Advertisement

The History of Gambling and Its Intersection with Technology, Religion, Medical Science, and Metaphors

  • Peter Ferentzy
  • Nigel E. Turner
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, we offer a brief history of gambling and then discuss the intersection of pathological gambling with technology, religion, and science. While technological innovations, assisted by the development of probability theory helped to make gambling a more profitable industry, other historical currents were at work. Substance use and abuse, the temperance movement, and moral panics in general—all of these had key roles to play in the evolution of pathological gambling as an idea. Chronic drunkenness was our first widely recognized (and medicalized) addiction, followed by addictions to opiates and other substances—all of which set the stage for the recognition of behavioral addictions such as pathological gambling. We end with a discussion of metaphor, shedding light on questions concerning the literal veracity of psychobehavioral disease constructs. We argue that metaphor is endemic to all human conceptualization and that this on its own need not invalidate disease conceptions of behavior such as pathological gambling.

Keywords

History Technology Luck Medical science Temperance Metaphors 

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association [APA]. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Arnold, P. (1978). The encyclopedia of gambling: The game, the odds, the techniques, the people and places, the myths and history. Glasgow: Collins.Google Scholar
  3. Asbury, H. (1938). Sucker’s progress: An informal history of gambling in America from the Colonies to Canfield. New York: Thunder Mouth Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bag, A. K. (1966). Binomial theorem in ancient India. Indian Journal of History of Science, 1, 68–74. Retrieved 16-juin-11, from http://www.new1.dli.ernet.in/data1/upload/insa/INSA_1/20005aef_68.pdf.
  5. Barham, P. (1984). Schizophrenia and human value. New York: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  6. Barnhart, R. T. (1992). Beating the wheel: Winning strategies at roulette. New York: Carol Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  7. Bass, T. (2001). The eudaemonic pie. Lincoln, NE: Authors Guild (backprint edition).Google Scholar
  8. Ben-Yehuda, N., & Goode, E. (1994). Moral panics: The social construction of deviance. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  9. Bergler, E. (1943). The gambler: A misunderstood neurotic. Journal of Criminal Psychopathology, 4, 379–393. Reported in Selected Papers of Edmund Bergler, M.D. 1933–1961. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1969.Google Scholar
  10. Bergler, E. (1957). The psychology of gambling. New York: Hill and Wang.Google Scholar
  11. Berk, S. E. (1974). Calvinism versus democracy: Timothy Dwight and the origins of American evangelical orthodoxy. Hamden: Archon Books.Google Scholar
  12. Bernhard, B. (2008). Social responsibility matters: Historical and anthropological perspectives on culpability and gambling. A paper presented at the Alberta Gaming Research Institute’s 7th Annual conference, Banff, AB.Google Scholar
  13. Binde, P. (2007). Gambling and religion: Histories of concord and conflict. Journal of Gambling Issues, (20), June. http://www.camh.net/egambling/issue20/03binde.htm.
  14. Blocker, J. (1989). American temperance movements: Cycles of reform. Boston: Twain Publishers.Google Scholar
  15. Blumberg, L. U., & Pittman, W. L. (1991). Beware the first drink! The Washington temperance movement and alcoholics anonymous. Seattle: Glen Abbey.Google Scholar
  16. Bronowski, J. (1973). The Ascent of Man. London: British Broadcasting Corporation.Google Scholar
  17. Brown, I. (1991). Gaming, gambling and other addictive play. In J. Kerr & M. Apter (Eds.), Adult play: A reversal theory approach (pp. 101–118). Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  18. Canadian Partnership for Responsible Gambling. (2009). Canadian gambling digest 2007–2008. Downloaded December 30, 2010, from http://www.cprg.ca/digest.cfm.
  19. Carnes, P. (1983). Out of the shadows: Understanding sexual addiction. New York: CompCare.Google Scholar
  20. Cassedy, J. (1976). An early American hangover: The medical profession and temperance 1800–1860. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 50, 405–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Chaucer, G. (1993) The Canterbury Tales. A complete translation into modern english. Translated into English by R.L. Ecker & E.J. Crook. Hodge & Braddock Publishers. Downloaded October 28, 2008, from http://www.ronaldecker.com/ct.htm.
  22. Cohen, S. (1972). Folk devils and moral panics. London: MacGibbon and Kee.Google Scholar
  23. Cohen, S. (2002). Folk devils and moral panics (3rd ed.). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Coren, S., & Ward, L. M. (1989). Sensation and perception (3rd ed.). San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers.Google Scholar
  25. Counter, A., & Davey, B. (2006). What is the Ontario Problem Gambling Helpline (OPGH)? Paper presented at the 2006 conference of the Responsible Gambling Council (Ontario), Toronto. Retrieved July 16, 2008, from http://www.rgco.org/articles/anne_counter_brad_davey_discovery_2006.pdf.
  26. Custer, R., & Milt, H. (1985). When luck runs out. New York: Facts on File.Google Scholar
  27. David, F. N. (1962). Games, gods, and gambling: A history of probability and statistical ideas. New York: Hafner.Google Scholar
  28. Deignan, A. (2005). Metaphors and corpus linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  29. Dement, J. W. (1999). Going for broke: The depiction of compulsive gambling in film. Lanham, MD: The Scarecrow Press.Google Scholar
  30. Dixon, D. (1991). From prohibition to regulation: Bookmaking, anti-gambling and the law. London: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  31. Dorchester, D. (1884). The liquor problem in all ages. New York: Phillips & Hunt.Google Scholar
  32. Dorion, J. P., & Nicki, R. M. (2001). Epidemiology of problem gambling in Prince Edward Island: A Canadian microcosm. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 46, 413–417.Google Scholar
  33. Dostoyevski, F. (1996). The gambler (C. Garnett, Trans.). New York: Dover Publications. (Originally published 1866).Google Scholar
  34. Encyclopedia Britannica. (2011). Temperance movement. Accessed on line June 7, 2011, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/586530/temperance-movement.
  35. Ernkvist, M. (2009). Creating player appeal. Göteborg, Sweden: University of Gothenburg.Google Scholar
  36. Ferentzy, P. (2001). From sin to disease: Differences and similarities between past and current conceptions of chronic drunkenness. Contemporary Drug Problems, 28, 363–390.Google Scholar
  37. Fingarette, H. (1988). Heavy drinking: The myth of alcoholism as a disease. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  38. Flavin, M. (2003). Gambling in the nineteenth-century English novel: A Leprosy is o'er the Land. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press.Google Scholar
  39. Flavin, D., & Morse, R. (1991). What is alcoholism? Current definitions and diagnostic criteria and their implications for treatment. Alcohol Health and Research World, 15, 266–272.Google Scholar
  40. Fraser, J. W. (1985). Pedagogue for God’s kingdom: Lyman Beecher and the second great awakening. London: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  41. Freud, S. (1961). Dostoevsky and parricide (1928). In J. Strachey (Ed. & Trans.), Standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. XXI, pp. 175–196).Google Scholar
  42. Gentner, D. (1983). Structure-mapping: A theoretical framework for analogy. Cognitive Science, 7, 155–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gibbs, R. W. (1980). Spilling the beans on understanding and memory for idioms in conversation. Memory and Cognition, 8, 149–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gibbs, R. W. (1986). Skating on thin ice: Literal meaning and understanding idioms in conversation. Discourse Processes, 9, 17–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Glucksberg, S. (2003). The psycholinguistics of metaphor. Trends in cognitive sciences, 7(2), 92–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Griffiths, M. (1996). Behavioural addiction: An issue for everybody? Employee counselling today: The Journal of Workplace Learning, 8, 19–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Griffiths, M. (2005). A ‘components’ model of addiction within a biopsychosocial framework. Journal of Substance Use, 10, 191–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hargrave, C. P. (1966). A history of playing cards and a bibliography of cards and gaming. New York: Dover.Google Scholar
  49. Harrigan, K. A. (2007). Slot machine structural characteristics: Distorted player views of payback percentages. Journal of Gambling Issues, 20, 215–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Heater, J., & Patton, D. (2006). Gender differences in problem gambling behaviour from help-line callers. Journal of Gambling Issues, 16.Google Scholar
  51. Higgins, P. (2008). Number story: From counting to cryptography. New York: Copernicus.Google Scholar
  52. Jackson, A. C., Thomas, S. A., Holt, T. A., & Thomason, N. (2005). Change and continuity in a help-seeking problem gambling population: A five-year record. Journal of Gambling Issues, 13. Retrieved January 24, 2006, from http://www.camh.net/egambling/issue13/jgi_13_jackson.html.
  53. Jacobs, D. (1986). A general theory of addiction: A new theoretical model”. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 2, 15–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jaffe, A. (1981). Addiction reform in the Progressive Age: Scientific and social responses to drug dependence in the United States. New York: Arno Press.Google Scholar
  55. Jillette, P., & Lynn, M. D. (2005). How to cheat your friends at poker: The wisdom of Dickie Richard. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  56. Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1983). Mental models: Towards a cognitive science of language, inference, and consciousness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1989). Mental models. In M. I. Posner (Ed.), Foundations of cognitive science (pp. 469–499). Cambridge, MA: A Bradford Book.Google Scholar
  58. Jones, M., & Jones, E. (1999). Mass media. London: Macmillan Press.Google Scholar
  59. Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1982). Judgement under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. In D. Kahneman, P. Slovic, & A. Tversky (Eds.), Judgement under uncertainty (pp. 3–22). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Keller, C. R. (1942). The second great awakening in Connecticut. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Keysar, B., & Bly, B. (1995). Intuitions of the transparency of idioms: Can one keep a secret by spilling the beans? Journal of Memory and Language, 34, 89–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Keysar, B., Shen, Y., Glucksberg, S., & Horton, W. (2000). Conventional language: How metaphorical is it? Journal of Memory and Language, 43, 576–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kilby, J., Fox, J., & Lucas, A. F. (2004). Casino operations management (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  64. Krout, J. A. (1925). The origins of prohibition. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  65. Lakoff, G. (1987). Women, fire and dangerous things: What categories reveal about the mind. Chicago: The University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  67. Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1999). Philosophy in the flesh: The embodied mind and its challenge to Western thought. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  68. Levenstein, E. (1878a). Morbid craving for morphia. New York: Arno Press (1981).Google Scholar
  69. Levenstein, E. (1878b). Delirium tremens: A symptom of morbid craving for morphia. Quarterly Journal of Inebriety, 2, 217–220.Google Scholar
  70. Levine, H. (1978). The discovery of addiction: Changing conceptions of habitual drunkenness in America. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 39, 143–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Meyer, R. E. (1994). Toward a comprehensive theory of alcoholism. In T. F. Babor, V. Hesselbrook, R. E. Meyer, & W. Shoemaker (Eds.), Types of alcoholics: Evidence from clinical, experimental, and genetic research (pp. 238–250). New York: New York Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  72. Miller, P. (1939). The New England mind: The seventeenth century. Boston: Beacon.Google Scholar
  73. Miller, W. (1980). The addictive behaviors. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  74. Mlodinow, L. (2008). The Drunkard’s walk: How randomness rules our lives. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  75. Mohseni, R. (Producer & Director). (2002). Iranian lottery [Documentary Film]. Iran: AzersamFilms. http://www.raminmohseni.com/iranian_lottery.htm.
  76. Orff, C. (1994). Carmina Burana [Opera]. Directed by Leonard Slatkin. United States: BMG Music.Google Scholar
  77. Orford, J. (1985). Excessive appetites: A psychological view of the addictions. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  78. Ortony, A., Schallert, D., Reynolds, R., & Antos, S. (1978). Interpreting metaphors and idioms: Some effects of context on comprehension. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 17, 465–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Paivio, A. (1986). Mental representations: A dual coding approach. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  80. Patterson, J. (1990). Blackjack: A winner’s handbook. New York: Perigee Books.Google Scholar
  81. Peele, S. (1989). Diseasing of America: Addiction treatment out of control. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  82. Peele, S. (2000). A prototypical case of alcoholism treatment and coercion: G. Douglas Talbott. In S. Peele, C. Buffe, & A. Brodsky (Eds.), Resisting 12-step coercion: How to fight forced participation in AA, NA, or 12-Step treatment (pp. 143–153). Tucson, AZ: See Sharp Press.Google Scholar
  83. Peele, S. (2003). Is gambling an addiction like drug and alcohol addiction? Developing realistic and useful conceptions of compulsive gambling. In G. Reith (Ed.), Gambling: Who wins? Who loses? (pp. 208–220). Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.Google Scholar
  84. Pegram, T. R. (1998). Battling Demon Rum: The struggle for a Dry America, 1800–1933. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee.Google Scholar
  85. Phillips, B., (2009). A focus on problem gambling: Results of the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Health. Available at http://www.moh.govt.nz.
  86. Reinarman, C. (2005). Addiction as accomplishment: The discursive construction of disease. Addiction Research and Theory, 13, 307–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Reith, G. (1999). The age of chance: Gambling and western culture. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  88. Rorabaugh, J. (1979). The alcoholic republic: An American tradition, 1790–1840. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Rose, I. N. (1991). The rise and fall of the third wave: Gambling will be outlawed in forty years. In W. Eadington & J. Cornelius (Eds.), Gambling and public policy (pp. 65–86). Reno, University of Nevada: Institute for the Study of Gambling & Commercial Gaming.Google Scholar
  90. Schaler, J. (1998). Drugs and free will. In J. A. Schaler (Ed.), Drugs: Should we legalize, decriminalize or deregulate? (pp. 235–248). New York: Prometheus.Google Scholar
  91. Schaler, J. (2000). Addiction is a choice. Chicago: Open Court.Google Scholar
  92. Schmidt, L. A. (1995). A battle not man’s but God’s: Origins of the American temperance crusade in the struggle for religious authority. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 56, 110–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Schwartz, D. (2006). Roll the bones. New York: Gotham Books.Google Scholar
  94. Searle, J. (1979). Metaphor. In A. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and thought (pp. 92–123). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  95. Skolnick, J. H. (2003). Regulating vice: America’s struggle with wicked pleasure. In G. Reith (Ed.), Gambling: Who wins? Who loses? (pp. 311–321). Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.Google Scholar
  96. Steen, G. J. (2007). Finding metaphor in grammar and usage. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  97. Szasz, T. (1973). Mental illness as a metaphor. Nature, 242, 305–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Szasz, T. (1974). Ceremonial chemistry: The ritual persecution of drugs, addicts, and pushers. Garden City: Anchor.Google Scholar
  99. Tchaikovsky, P. I. (1993). Pique Dame: The Queen of Spades. Conducted by V. Gergiev. Russia: Philips.Google Scholar
  100. Thorpe, E. O. (1966). Beat the dealer: A winning strategy for the game of twenty-one (2nd ed.). New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  101. Turner, N. E. (1995). The role of literal meaning in proverb comprehension. Doctoral dissertation, the University of Western Ontario, London in partial completion of a Ph.D. in Cognitive Psychology.Google Scholar
  102. Turner, N. E., & Ferentzy, P. (2010). The natural life history of a lottery: The importance of large wins in the establishment and survival of a lottery. International Gambling Studies, 10(1), 19–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Turner, N. E., Fritz, B., & Zangeneh, M. (2007). Images of gambling in film. Journal of Gambling Issues., 20, 117–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Turner, N. E., & Horbay, R. (2003). Doubling revisited: The mathematical and psychological effect of betting strategy. Gambling Research, 15, 16–34.Google Scholar
  105. Turner, N. E., & Horbay, R. (2004). How do slot machines and other electronic gambling machines actually work? Journal of Gambling Issues, (11), 10–50. http://www.camh.net/egambling/issue11/index.html.Google Scholar
  106. Turner, N. E., & Katz, A. N. (1997). Evidence for the activation of literal and of convention meaning during the comprehension of proverbs. Pragmatics and Cognition, 5, 199–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Turner, N. E., & Katz, A. N. (2003). The availability of conventional and of literal meaning during the comprehension of proverbs. In W. Mieder (Ed.), Cognition, comprehension and communication (pp. 531–554). Baltmannsweiler, Germany: Schneider Verlag Hohengehren GmbH.Google Scholar
  108. Turner, N. E., & Powell, J. (2007). Probability, random events, and the mathematics of gambling. In R. Murray (Ed.), Helping the problem gambler. Toronto, ON: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. Retrieved May 17, 2007, from http://www.problemgambling.ca/.
  109. Tyrrell, I. (1979). Sobering up: From temperance to prohibition in Antebellum America, 1800–1860. Greenwood Press: Westport.Google Scholar
  110. Urbanoski, K., & Rush, B. R. (2006). Characteristics of people seeking treatment for problem gambling in Ontario: Trends from 1998–2002. Journal of Gambling Issues, 16. Available at http://www.camh.net/egambling/issue16/index.html.
  111. Volberg, R. (2003). Has there been a “feminization” of gambling and problem gambling in the United States? Electronic Journal of Gambling Issues, 8. doi:10.4309/jgi.2003.8.7.Google Scholar
  112. Warner, J. (1994). Resolv’d to drink no more: Addiction as a preindustrial construct. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 55, 685–691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Warner, J. (2002). Craze: Gin and debauchery in the age of reason. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  114. Warner, J. (2009). Temperance, alcohol, and the American evangelical: A reassessment. Addiction, 104, 1075–1084.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wikipedia. (2010). A rake’s progress. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rakes_progress.
  116. Winship, M. P. (1996). Seers of God: Puritan providentialism in the restoration and early enlightenment. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  117. Woolf, H. B. (Ed.). (1974). The Merriam-Webster Dictionary. New York: Pocket Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Ferentzy
    • 1
  • Nigel E. Turner
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Addiction and Mental HealthTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Centre for Addiction and Mental HealthTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations