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Interphase Chromosome Behavior in Normal and Diseased Cells

Chapter

Abstract

Interphase chromosomes are nonrandomly positioned in the nuclei of normal cells. They occupy specific locations with respect to a radial distribution from the nuclear edge to the nuclear interior. Furthermore, there is some evidence that interphase chromosomes reproducibly have the same neighbors that can be involved in creating translocations which lead to cancer. Not only are chromosomes nonrandomly positioned but they are anchored to certain regions of the cell nucleus by cellular structures such as the nuclear lamina and the nucleolus. Global screening of the genome has identified both lamina-associated domains and nucleolar-associated domains. Increasingly, researchers are finding that interphase chromosomes are mislocalized in disease situations. The consequences of chromosome mislocalization are not yet that clear, but gene expression can be affected with interphase chromosomes being located in another compartment of the nucleus, changing their interactions with nuclear structures. This chapter outlines how chromosomes behave in interphase nuclei and with what they interact. We discuss many examples of when chromosomes, and the genes housed upon them, change their location and behavior in disease situations such as cancer and the premature aging syndrome called Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome. We also describe new findings whereby genes in the host are relocated and expressed after a parasitic infection.

Keywords

Nuclear Envelope Interphase Nucleus Nuclear Periphery Chromosome Territory Nuclear Lamina 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Cellular GerontologyCentre for Cell and Chromosome Biology (CCCB), Brunel UniversityWest LondonUK
  2. 2.Laboratory of Molecular GerontologyCCCB, Brunel UniversityWest LondonUK
  3. 3.Laboratory of Cellular GerontologyCCCB, Brunel UniversityWest LondonUK
  4. 4.Laboratory for Nuclear and Genomic HealthCCCB, Brunel UniversityWest LondonUK
  5. 5.Leukaemia and Chromosome Research LaboratoryCCCB, Biosciences, Brunel UniversityUxbridgeUK

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