• John P. Mulhall
  • Peter J. Stahl
  • Doron S. Stember


Azoospermia refers to the clinical finding that sperm are not detectable in the ejaculate after centrifugation and microscopic analysis of two semen samples. This condition affects approximately 1 % of the general male population and 15 % of subfertile men. Azoospermia is generally indicative of either complete bilateral obstruction of the male excurrent ductal system (obstructive azoospermia) or severely impaired sperm production (nonobstructive azoospermia). Fertility is only possible in affected men through medical or surgical intervention. The goals of the diagnostic evaluation are to identify underlying etiologies that are of medical or prognostic significance, to identify genetic abnormalities that may affect the patient’s offspring, and to guide the selection of medical or surgical therapy. The differential diagnosis of azoospermia is listed in Table 3.1.


Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Sperm Production Klinefelter Syndrome Ejaculatory Duct Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism 
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Suggested Reading

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  7. Stahl PJ, Schlegel PN. Genetic evaluation of the azoospermic or severely oligozoospermic male. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2012;24(4):221–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • John P. Mulhall
    • 1
  • Peter J. Stahl
    • 2
  • Doron S. Stember
    • 3
  1. 1.Sexual and Reprodictive Medicine Program Department of Surgery Division of Urology, Department of SurgeryMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of UrologyColumbia University College of Physicians & SurgeonsNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of UrologyBeth Israel Medical Center Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva UniversityNew YorkUSA

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