Skip to main content

QEEG-Guided Neurofeedback for Autism: Clinical Observations and Outcomes

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Imaging the Brain in Autism

Abstract

During the 40-plus-year history of EEG biofeedback, now also called neurofeedback (NF), the approach has been used clinically to address attentional problems in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Initially, NF was based on the theta/beta ratio, which was measured with eyes open, at the vertex, or the Cz electrode in the International 10–20 Electrode placement system. Generally, the early NF work was based on enhancing beta and reducing the slower theta content (Monastra et al. 1999).

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 149.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

References

  • Arns M, Gunkelman J, Breteler M, Spronk D (2008) EEG phenotypes predict treatment outcome to stimulants in children with ADHD. J Integr Neurosci 7:421–438

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Arns M, de Ridder S, Strehl U, Breteler M, Coenen A (2009) Efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD: the effects on inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity: a meta-analysis. Clin EEG Neurosci 40:180–189

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chabot RJ, Merkin H, Wood LM, Davenport TL, Serfontein G (1996) Sensitivity and specificity of QEEG in children with attention deficit or specific developmental learning disorders. Clin Electroencephalogr 27:26–34

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Coben R (2008) Autistic spectrum disorder: a controlled study of EEG coherence training focused on social skill deficits. J Neurother 12:57–75

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Coben R, Hudspeth W (2006) Mu-like rhythms in autistic spectrum disorder: EEG analyses and neurofeedback outcome. In: 14th Annual conference of the International Society for Neuronal Regulation, Atlanta

    Google Scholar 

  • Coben R, Myers TE (2010) The relative efficacy of connectivity guided and symptom based EEG biofeedback for autistic disorders. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 35:13–23

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Coben R, Padolsky I (2007) Assessment-guided neurofeedback for autistic spectrum disorder. J Neurother 11:5–23

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Coben R, Linden M, Myers TE (2010) Neurofeedback for autistic spectrum disorder: a review of the literature. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 35:83–105

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Coben R, Hirshberg L, Chabot RJ (2012) EEG discriminant power and subtypes in autistic spectrum disorder. Int J Psychophysiol (in press)

    Google Scholar 

  • Gabis L, Pomeroy J, Andriola MR (2005) Autism and epilepsy: cause, consequence, comorbidity, or coincidence? Epilepsy Behav 7:652–656

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Groen WB, Buitelaar JK, van der Gaag RJ, Zwiers MP (2011) Pervasive microstructural abnormalities in autism: a DTI study. J Psychiatry Neurosci 36:32–40

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gunkelman J (2006) Transcend the DSM using phenotypes. Biofeedback 34:95–98

    Google Scholar 

  • Gunkelman J, Cripe C (2008) Clinical outcomes in addiction: a neurofeedback case series. Biofeedback 36:152–156

    Google Scholar 

  • Haines CL, Colletti SJ (2012) Autism and seizures: a hidden connection? Jessica Kingsley, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Jarusiewicz B (2002) Efficacy of neurofeedback for children in the autistic spectrum: a pilot study. J Neurother 6:39–49

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnstone J, Gunkelman J, Lunt J (2005) Clinical database development: characterization of EEG phenotypes. Clin EEG Neurosci 36:99–107

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kotchoubey B, Strehl U, Uhlmann C, Holzapfel S, König M, Fröscher W, Blankenhorn V, Birbaumer N (2001) Modification of slow cortical potentials in patients with refractory epilepsy: a controlled outcome study. Epilepsia 42:406–416

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kouijzer MEJ, de Moor JMH, Gerrits BJL, Buitelaar JK, van Schie HT (2009a) Long-term effects of neurofeedback treatment in autism. Res Autism Spectr Disord 3:496–501

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kouijzer MEJ, de Moor JMH, Gerrits BJL, Congedo M, van Schie HT (2009b) Neurofeedback improves executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorders. Res Autism Spectr Disord 3:145–162

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • La Vaque TJ, Hammond DC, Trudeau D, Monastra VJ, Perry J, Lehrer P, Matheson D, Sherman R (2002) Template for developing guidelines for the evaluation of the clinical efficacy of psychophysiological interventions. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 27:273–281

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Linden M (2008) QEEG Brain Based Diagnosis and Neurofeedback Non-Drug Treatment for Autistic Spectrum Disorder. National Autism Conference. Ft. Lauderdale, Nov 15, 2008

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lord C, Risi S, Lambrecht L, Cook EH, Leventhal BL, DiLavore PC, Pickles A, Rutter M (2000) The autism diagnostic observation schedule—generic: a standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. J Autism Dev Disord 30:205–223

    Google Scholar 

  • Lubar JF (1991) Discourse on the development of EEG diagnostics and biofeedback for attention-­deficit/hyperactivity disorders. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 16:201–225

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Monastra VJ, Lubar JF, Linden M, VanDeusen P, Green G, Wing W, Phillips A, Fenger TN (1999) Assessing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder via quantitative electroencephalography: an initial validation study. Neuropsychology 13:424–433

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Monastra VJ, Lynn S, Linden M, Lubar JF, Gruzelier J, La Vaque TJ (2005) Electroencephalographic biofeedback in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 30:95–114

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Neubrander J, Linden M, Gunkelman J, Kerson C (2012) QEEG-guided neurofeedback: new brain-based individualized evaluation and treatment for autism. Autism Sci Dig 3:90–100

    Google Scholar 

  • Nuwer M (1997) Assessment of digital EEG, quantitative EEG, and EEG brain mapping: report of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. Neurology 49:277–292

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Oberman LM, Hubbard EM, McCleery JP, Altschuler EL, Ramachandran VS, Pineda JA (2005) EEG evidence for mirror neuron dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders. Cogn Brain Res 24:190–198

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pineda JA, Brang D, Hecht E, Edwards L, Carey S, Bacon M, Futagaki C, Suk D, Tom J, Birnbaum C, Rork A (2008) Positive behavioral and electrophysiological changes following neurofeedback training in children with autism. Res Autism Spectr Disord 2:557–581

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pop-Jordanova N, Pop-Jordanov J (2005) Spectrum-weighted EEG frequency (“brain-rate”) as a quantitative indicator of mental arousal. Prilozi 26:35–42

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rimland B, Edelson SM (2000) Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC). Autism Research Institute, San Diego

    Google Scholar 

  • Rutter M, LeCouteur A, Rutter M (2003) Autism Diagnostic Interview—Revised. Western Psychological Services, Torrance

    Google Scholar 

  • Sterman MB (2000) Basic concepts and clinical findings in the treatment of seizure disorders with EEG operant conditioning. Clin Electroencephalogr 31:45–55

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sterman MB, Macdonald LR, Stone RK (1974) Biofeedback training of the sensorimotor electroencephalogram rhythm in man: effects on epilepsy. Epilepsia 15:395–416

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Stone JL, Hughes JR (1990) The Gibbs’ Boston years: early developments in epilepsy research and electroencephalography at Harvard. Clin Electroencephalogr 21:175–182

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thompson L, Thompson M, Reid A (2010) Functional neuroanatomy and the rationale for using EEG biofeedback for clients with Asperger’s syndrome. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 35:39–61

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yucha C, Montgomery D (2008) Evidence-based practice in biofeedback and neurofeedback. Association for Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, Wheat Ridge Biography

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Michael Linden Ph.D. .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2013 Springer New York

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Linden, M., Gunkelman, J. (2013). QEEG-Guided Neurofeedback for Autism: Clinical Observations and Outcomes. In: Casanova, M., El-Baz, A., Suri, J. (eds) Imaging the Brain in Autism. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6843-1_3

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics