Hydrops, Cystic Hygroma, Fetal Hydrothorax, and Fetal Ascites

  • Enid Gilbert-Barness
  • Diane E. Spicer
  • Thora S. Steffensen


Fetal hydrops is a generalized increase in total body fluid manifesting as edema and effusion in body cavities such as the pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal spaces. Hydrops is said to be present when subcutaneous edema is accompanied by effusion into two or more serous cavities. It can be divided into the immune type, which is caused by sensitization to blood group antigens, resulting in anemia, and the nonimmune types. Nonimmune fetal hydrops now accounts for almost 90 % of hydrops cases. The incidence of nonimmune fetal hydrops is 1:1,500 to 1:3,800 births.


Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Noonan Syndrome Pulmonary Hypoplasia Urinary Tract Obstruction Cystic Hygroma 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Enid Gilbert-Barness
    • 1
  • Diane E. Spicer
    • 2
  • Thora S. Steffensen
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratory Medicine, Pediatrics and Obstetrics and Gynecology Tampa General Hospital Morsani College of MedicineUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pediatrics-CardiologyUniversity of FloridaValricoUSA
  3. 3.Department of PathologyTampa General HospitalTampaUSA

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