Erectile Dysfunction: Initial Evaluation

  • John P. Mulhall
  • Peter J. Stahl
  • Doron S. Stember


Erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as the consistent inability to obtain and/or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory relations. It is estimated to affect 50 % of men over 40 years of age. This translates into more than 20 million men in the USA and over 100 million men worldwide suffering from this problem. It is associated with significant decrease in self-confidence, self-esteem, and quality of life. In its organic form it is most commonly associated with vascular risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, cigarette smoking, and coronary artery disease. Other conditions associated with the development of ED include radical pelvic surgery or radiation, sleep apnea syndrome, neurological conditions (lumbosacral disk disease, Parkinson’s disease, stroke), medications including some antidepressants and antihypertensives (Table 7.1) and endocrine conditions including hypogonadism, hyperprolactinemia, and thyroid dysfunction.


Erectile Dysfunction Radical Prostatectomy Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Erectile Function Vascular Risk Factor 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • John P. Mulhall
    • 1
  • Peter J. Stahl
    • 2
  • Doron S. Stember
    • 3
  1. 1.Sexual and Reprodictive Medicine Program Department of Surgery Division of Urology, Department of SurgeryMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of UrologyColumbia University College of Physicians & SurgeonsNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of UrologyBeth Israel Medical Center Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva UniversityNew YorkUSA

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