. (2013). Neurofeedback for Autistic Disorders: Emerging Empirical Evidence. In: Casanova, M., El-Baz, A., Suri, J. (eds) Imaging the Brain in Autism. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6843-1_6

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics