Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Part of the Current Clinical Psychiatry book series (CCPSY)


Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders ­characterized by impairments in social and communication skills as well as restricted interests and stereotyped behavior. Researchers generally agree that individuals with ASD are at high risk for anxiety disorders. However, due to overlapping symptoms between ASD and anxiety disorders, the assessment of anxiety in this population can be challenging. Further, the identification of appropriate and effective psychosocial and pharmacological treatments for children with ASD significantly lags behind these same efforts for typically developing children with anxiety disorders, leaving many questions about how to best address anxiety in this population once it has been diagnosed. This chapter aims to discuss the current knowledge related to the clinical presentation, prevalence, etiology, assessment, and treatment of anxiety in children and adolescents with ASD.


Autism spectrum disorders Anxiety Behavioral assessment Behavioral treatment Cognitive behavioral treatment Pharmacological treatment 


  1. 1.
    Kanner L. Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nerv Child. 1943;2:217–50.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kim JA, Szatmari P, Bryson SE, Streiner DL, Wilson FJ. The prevalence of anxiety and mood problems among children with Autism and Asperger syndrome. Autism. 2000;4:117–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wood JJ, Gadow KD. Exploring the nature and function of anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorders. Clin Psychol Sci Pract. 2010;17(4):281–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    MacNeil BM, Lopes VA, Minnes PM. Anxiety in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2009;3(1):1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition, text revision: DSM-IV-TR. 4th ed. Washington: American Psychiatric Pub; 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Myers SM, Johnson CP. American Academy of pediatrics council on children with disabilities. Management of children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics. 2007;120(5):1162–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Charman T, Pickles A, Simonoff E, Chandler S, Loucas T, Baird G. IQ in children with autism spectrum disorders: data from the Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP). Psychol Med. 2011;41(03):619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Matson JL, Shoemaker M. Intellectual disability and its relationship to autism spectrum disorders. Res Dev Disabil. 2009;30(6):1107–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Volkmar F, Burack J, Cohen D. Deviance and developmental approaches in the study of autism. In: Hodapp R, Burack J, Zigler E, editors. Issues in the developmental approach to mental retardation. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1995. p. 246–71.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Myers SM. The status of pharmacotherapy for autism spectrum disorders. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2007;8(11):1579–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Leyfer OT, Folstein SE, Bacalman S, Davis NO, Dinh E, Morgan J, et al. Comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism: interview development and rates of disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2006;36(7):849–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Simonoff E, Pickles A, Charman T, Chandler S, Loucas T, Baird G. Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008;47(8):921–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network Surveillance Year 2008 Principal Investigators, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders—Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 14 sites, United States, 2008. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2012;61(3):1–19.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fombonne E. Epidemiology of pervasive developmental disorders. Pediatr Res. 2009;65(6):591–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lord C, Petkova E, Hus V, Gan W, Lu F, Martin DM, et al. A multisite study of the clinical diagnosis of different autism spectrum disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012;69(3):306–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lecavalier L, Gadow KD, DeVincent CJ, Edwards MC. Validation of DSM-IV model of psychiatric syndromes in children with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009;39(2):278–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kuusikko S, Pollock-Wurman R, Jussila K, Carter AS, Mattila ML, Ebeling H, et al. Social anxiety in high-functioning children and adolescents with Autism and Asperger syndrome. J Autism Dev Disord. 2008;38(9):1697–709.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Beidel DC, Turner SM, Morris TL. Social phobia and anxiety inventory for children (SPAI-C). North Tonawanda: Multi-Health Systems Inc.; 1998.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sukhodolsky DG, Scahill L, Gadow KD, Arnold LE, Aman MG, McDougle CJ, et al. Parent-rated anxiety symptoms in children with pervasive developmental disorders: frequency and association with core autism symptoms and cognitive functioning. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2008;36(1):117–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Reaven J, Hepburn S. Cognitive-behavioral treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder in a child with Asperger syndrome: a case report. Autism. 2003;7(2):145–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    McDougle CJ, Kresch LE, Goodman WK, Naylor ST, Volkmar FR, Cohen DJ, et al. A case-controlled study of repetitive thoughts and behavior in adults with autistic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1995;152(5):772–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zandt F, Prior M, Kyrios M. Repetitive behaviour in children with high functioning autism and obsessive compulsive disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37(2):251–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    van Steensel FJ, Bogels SM, Perrin S. Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. 2011;14(3):302–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    White SW, Oswald D, Ollendick T, Scahill L. Anxiety in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Clin Psychol Rev. 2009;29(3):216–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    de Bruin EI, Ferdinand RF, Meester S, de Nijs PF, Verheij F. High rates of psychiatric co-morbidity in PDD-NOS. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37(5):877–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mehtar M, Mukaddes NM. Posttraumatic stress disorder in individuals with diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2011;5(1):539–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Costello EJ, Egger HL, Angold A. The developmental epidemiology of anxiety disorders: phenomenology, prevalence, and comorbidity. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005;14(4):631–48, vii.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bradley EA, Summers JA, Wood HL, Bryson SE. Comparing rates of psychiatric and behavior disorders in adolescents and young adults with severe intellectual disability with and without autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2004;34(2):151–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gadow KD, DeVincent CJ, Pomeroy J, Azizian A. Psychiatric symptoms in preschool children with PDD and clinic and comparison samples. J Autism Dev Disord. 2004;34(4):379–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Weisbrot DM, Gadow KD, DeVincent CJ, Pomeroy J. The presentation of anxiety in children with pervasive developmental disorders. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2005;15(3):477–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bellini S. Social skill deficits and anxiety in high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Focus Autism Other Dev Disabil. 2004;19(2):78–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chalfant AM, Rapee R, Carroll L. Treating anxiety disorders in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders: a controlled trial. J Autism Dev Disord. 2007;37(10):1842–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Farrugia S, Hudson J. Anxiety in adolescents with Asperger syndrome: negative thoughts, behavioral problems, and life interference. Focus Autism Other Dev Disabil. 2006;21(1):25–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mazefsky CA, Kao J, Oswald DP. Preliminary evidence suggesting caution in the use of psychiatric self-report measures with adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2011;5(1):164–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Russell E, Sofronoff K. Anxiety and social worries in children with Asperger syndrome. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2005;39(7):633–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gadow KD, Devincent CJ, Pomeroy J, Azizian A. Comparison of DSM-IV symptoms in elementary school-age children with PDD versus clinic and community samples. Autism. 2005;9(4):392–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lecavalier L. Behavioral and emotional problems in young people with pervasive developmental disorders: relative prevalence, effects of subject characteristics, and empirical classification. J Autism Dev Disord. 2006;36(8):1101–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mazurek MO, Kanne SM. Friendship and internalizing symptoms among children and adolescents with ASD. J Autism Dev Disord. 2010;40(12):1512–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    White SW, Albano AM, Johnson CR, Kasari C, Ollendick T, Klin A, et al. Development of a cognitive-behavioral intervention program to treat anxiety and social deficits in teens with high-functioning autism. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. 2010;13(1):77–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Strang JF, Kenworthy L, Daniolos P, Case L, Wills MC, Martin A, et al. Depression and anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders without intellectual disability. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2012;6(1):406–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bradley EA, Ames CS, Bolton PF. Psychiatric conditions and behavioural problems in adolescents with intellectual disabilities: correlates with autism. Can J Psychiatry. 2011;56(2):102–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Davis III TE, Hess JA, Moree BN, Fodstad JC, Dempsey T, Jenkins WS, et al. Anxiety symptoms across the lifespan in people diagnosed with autistic disorder. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2011;5(1):112–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Niditch LA, Varela RE, Kamps JL, Hill T. Exploring the association between cognitive functioning and anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders: the role of social understanding and aggression. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2012;41(2):127–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Evans DW, Canavera K, Kleinpeter FL, Maccubbin E, Taga K. The fears, phobias and anxieties of children with autism spectrum disorders and Down syndrome: comparisons with developmentally and chronologically age matched children. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2005;36(1):3–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Frith U, Happe F. Autism: beyond “theory of mind”. Cognition. 1994;50(1–3):115–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Plaisted K, Swettenham J, Rees L. Children with autism show local precedence in a divided attention task and global precedence in a selective attention task. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1999;40(5):733–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Muris P, Steerneman P, Merckelbach H, Holdrinet I, Meesters C. Comorbid anxiety symptoms in children with pervasive developmental disorders. J Anxiety Disord. 1998;12(4):387–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Happe F. Autism: cognitive deficit or cognitive style? Trends Cogn Sci. 1999;3(6):216–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Shah A, Frith U. Why do autistic individuals show superior performance on the block design task? J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1993;34(8):1351–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lopez B, Leekam SR. Do children with autism fail to process information in context? J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2003;44(2):285–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ozonoff S, Strayer DL, McMahon WM, Filloux F. Executive function abilities in autism and Tourette syndrome: an information processing approach. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1994;35(6):1015–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Birbaumer N, Grodd W, Diedrich O, Klose U, Erb M, Lotze M, et al. fMRI reveals amygdala activation to human faces in social phobics. Neuroreport. 1998;9(6):1223–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Blair KS, Geraci M, Smith BW, Hollon N, Devido J, Otero M, et al. Reduced dorsal anterior cingulate cortical activity during emotional regulation and top-down attentional control in generalized social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, and comorbid generalized social phobia/generalized anxiety disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2012;72(6):476–82.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rauch SL, Shin LM, Wright CI. Neuroimaging studies of amygdala function in anxiety disorders. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;985:389–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Guyer AE, Lau JY, McClure-Tone EB, Parrish J, Shiffrin ND, Reynolds RC, et al. Amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex function during anticipated peer evaluation in pediatric social anxiety. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008;65(11):1303–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    McClure EB, Adler A, Monk CS, Cameron J, Smith S, Nelson EE, et al. fMRI predictors of treatment outcome in pediatric anxiety disorders. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007;191(1):97–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Monk CS, Telzer EH, Mogg K, Bradley BP, Mai X, Louro HM, et al. Amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation to masked angry faces in children and adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008;65(5):568–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Pine DS, Guyer AE, Leibenluft E. Functional magnetic resonance imaging and pediatric anxiety. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008;47(11):1217–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Etkin A. Functional neuroanatomy of anxiety: a neural circuit perspective. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2010;2:251–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Etkin A, Egner T, Kalisch R. Emotional processing in anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex. Trends Cogn Sci. 2011;15(2):85–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hahn A, Stein P, Windischberger C, Weissenbacher A, Spindelegger C, Moser E, et al. Reduced resting-state functional connectivity between amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in social anxiety disorder. Neuroimage. 2011;56(3):881–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kim MJ, Loucks RA, Palmer AL, Brown AC, Solomon KM, Marchante AN, et al. The structural and functional connectivity of the amygdala: from normal emotion to pathological anxiety. Behav Brain Res. 2011;223(2):403–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Dalton KM, Nacewicz BM, Johnstone T, Schaefer HS, Gernsbacher MA, Goldsmith HH, et al. Gaze fixation and the neural circuitry of face processing in autism. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8(4):519–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Baron-Cohen S, Ring HA, Bullmore ET, Wheelwright S, Ashwin C, Williams SC. The amygdala theory of autism. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2000;24(3):355–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Adolphs R, Spezio M. Role of the amygdala in processing visual social stimuli. Prog Brain Res. 2006;156:363–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Phelps EA. Human emotion and memory: interactions of the amygdala and hippocampal complex. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2004;14(2):198–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bauman M, Kemper TL. Histoanatomic observations of the brain in early infantile autism. Neurology. 1985;35(6):866–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Bauman M, Kemper TL. Neuroanatomic observations of the brain in autism. In: Bauman M, Kemper TL, editors. The neurobiology of autism. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP; 1994. p. 119–45.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Schumann CM, Amaral DG. Stereological analysis of amygdala neuron number in autism. J Neurosci. 2006;26(29):7674–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Howard MA, Cowell PE, Boucher J, Broks P, Mayes A, Farrant A, et al. Convergent neuroanatomical and behavioural evidence of an amygdala hypothesis of autism. Neuroreport. 2000;11(13):2931–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Mosconi MW, Cody-Hazlett H, Poe MD, Gerig G, Gimpel-Smith R, Piven J. Longitudinal study of amygdala volume and joint attention in 2- to 4-year-old children with autism. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66(5):509–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Schumann CM, Hamstra J, Goodlin-Jones BL, Lotspeich LJ, Kwon H, Buonocore MH, et al. The amygdala is enlarged in children but not adolescents with autism; the hippocampus is enlarged at all ages. J Neurosci. 2004;24(28):6392–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Schumann CM, Barnes CC, Lord C, Courchesne E. Amygdala enlargement in toddlers with autism related to severity of social and communication impairments. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;66(10):942–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sparks BF, Friedman SD, Shaw DW, Aylward EH, Echelard D, Artru AA, et al. Brain structural abnormalities in young children with autism spectrum disorder. Neurology. 2002;59(2):184–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Aylward EH, Minshew NJ, Goldstein G, Honeycutt NA, Augustine AM, Yates KO, et al. MRI volumes of amygdala and hippocampus in non-mentally retarded autistic adolescents and adults. Neurology. 1999;53(9):2145–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Nacewicz BM, Dalton KM, Johnstone T, Long MT, McAuliff EM, Oakes TR, et al. Amygdala volume and nonverbal social impairment in adolescent and adult males with autism. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63(12):1417–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Pierce K, Muller RA, Ambrose J, Allen G, Courchesne E. Face processing occurs outside the fusiform ‘‘face area’ in autism: evidence from functional MRI. Brain. 2001;124(Pt 10):2059–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Haznedar MM, Buchsbaum MS, Wei TC, Hof PR, Cartwright C, Bienstock CA, et al. Limbic circuitry in patients with autism spectrum disorders studied with positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157(12):1994–2001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Palmen SJ, Durston S, Nederveen H, Van Engeland H. No evidence for preferential involvement of medial temporal lobe structures in high-functioning autism. Psychol Med. 2006;36(6):827–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kleinhans NM, Johnson LC, Richards T, Mahurin R, Greenson J, Dawson G, et al. Reduced neural habituation in the amygdala and social impairments in autism spectrum disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2009;166(4):467–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Critchley HD, Daly EM, Bullmore ET, Williams SC, Van Amelsvoort T, Robertson DM, et al. The functional neuroanatomy of social behaviour: changes in cerebral blood flow when people with autistic disorder process facial expressions. Brain. 2000;123(Pt 11):2203–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Pierce K, Haist F, Sedaghat F, Courchesne E. The brain response to personally familiar faces in autism: findings of fusiform activity and beyond. Brain. 2004;127(Pt 12):2703–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Piggot J, Kwon H, Mobbs D, Blasey C, Lotspeich L, Menon V, et al. Emotional attribution in high-functioning individuals with autistic spectrum disorder: a functional imaging study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004;43(4):473–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hall GB, Doyle KA, Goldberg J, West D, Szatmari P. Amygdala engagement in response to subthreshold presentations of anxious face stimuli in adults with autism spectrum disorders: preliminary insights. PLoS One. 2010;5(5):e10804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Juranek J, Filipek PA, Berenji GR, Modahl C, Osann K, Spence MA. Association between amygdala volume and anxiety level: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in autistic children. J Child Neurol. 2006;21(12):1051–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kleinhans NM, Richards T, Weaver K, Johnson LC, Greenson J, Dawson G, et al. Association between amygdala response to emotional faces and social anxiety in autism spectrum disorders. Neuropsychologia. 2010;48(12):3665–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Nes RB, Roysamb E, Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Harris JR, Tambs K. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in young adults: genetic and environmental influences on stability and change. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2007;10(3):450–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Tambs K. Transmission of symptoms of anxiety and depression in nuclear families. J Affect Disord. 1991;21(2):117–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bolton PF, Pickles A, Murphy M, Rutter M. Autism, affective and other psychiatric disorders: patterns of familial aggregation. Psychol Med. 1998;28(2):385–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Piven J, Chase GA, Landa R, Wzorek M, Gayle J, Cloud D, et al. Psychiatric disorders in the parents of autistic individuals. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1991;30(3):471–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Piven J, Palmer P. Psychiatric disorder and the broad autism phenotype: evidence from a family study of multiple-incidence autism families. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156(4):557–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Mazefsky CA, Folstein SE, Lainhart JE. Overrepresentation of mood and anxiety disorders in adults with autism and their first-degree relatives: what does it mean? Autism Res. 2008;1(3):193–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    DeLong R. Autism and familial major mood disorder: are they related? J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2004;16(2):199–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Cohen IL, Tsiouris JA. Maternal recurrent mood disorders and high-functioning autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2006;36(8):1077–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Cohen IL, Liu X, Lewis ME, Chudley A, Forster-Gibson C, Gonzalez M, et al. Autism severity is associated with child and maternal MAOA genotypes. Clin Genet. 2011;79(4):355–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Adreon D, Stella J. Transition to middle and high school: increasing the success of students with Asperger ­syndrome. Interv Sch Clin. 2001;36(5):266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Bellini S. The development of social anxiety in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Focus Autism Other Dev Disabil. 2006;21(3):138–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Cappadocia MC, Weiss JA, Pepler D. Bullying experiences among children and youth with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2012;42(2):266–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Tantam D. Psychological disorder in adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome. Autism. 2000;4:47–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Davis TE, Ollendick TH. Empirically supported treatments for specific phobia in children: do efficacious treatments address the components of a phobic response? Clin Psychol Sci Pract. 2005;12(2):144–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    King NJ, Ollendick TH, Murphy GC. Assessment of childhood phobias. Clin Psychol Rev. 1997;17(7):667–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Velting ON, Setzer NJ, Albano AM. Update on and advances in assessment and cognitive-behavioral treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Prof Psychol Res Pract. 2004;35(1):42–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ollendick TH, Oswald DP, Ollendick DG. Anxiety disorders in mentally retarded persons. In: Matson JL, Barrett RP, editors. Psychopathology in the mentally retarded. 2nd ed. Needham Heights: Allyyn & Bacon; 1993. p. 41–85.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Reiss S, Levitan GW, Szyszko J. Emotional disturbance and mental retardation: diagnostic overshadowing. Am Ment Defic. 1982;86(6):567–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Frick PJ, Silverthorn P, Evans C. Assessment of childhood anxiety using structured interviews: patterns of agreement among informants and association with maternal anxiety. Psychol Assess. 1994;6(4):372–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Gerull FC, Rapee RM. Mother knows best: effects of maternal modelling on the acquisition of fear and avoidance behaviour in toddlers. Behav Res Ther. 2002;40(3):279–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Murray L, de Rosnay M, Pearson J, Bergeron C, Schofield E, Royal-Lawson M, et al. Intergenerational transmission of social anxiety: the role of social referencing processes in infancy. Child Dev. 2008;79(4):1049–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Baldwin JS, Dadds MR. Reliability and validity of parent and child versions of the multidimensional anxiety scale for children in community samples. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007;46(2):252–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Birmaher B, Khetarpal S, Brent D, Cully M, Balach L, Kaufman J, et al. The screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED): scale construction and psychometric characteristics. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997;36(4):545–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    White SW, Roberson-Nay R. Anxiety, social deficits, and loneliness in youth with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009;39(7):1006–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kanne SM, Abbacchi AM, Constantino JN. Multi-informant ratings of psychiatric symptom severity in children with autism spectrum disorders: the importance of environmental context. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009;39(6):856–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Iwata BA, Pace GM, Dorsey MF, Zarcone JR, Vollmer TR, Smith RG, et al. The functions of self-injurious behavior: an experimental-epidemiological analysis. J Appl Behav Anal. 1994;27(2):215–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Meyer EA, Hagopian LP, Paclawskyj TR. A function-based treatment for school refusal behavior using shaping and fading. Res Dev Disabil. 1999;20(6):401–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ambrosini PJ. Historical development and present status of the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children (K-SADS). J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2000;39(1):49–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Matson J, Wilkins J. Reliability of the autism spectrum disorders-comorbid for children (ASD-CC). J Dev Phys Disabil. 2008;20(4):327–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Matson JL, Wilkins J, Sevin JA, Knight C, Boisjoli JA, Sharp B. Reliability and item content of the Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits (BISCUIT): parts 1–3. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2009;3(2):336–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Matson JL, LoVullo SV, Rivet TT, Boisjoli JA. Validity of the autism spectrum disorder-comorbid for children (ASD-CC). Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2009;3(2):345–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Silverman W, Albano A. Anxiety disorders interview schedule for children for DSM-IV (child and parent ­versions). San Antonio: Psychological Corporation/Graywind; 1996.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Silverman WK, Saavedra LM, Pina AA. Test-retest reliability of anxiety symptoms and diagnoses with the anxiety disorders interview schedule for DSM-IV: child and parent versions. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001;40(8):937–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Wood JJ, Piacentini JC, Bergman RL, McCracken J, Barrios V. Concurrent validity of the anxiety disorders section of the anxiety disorders interview schedule for DSM-IV: child and parent versions. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2002;31(3):335–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    March JS. Multidimensional anxiety scale for children (MASC). Toronto: Multi-Health Systems; 1997.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Reynolds CR, Richmond BO. Revised children’s manifest anxiety scale: RCMAS manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services; 1985.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Spence SH. Structure of anxiety symptoms among children: a confirmatory factor-analytic study. J Abnorm Psychol. 1997;106(2):280–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Birmaher B, Brent DA, Chiappetta L, Bridge J, Monga S, Baugher M. Psychometric properties of the screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED): a replication study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1999;38(10):1230–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Silverman WK, Ollendick TH. Evidence-based assessment of anxiety and its disorders in children and adolescents. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2005;34(3):380–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Hagopian LP, Crockett JL, Keeney KM. Multicomponent treatment for blood-injury-injection phobia in a young man with mental retardation. Res Dev Disabil. 2001;22(2):141–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Ricciardi JN, Luiselli JK, Camare M. Shaping approach responses as intervention for specific phobia in a child with autism. J Appl Behav Anal. 2006;39(4):445–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Conyers C, Miltenberger RG, Peterson B, Gubin A, Jurgens M, Selders A, et al. An evaluation of in vivo desensitization and video modeling to increase compliance with dental procedures in persons with mental retardation. J Appl Behav Anal. 2004;37(2):233–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Rapp JT, Vollmer TR, Hovanetz AN. Evaluation and treatment of swimming pool avoidance exhibited by an adolescent girl with autism. Behav Ther. 2005;36(1):101–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Shabani DB, Fisher WW. Stimulus fading and differential reinforcement for the treatment of needle phobia in a youth with autism. J Appl Behav Anal. 2006;39(4):449–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Chorpita BF, Albano AM, Heimberg RG, Barlow DH. A systematic replication of the prescriptive treatment of school refusal behavior in a single subject. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 1996;27(3):281–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Hagopian LP, Slifer KJ. Treatment of separation anxiety disorder with graduated exposure and reinforcement targeting school attendance: a controlled case study. J Anxiety Disord. 1993;7(3):271–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Hagopian LP, Weist MD, Ollendick TH. Cognitive-behavior therapy with an 11-year-old girl fearful of AIDS infection, other diseases, and poisoning: a case study. J Anxiety Disord. 1990;4(3):257–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Dadds M, Rapee R, Barrett P. Behavioral observation. In: Ollendick T, King N, Yule W, editors. International handbook of phobic and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. New York: Plenum; 1994. p. 349–64.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Erfanian N, Miltenberger RG. Brief report: contact desensitization in the treatment of dog phobias in persons who have mental retardation. Behav Interv. 1990;5(1):55–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Matson JL. Assessment and treatment of clinical fears in mentally retarded children. J Appl Behav Anal. 1981;14(3):287–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Silverman W, Lopez B. Anxiety disorders. In: Hersen M, editor. Psychological assessment in clinical practice: a pragmatic guide. New York: Psychology Press; 2004. p. 269–96.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Chok JT, Demanche J, Kennedy A, Studer L. Utilizing physiological measures to facilitate phobia treatment with individuals with autism and intellectual disability: a case study. Behav Interv. 2010;25(4):325–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Jennett H, Hagopian LP, Beaulieu L. Analysis of heart rate and self-injury with and without restraint in an individual with autism. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2011;5(3):1110–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Turpin G. The psychophysiological assessment of anxiety disorders: three-systems measurement and beyond. Psychol Assess. 1991;3(3):366–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Jennett HK, Hagopian LP. Identifying empirically supported treatments for phobic avoidance in individuals with intellectual disabilities. Behav Ther. 2008;39(2):151–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Love SR, Matson JL, West D. Mothers as effective therapists for autistic children’s phobias. J Appl Behav Anal. 1990;23(3):379–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Ollendick TH, King NJ. Empirically supported treatments for children with phobic and anxiety disorders: current status. J Clin Child Psychol. 1998;27(2):156–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Hagopian LP, Long ES, Rush KS. Preference assessment procedures for individuals with developmental disabilities. Behav Modif. 2004;28(5):668–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Runyan MC, Stevens DH, Reeves R. Reduction of avoidance behavior of institutionalized mentally retarded adults through contact desensitization. Am J Ment Defic. 1985;90(2):222–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    MacDuff GS, Krantz PJ, McClannahan LE. Prompts and prompt-fading strategies for people with autism. In: Maurice C, Foxx RM, editors. Making a difference: behavioral intervention for autism. Austin: Pro-ed; 2001. p. 37–50.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Luscre DM, Center DB. Procedures for reducing dental fear in children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 1996;26(5):547–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Lang R, Regester A, Lauderdale S, Ashbaugh K, Haring A. Treatment of anxiety in autism spectrum disorders using cognitive behaviour therapy: a systematic review. Dev Neurorehabil. 2010;13(1):53–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Wood JJ, Drahota A, Sze K, Har K, Chiu A, Langer DA. Cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders: a randomized, controlled trial. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2009;50(3):224–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Barrett PM, Farrell L, Pina AA, Peris TS, Piacentini J. Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2008;37(1):131–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Silverman WK, Pina AA, Viswesvaran C. Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for phobic and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2008;37(1):105–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Lehmkuhl HD, Storch EA, Bodfish JW, Geffken GR. Brief report: exposure and response prevention for obsessive compulsive disorder in a 12-year-old with autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2008;38(5):977–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Reaven JA, Blakeley-Smith A, Nichols S, Dasari M, Flanigan E, Hepburn S. Cognitive-behavioral group treatment for anxiety symptoms in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Focus Autism Other Dev Disabil. 2009;24(1):27–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Schleismann KD, Gillis JM. The treatment of social phobia in a young boy with Asperger’s disorder. Cogn Behav Pract. 2011;18(4):515–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Sofronoff K, Attwood T, Hinton S. A randomised controlled trial of a CBT intervention for anxiety in children with Asperger syndrome. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2005;46(11):1152–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Sze KM, Wood JJ. Cognitive behavioral treatment of comorbid anxiety disorders and social difficulties in children with high-functioning autism: a case report. J Contemp Psychother. 2007;37(3):133–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Sze KM, Wood JJ. Enhancing CBT for the treatment of autism spectrum disorders and concurrent anxiety. Behav Cogn Psychother. 2008;36(4):403–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    White SW, Ollendick T, Scahill L, Oswald D, Albano AM. Preliminary efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral treatment program for anxious youth with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009;39:1652–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Wood JJ, McLeod BD. Child anxiety disorders: a treatment manual for practitioners. New York: W.W. Norton; 2008.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Kendall PC. Coping cat workbook. Ardmore: Workbook Publishing; 1992.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    March JS, Mulle K. OCD in children and adolescents: a cognitive behavioral treatment manual. New York: Guilford; 1998.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Lyneham HJ, Abbott MJ, Wignall A, Rapee RM. The Cool Kids family program—therapist manual. Sydney: Macquarie University; 2003.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Kuusikko S, Haapsamo H, Jansson-Verkasalo E, Hurtig T, Mattila ML, Ebeling H, et al. Emotion recognition in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009;39(6):938–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Bal E, Harden E, Lamb D, Van Hecke AV, Denver JW, Porges SW. Emotion recognition in children with autism spectrum disorders: relations to eye gaze and autonomic state. J Autism Dev Disord. 2010;40(3):358–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Wong N, Beidel DC, Sarver DE, Sims V. Facial emotion recognition in children with high functioning autism and children with social phobia. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2012;43:775–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Reaven JA. Children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders and co-occurring anxiety symptoms: implications for assessment and treatment. J Spec Pediatr Nurs. 2009;14(3):192–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Mandell DS, Morales KH, Marcus SC, Stahmer AC, Doshi J, Polsky DE. Psychotropic medication use among Medicaid-enrolled children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics. 2008;121(3):e441–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Oswald DP, Sonenklar NA. Medication use among children with autism spectrum disorders. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2007;17(3):348–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Chugani DC. Serotonin in autism and pediatric epilepsies. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2004;10(2):112–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Pediatric OCD Treatment Study (POTS) Team. Cognitive-behavior therapy, sertraline, and their combination for children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: the Pediatric OCD Treatment Study (POTS) randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004;292(16):1969–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Walkup JT, Albano AM, Piacentini J, Birmaher B, Compton SN, Sherrill JT, et al. Cognitive behavioral therapy, sertraline, or a combination in childhood anxiety. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(26):2753–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Lecavalier L, Gadow KD, DeVincent CJ, Houts C, Edwards MC. Deconstructing the PDD clinical phenotype: internal validity of the DSM-IV. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2009;50(10):1246–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    King BH, Hollander E, Sikich L, McCracken JT, Scahill L, Bregman JD, et al. Lack of efficacy of citalopram in children with autism spectrum disorders and high levels of repetitive behavior: citalopram ineffective in children with autism. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66(6):583–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Wagner KD, Robb AS, Findling RL, Jin J, Gutierrez MM, Heydorn WE. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of citalopram for the treatment of major depression in children and adolescents. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161(6):1079–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Hollander E, Phillips A, Chaplin W, Zagursky K, Novotny S, Wasserman S, et al. A placebo controlled crossover trial of liquid fluoxetine on repetitive behaviors in childhood and adolescent autism. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005;30(3):582–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Emslie GJ, Rush AJ, Weinberg WA, Kowatch RA, Hughes CW, Carmody T, et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine in children and adolescents with depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1997;54(11):1031–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Emslie GJ. Are adults just big children? Am J Psychiatry. 2012;169(3):248–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Ozbayrak KR. Sertraline in PDD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997;36(1):7–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Steingard RJ, Zimnitzky B, DeMaso DR, Bauman ML, Bucci JP. Sertraline treatment of transition-associated anxiety and agitation in children with autistic disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 1997;7(1):9–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Bhardwaj A, Agarwal V, Sitholey P. Asperger’s disorder with co-morbid separation anxiety disorder: a case report. J Autism Dev Disord. 2005;35(1):135–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    McDougle CJ, Naylor ST, Cohen DJ, Volkmar FR, Heninger GR, Price LH. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of fluvoxamine in adults with autistic disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1996;53(11):1001–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    McDougle CJ, Kresch LE, Posey DJ. Repetitive thoughts and behavior in pervasive developmental disorders: treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors. J Autism Dev Disord. 2000;30(5):427–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Martin A, Koenig K, Anderson GM, Scahill L. Low-dose fluvoxamine treatment of children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorders: a prospective, open-label study. J Autism Dev Disord. 2003;33(1):77–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Hollander E, Soorya L, Chaplin W, Anagnostou E, Taylor BP, Ferretti CJ, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine for repetitive behaviors and global severity in adult autism spectrum disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2012;169(3):292–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Owley T, Walton L, Salt J, Guter Jr SJ, Winnega M, Leventhal BL, et al. An open-label trial of escitalopram in pervasive developmental disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005;44(4):343–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    McCracken JT, McGough J, Shah B, Cronin P, Hong D, Aman MG, et al. Risperidone in children with autism and serious behavioral problems. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(5):314–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Marcus RN, Owen R, Kamen L, Manos G, McQuade RD, Carson WH, et al. A placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study of aripiprazole in children and adolescents with irritability associated with autistic disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009;48(11):1110–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Owen R, Sikich L, Marcus RN, Corey-Lisle P, Manos G, McQuade RD, et al. Aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder. Pediatrics. 2009;124(6):1533–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Buitelaar JK, van der Gaag RJ, van der Hoeven J. Buspirone in the management of anxiety and irritability in children with pervasive developmental disorders: results of an open-label study. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998;59(2):56–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Gordon CT, State RC, Nelson JE, Hamburger SD, Rapoport JL. A double-blind comparison of clomipramine, desipramine, and placebo in the treatment of autistic disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993;50(6):441–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Remington G, Sloman L, Konstantareas M, Parker K, Gow R. Clomipramine versus haloperidol in the treatment of autistic disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2001;21(4):440–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Hollander E, Soorya L, Wasserman S, Esposito K, Chaplin W, Anagnostou E. Divalproex sodium vs. placebo in the treatment of repetitive behaviours in autism spectrum disorder. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2006;9(2):209–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Hollander E, Kaplan A, Cartwright C, Reichman D. Venlafaxine in children, adolescents, and young adults with autism spectrum disorders: an open retrospective clinical report. J Child Neurol. 2000;15(2):132–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Posey DJ, Guenin KD, Kohn AE, Swiezy NB, McDougle CJ. A naturalistic open-label study of mirtazapine in autistic and other pervasive developmental disorders. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2001;11(3):267–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heather Jennett
    • 1
  • Roma A. Vasa
    • 2
  • Louis Hagopian
    • 3
  1. 1.Director of Clinical ServicesLittle Leaves Behavioral ServicesWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.Division of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryEducation and Training, Kennedy Krieger InstituteBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Neurobehavioral Unit, Department of Behavioral PsychologyKennedy Krieger InstituteBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations