Advertisement

The Use of Protective Equipment in the Management of Severe Behavior Disorders

  • Wayne W. Fisher
  • Nicole M. Rodriguez
  • Kevin C. Luczynski
  • Michael E. Kelley
Chapter
Part of the Issues in Clinical Child Psychology book series (ICCP)

Abstract

What do a roller-coaster harness, boxing gloves, a parachute, and a football helmet all have in common? They are all forms of protective equipment or restraints that allow individuals to safely engage in responses that would otherwise be quite dangerous. For example, a parachute allows a person to jump out of a plane flying 10,000 ft above the earth and, in almost all cases, reach the ground safely. In fact, Captain Joe Kittenger jumped from a gondola that was 102,800 ft (19.5 miles) above the earth and lived to tell about it. This amazing feat illustrates the extent to which protective equipment can reduce the health risks associated with dangerous or risky behavior.

Keywords

Behavior Analyst Destructive Behavior Automatic Reinforcement Government Accountability Office Profound Mental Retardation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aman, M. G., Singh, N. N., Stewart, A. W., & Field, C. J. (1985). The aberrant behavior checklist: A behavior rating scale for the assessment of treatment effects. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 89, 485–491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bodfish, J. W., Symons, F. J., Parker, D. E., & Lewis, M. H. (2000). Varieties of repetitive behavior in autism: Comparisons to mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 237–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Borrero, S. W., & Borrero, J. C. (2008). Descriptive and experimental analyses of potential precursors to problem behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41, 83–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Borrero, J. C., Vollmer, T. R., Wright, C. S., Lerman, D. C., & Kelley, M. E. (2002). Further evaluation of the role of protective equipment in the functional analysis of SIB. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 35, 69–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Children’s Health Act of 2000, HR 4365, 106th Cong. (2000).Google Scholar
  6. Contrucci Kuhn, S. A., & Triggs, M. (2009). Analysis of social variables when an initial functional analysis indicates automatic reinforcement as the maintaining variable for SIB. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42, 679–683.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Craigen, L. M., Healey, A. C., Walley, C. T., Byrd, R., & Schuster, J. (2010). Assessment and self-injury: Implications for counselors. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 43, 3–15.Google Scholar
  8. Deaver, C. M., Miltenberger, R. G., & Stricker, J. M. (2001). Functional analysis and treatment of hair twirling in a young child. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 535–538.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dorsey, M. F., Iwata, B. A., Reid, D. H., & Davis, P. A. (1982). Protective equipment: Continuous and contingent application in the treatment of SIB. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15, 217–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Favell, J. E., McGimsey, J. F., & Jones, M. L. (1978). The use of physical restraint in the treatment of self-injury and as positive reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11, 225–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fisher, W. W., Piazza, C. C., Bowman, L. G., Hanley, G. P., & Adelinis, J. D. (1997). Direct and collateral effects of restraints and restraint fading. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 105–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Irvin, D. S., Thompson, T. J., Turner, W. D., & Williams, D. E. (1998). Utilizing increased response effort to reduce chronic hand mouthing. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 375–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Iwata, B. A., Dorsey, M. F., Slifer, K. J., Bauman, K. E., & Richman, G. S. (1994). Toward a functional analysis of self-injury. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 2, 3–20. (Reprinted from Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 2, 3–20, 1982)Google Scholar
  14. Iwata, B. A., Pace, G. M., Cowdery, G. E., & Miltenberger, R. G. (1994). What makes extinction work: An analysis of procedural form and function. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 131–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Iwata, B. A., Pace, G. M., Kissel, R. C., Nau, P. A., & Farber, J. M. (1990). The Self-Injury Trauma (SIT) Scale: A method for quantifying surface tissue damage caused by self-injurious behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 99–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jones, E., Allen, D., Moore, K., Phillips, B., & Lowe, K. (2007). Restraint and self-injury in people with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 11, 105–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kuhn, D. E., DeLeon, I. G., Fisher, W. W., & Wilke, A. E. (1999). Clarifying an ambiguous functional analysis with matched and mismatched extinction procedures. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32, 99–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Le, D. D., & Smith, R. G. (2002). Functional analysis of self-injury with and without protective equipment. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 14, 277–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lindberg, J. S., Iwata, B. A., & Kahng, S. W. (1999). On the relation between object manipulation and stereotypic SIB. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32, 51–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lovaas, O. I., & Simmons, J. Q. (1969). Manipulation of self-destruction in three retarded children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2, 143–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Luiselli, J. K. (1986). Analysis of contingently applied protective equipment in the modification of self-injurious behavior. Behavior Modification, 10, 191–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Luiselli, J. K. (1989). Contingent glove-wearing for the treatment of self-excoriating behavior in a sensory impaired adolescent. Behavior Modification, 13, 65–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mazaleski, J. L., Iwata, B. A., Rodgers, T. A., Vollmer, T. R., & Zarcone, J. R. (1994). Protective equipment as treatment for stereotypic hand mouthing: Sensory extinction or punishment effects? Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 345–355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Moore, J. W., Fisher, W. W., & Pennington, A. (2004). Systematic application and removal of protective equipment in the assessment of multiple topographies of self-injury. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 73–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pace, G. M., Iwata, B. A., Edwards, G. L., & McCosh, K. C. (1986). Stimulus fading and transfer in the treatment of self-restraint and SIB. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 19, 381–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Parrish, J. M., Iwata, B. A., Dorsey, M. F., Bunck, T. J., & Slifer, K. J. (1985). Behavior analysis, program development, and transfer of control in the treatment of self-injury. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 16, 159–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Piazza, C. C., Adelinis, J. D., Hanley, G. P., Goh, H., & Delia, M. D. (2000). An evaluation of the effects of matched stimuli on behaviors maintained by automatic reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33, 13–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Powers, K. V., Roane, H. S., & Kelley, M. E. (2007). Treatment of self-restraint associated with the application of protective equipment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 577–581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rojahn, J., Matson, J. L., Lott, D., Esbensen, A. J., & Smalls, Y. (2001). The Behavior Problems Inventory: An instrument for the assessment of self-injury, stereotyped behavior, and aggression/destruction in individuals with developmental disabilities. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 577–588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rooker, G. W., & Roscoe, E. M. (2005). Functional analysis of self-injurious behavior and its relation to self-restraint. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38, 537–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Roscoe, E. M., Iwata, B. A., & Goh, H. (1998). A comparison of noncontingent reinforcement and sensory extinction as treatments for SIB. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 635–646.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Silverman, K., Watanabe, K., Marshall, A. M., & Baer, D. M. (1984). Reducing self-injury and corresponding self-restraint through the strategic use of protective clothing. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 17, 545–552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Smith, R. G., Lerman, D. C., & Iwata, B. A. (1996). Self-restraint as positive reinforcement for self-injurious behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29, 99–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. United States Government Accountability Office. (2009, May 19). Seclusions and restraints: Selected cases of death and abuse at public and private schools and treatment centers. Retrieved from http://www.gao.gov/assets/130/122526.pdf.
  35. Urban, K. D., Luiselli, J. K., Child, S. N., & Parenteau, R. (2011). Effects of protective equipment on frequency and intensity of aggression-provoked staff injury. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 23, 555–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Van Houten, R., Axelrod, S., Bailey, J. S., Favell, J. E., Foxx, R. M., Iwata, B. A., et al. (1988). The right to effective behavioral treatment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 21, 381–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Vollmer, T. R., & Vorndran, C. M. (1998). Assessment of self-injurious behavior maintained by access to self-restraint materials. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 647–650.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wallace, M. D., Iwata, B. A., Zhou, L., & Goff, G. A. (1999). Rapid assessment of the effects of restraint on self-injury and adaptive behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32, 525–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wayne W. Fisher
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nicole M. Rodriguez
    • 1
  • Kevin C. Luczynski
    • 1
  • Michael E. Kelley
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Nebraska Medical Center’s Munroe-Meyer Institute (UNMC-MMI)OmahaUSA
  2. 2.Center for Autism Spectrum Disorders, Munroe-Meyer Institute, UNMC, 985450 Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA

Personalised recommendations