Technological Solutions in Human Interphase Cytogenetics
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Numerous interphase molecular cytogenetic approaches are useful for the analysis of chromosomes in normal and abnormal human cells. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques offer unique possibilities to visualize individual chromosomes or chromosomal regions in single nondividing cells isolated from any given tissue. Despite technological difficulties encountered during studying human interphase chromosomes in health and disease, molecular cytogenetics or cytogenomics (“chromosomics”) does provide solutions for high-resolution single-cell analysis of genome organization, structure, and behavior at all stages of the cell cycle. However, usually relatively little attention is paid to interphase molecular cytogenetics in current biomedical literature. Looking through the voluminous amount of original research papers and reviews dedicated to human interphase chromosomes, one can conclude that the technological aspects of studying human interphase chromosomes applied to basic and clinical research are rarely addressed. In an attempt to fill this gap, the present chapter provides a description of technological solutions in human interphase cytogenetics.
KeywordsPreimplantation Genetic Diagnosis Interphase Nucleus Interphase Chromosome Molecular Cytogenetic Technique Asynchronous Replication
The authors are supported by DLR/BMBF (RUS 2011–2013) and RFFI grant program 12-04-00215-а (Russian Federation, 2012–2014). We gratefully acknowledge the NICHD Brain and Tissue Bank for Developmental Disorders at the University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USA for providing the brain tissue samples for I-FISH experiments (partially shown in Figs. 11.1, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, and 11.8).
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