Party Development in the Old World: And in the New

Chapter

Abstract

This chapter discusses how well our understanding of political parties, based on the knowledge and models of political parties in established democracies, can help us to understand political parties in new democracies. Armed with concepts and models from the party literature, party scholars have tried to make sense of the vastly expanded universe of parties in the wake of the third wave of democratization. Are parties and party systems in newer democracies very different from parties in established democracies? And if so, are there commonalities between parties in newer democracies? This chapter revisits the debate on parties and democracy while discussing three related topics (typologies, functions, and contrasts of parties between old and new democracies) within the study of political parties to discuss the extent to which our understanding of political parties in established democracies is adequate when applied to new democracies.

Keywords

parties democratization democracy 

References

  1. Aldrich, J. H. (1995). Why parties: The origin and transformation of party politics in America. London: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvarez, R. M., Hall, T. E., & Hyde, S. D. (Eds.) (2008). Election fraud. Detecting and deterring electoral manipulation. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  3. Ames, B., & Power, T. J. (2010). Parties and governability in Brazil. In P. Webb & S. White (Eds.), Party politics in new democracies (pp. 179–212). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Askvik, S., Jamil, I., & Dhakal, T. N. (2011). Citizens’ trust in public and political institutions in Nepal. International Political Science Review, 32(4), 396–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bardi, L., Bressanelli, E., Calossi, E., Gagatek, W., Mair, P., & Pizzimenti, E. (2010). How to create a transnational party system. Bruxelles: European Parliament. Directorate-General for Internal Policies. Policy Department C: Citizens' rights and constitutional affairs.Google Scholar
  6. Bertoa, F. C., & Mair, P. (2010). Two decades on: How institutionalized are the post-Communist party systems?. Florence: EUI. Department of political and social sciences.Google Scholar
  7. Birch, S. (2011). Electoral malpractice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bogaards, M., Basedau, M., & Hartmann, C. (2010). Ethnic party bans in Africa. Democratization, 17(4), 599–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bowler, S. (2002). Parties in legislature: Two competing explanations. In R. J. Dalton & M. P. Wattenberg (Eds.), Political parties without partisans. Political change in advanced industrial democracies (pp. 157–179). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Broder, D. S. (1972). The party’s over. The failure of politics in America. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  11. Budge, I., Klingemann, H. D., Volkens, A., Bara, J., & Tannenbaum, E. (Eds.). (2001). Mapping policy preferences. Estimates for parties, electors, and governments 1945–1998. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Carbone, G. (2003). Political parties in a no-party democracy: Hegemony and opposition under movement democracy in Uganda. Party Politics, 9(4), 485–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carothers, T. (2002). The end of the transition paradigm. Journal of Democracy, 13(1), 5–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carothers, T. (2006). Confronting the weakest link. Aiding political parties in new democracies. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.Google Scholar
  15. Case, W. (2006). Manipulative skills: How do rulers control the electoral arena? In A. Schedler (Ed.), Electoral authoritarianism (pp. 95–112). Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  16. Colomer, J. M., & Escatel, L. E. (2005). The left-right dimension in Latin America. UPF Economics and Business Working Paper No. 813.Google Scholar
  17. Commission Electoral Nationale Indépendante. (2011). http://www.ceni.gouv.cd/partipolitique.aspx?id_parti=498. Accessed on December 9, 2011.
  18. Crotty, W. J., & Jacobson, G. C. (1980). American Parties in Decline. Boston, Ma.: Little, Brown and Co.Google Scholar
  19. Daalder, H. (2002). Parties: Denied, dismissed, or redundant? A critique. In R. Gunther, J. R. Montero & J. J. Linz (Eds.), Political parties. Old concepts and new challenges (pp. 39–57). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Dalton, R. J., & Wattenberg, M. P. (2002). Unthinkable democracy. Political change in advanced industrial democracies. In R. Dalton & M. Wattenberg (Eds.), Parties without partisans. Political change in advanced industrial democracies (pp. 3–18). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Dalton, R. J., & Weldon, S. A. (2005). Public images of political parties. A necessary evil? West European Politics, 28(5), 931–951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dalton, R. J., Cain, B. E., & Scarrow, S. E. (2006). Democratic politics and democratic institutions. In B. E. Cain, R. J. Dalton, & S. E. Scarrow (Eds.), Democracy transformed? Expanding political opportunities in advanced industrial democracies (pp. 250–275). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Dalton, R. J., McAllister, I., & Wattenberg, M. (2009). Political parties and their publics. In K. R. Luther & F. Muller-Rommel (Eds.), Political parties in the new Europe. Political and analytical challenges (pp. 19–42). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Declair, E. G. (1999). Politics on the fringe: The people, policies and organization of the French National Front. London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Diamond, L. (2000). Developing democracy in Africa: African and international imperatives. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 14(1), 191–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Diamond, L. (2008). The democratic rollback. Foreign Affairs, 87(2), 36–48.Google Scholar
  27. Dressel, B. (2011). The Philippines: how much real democracy? International Political Science Review, 32(5), 529–546.Google Scholar
  28. Duverger, M. (1967). Political parties. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  29. Everett Carll Ladd, J. (1978). Where have all the voters gone?. The fracturing of America’s political parties. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  30. Ferrara, F. (2011). Thailand: Minimally stable, minimally democratic. International Political Science Review, 32(5), 512–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Freidenberg, F., & Levitsky, S. (2006). Informal institutions and party organizations in Latin America. In G. Helmke & S. Levitsky (Eds.), Informal institutions and democracy. Lessons from Latin America (pp. 178–200). London: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Gunther, R., & Diamond, L. (2001). Types and functions of parties. In L. Diamond & R. Gunther (Eds.), Political parties and democracy (pp. 3–39). London: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Hale, H. E. (2007). Why no parties in Russia? Democracy, federalism, and the state. Cambridge: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  34. Harmel, R., & Janda, K. (1994). An integrated theory of party goals and party change. Journal of Theoretical Politics, 6(3), 259–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Harmel, R., & Svåsand, L. (1993). Party leadership and party institutionalization: Three phases of development. West European Politics, 16(2), 69–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hlousek, V., & Kopecek, L. (2010). Origin, ideology and transformation of political parties. East-Central and Western Europe compared. Fornham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  37. Huntington, S. P. (1991). The third wave. Democratization in the late twentieth century. London: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
  38. Kasfir, N. (1999). “No-party democracy” in Uganda. In L. Diamond & M. F. Platter (Eds.), Democratization in Africa (pp. 201–215). London: Johns Hopkins Press.Google Scholar
  39. Katz, R., & Mair, P. (1995). Changing models of party organization and party democracy: The emergence of the cartel party. Party Politics, 1(1), 5–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Key, V. O. (1964). Politics, parties and pressure groups. New York: Crowell.Google Scholar
  41. Kiiza, J., Makara, S., & Rakner, L. (Eds.) (2008). Electoral democracy in Uganda. Understanding the institutional processes and outcomes of the 2006 multiparty elections. Kampala: Fountain Publishers.Google Scholar
  42. King, A. (1969). Political parties in western democracies: Some sceptical reflections. Polity, 2(2), 111–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kirchheimer, O. (1966). The transformation of the Western European party systems. In J. LaPalombara & M. Weiner (Eds.), Political parties and political development (pp. 177–200). Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Kitschelt, H., & Wilkinson, S. I. (2007). Citizen-politician linkages: An introduction. In H. Kitschelt & S. I. Wilkinson (Eds.), Patrons, client and policies. Patterns of democratic accountability and political competition (pp. 1–49). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kitschelt, H., Hawkins, K. A., Luna, J. P., Rosas, G., & Zechmeister, E. J. (2010). Latin American party systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Klingemann, H. D., Hofferbert, R. I., & Budge, I. (Eds.). (1994). Parties, policies, and democracy. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  47. Latinobarometro. (2011). 2011 Report. Santiago: Corporacion Latinobarometro.Google Scholar
  48. Lewis, P. G. (2000). Political parties in post-communist Eastern Europe. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  49. Lipset, S. M. (2000). The indispensability of political parties. Journal of Democracy, 11(1), 48–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Logan, C. (2008). Rejecting the disloyal opposition? The trust gap in mass attitude toward ruling and opposition parties in Africa: Afrobarometer Working Papers 94, http://www.afrobarometer.org/abseries.html.
  51. Magolowondo, A., & Svåsand, L. (2009). One man ownership: Political parties and their struggle for democratic standards. In M. Ott & F. E. Kanyongolo (Eds.), Democracy in progress. Malawi’s 2009 parliamentary and presidential elections (pp. 265–294). Blantyre: Kachere Books.Google Scholar
  52. Mair, P. (1996). Party systems and structures of competition. In L. LeDuc, et al. (Eds.), Comparing democracies. Elections and voting in global perspective (pp. 83–106). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  53. Mair, P., & Mudde, C. (1998). The party family and its study. Annual Review of Political Science, 1(1), 211–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Makara, S., Rakner, L., & Svåsand, L. (2009). Turnaround: The national resistance movement and the reintroduction of a multiparty system in Uganda. International Political Science Review, 30(2), 185–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Masket, S. E. (2009). No middle ground: How informal party organizations control nominations and polarize legislatures. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  56. Mpesi, A. (2011). Political parties and their manifestos: Inferring party policy positions in Malawi since 1994. Forum for Development Studies, 38(1), 25–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Müller, W. C., & Strøm, K. (Eds.). (1999). Policy, office, or votes? How political parties in Western Europe make hard decisions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Orre, A. J. (2010). Entrenching the party-state in the multiparty era. Opposition parties, traditional authorities and new councils of local representation in Angola and Mozambique. Bergen: University of Bergen.Google Scholar
  59. Panebianco, A. (1988). Political parties: Organization and power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Peeler, J. (1998). Building democracy in Latin America. London: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  61. Poguntke, T., & Webb, P. (Eds.) (2006). The presidentialization of politics. A comparative study of modern democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Pop-Eleches, G. (2010). Throwing out the bums. Protest voting and unorthodox parties after Communism. World Politics, 62(2), 221–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pridham, G. (2006). Assessing democratic consolidation in Central & Eastern Europe: The European dimension. Acta Politica, 41(4), 342–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rakner, L. (2003). Political and economic liberalization in Zambia 1991–2001. Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute.Google Scholar
  65. Rakner, L., & Skage, I. A. (2011). The Legacy of Africa’s pro-democracy movements. Jinja, Uganda.Google Scholar
  66. Rakner, L., & Svåsand, L. (2010). In search of the impact of international party assistance: Malawi and Zambia compared. Democratization, 17(6), 1250–1274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Randall, V., & Svåsand, L. (2002). Party institutionalization in new democracies. Party Politics, 8(1), 5–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Reiter, H. L. (1989). Party decline in the West. A skeptic’s view. Journal of Theoretical Politics, 1(3), 325–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rokkan, S. (1970). Nation-building, cleavage formation and the structuring of mass politics. In S. Rokkan (Ed.), Citizens, elections, parties: Approaches to the comparative study of processes of development (pp. 72–144). Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.Google Scholar
  70. Rokkan, S. (1977). Towards a generalized concept of ‘Verzuiling’. Political Studies, 25(4), 563–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rose, R., & Shin, D. C. (2001). Democratization backwards: The problem of third-wave democracies. British Journal of Political Science, 31(2), 331–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rothstein, B., & Teorell, J. (2008). What is quality of government? A theory of impartial government institutions. Governance, 21(2), 165–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sabato, L. J. (1988). The party’s just begun. Shaping political parties for America’s future. New York: Scotts, Foreman and Company.Google Scholar
  74. Samuels, D. J., & Shugart, M. S. (2010). Presidents, parties and prime ministers. How the separation of powers affects party organization and behavior. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sartori, G. (1976). Parties and party systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Scarrow, H. A. (1967). The function of political parties: A critique of the literature and the approach. Journal of Politics, 29(4), 770–790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schedler, A. (2002a). The menu of manipulation. Journal of Democracy, 13(2), 36–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Schedler, A. (2002b). The nested game of democratization by elections. International Political Science Review, 23(1), 103–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Schmitter, P. C. (2001). Parties are not what they once where. In L. Diamond & R. Gunther (Eds.), Political parties and democracy (pp. 67–89). London: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  80. Selle, P., & Svåsand, L. (1991). Membership in party organizations and the problem of decline of parties. Comparative Political Studies, 23(4), 459–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sikk, A. (2005). How unstable? Volatility and the genuinely new parties in Eastern Europe. European Journal of Political Research, 44(3), 391–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Smith, G. (2009). Democratic innovations. Designing institutions for citizen participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Socialist International. (2011). http://socialistinternational.org/viewArticle.cfm?ArticlePageID=931. Accessed on December 14, 2011.
  84. Southall, R. (2001). Opposition in South Africa: Issues and problems. In R. Southall (Ed.), Opposition in South Africa (pp. 1–24). London: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
  85. Strøm, K. (2000). Parties at the core of government. In R. J. Dalton & M. P. Wattenberg (Eds.), Parties without partisans. Political change in advanced industrial democracies (pp. 180–207). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Svåsand, L., & Wørlund, I. (2005). Partifremvekst og partioverlevelse: Fremskrittspartiet og Ny Demokrati. In M. Demker & L. Svåsand (Eds.), Partiernas århundrade (pp. 253–278). Stockholm: Santerus.Google Scholar
  87. Szusterman, C. (2010). ‘Que se vayon todos!’. The struggle for democratic party politics in contemporary Argentina. In P. Webb & S. White (Eds.), Party politics in new democracies (pp. 213–242). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  88. van Biezen, I. (2005). On the theory and practice of party formation and adaptation in new democracies. European Journal of Political Research, 44(1), 147–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. van Biezen, I., Mair, P., & Poguntke, T. (2012). Going, going… gone? The decline of party membership in contemporary Europe. European Journal of Political Research, 51(1), 24–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. von Beyme, K. (1985). Political parties in western democracies. Aldershot: Gower.Google Scholar
  91. Ware, A. (1996). Political parties and party systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  92. Wattenberg, M. P. (1984). The decline of American political parties, 1952–1988. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  93. Webb, P. (1995). Are British political parties in decline? Party Politics, 1(3), 299–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Webb, P., & White, S. (2007). Political parties in new democracies. Trajectories of development and implications for democracy. In P. Webb & S. White (Eds.), Political parties in new democracies (pp. 345–370). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wyman, M., White, S., Miller, B., & Heywood, P. (1995). The place of ‘party’ in post-communist Europe. Party Politics, 1(4), 535–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Zeeuw, J. D., & Kumar, K. (Eds.) (2006). Promoting democracy in post-conflict societies. London: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of BergenBergenNorway

Personalised recommendations