• Jacob Lubliner
  • Panayiotis Papadopoulos


Experience shows that when a straight bar (or wire, cable, rubber band or the like) is subjected to a tensile axial force, it stretches and, as the force is increased, eventually breaks. Depending on the material of which the bar is made, the bar may or may not undergo a considerable amount of permanent elongation, with relatively little resistance, before it breaks. The onset of this elongation is known as yielding, and a material that allows it is called ductile. These properties will be discussed further in Chap. 11.


Shear Stress Normal Stress Principal Stress Axial Force Stress Component 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacob Lubliner
    • 1
  • Panayiotis Papadopoulos
    • 2
  1. 1.Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of California, BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of California, BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA

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