Environmental Fate and Ecotoxicology of Fenpropathrin

  • Emerson KanawiEmail author
  • Robert Budd
  • Ronald S. Tjeerdema
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 225)


Fenpropathrin ((RS)-α-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl-2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylate; Fig. 1) is a racemic mixture, broad-spectrum pyrethroid insecticide, and acaricide. Discovered by Sumitomo Chemical Company Ltd., then developed by Valent USA, fenpropathrin was the first of the light-stable pyrethroids to be produced. First synthesized in 1971 and commercialized in 1980 (Davies 1985), the technical product (90 % purity) is formulated as an emulsifiable concentrate (30.9 % active ingredient) and is registered in California as Danitol 2.4 EC Spray and Tame 2.4 EC Spray (CDPR 2012b). It is classified as a type II pyrethroid, characterized by the addition of a cyano group at the benzylic carbon. Such α-cyano pyrethroids have enhanced insecticidal activity because of their affinity for voltage-gated membrane channels (Bailey 2009). Synonymous chemical and common names include: α-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl 2,2,3,3-tetramethyl-1-cyclopropanecarboxylate; Danitol; Danitrol; Fenpropanate; Herald; Meothrin; Rody; S 3206; SD 41706; WL 41706; XE-938; Fenpropathrine; Kilumal; and Ortho Danitol (Kegley et al. 2012). In this chapter, we will discuss fenpropathrin’s uses, its mechanism of toxic action, physical and chemical properties, environmental fate, and ecotoxicology.


Sandy Clay Loam Benzylic Carbon Sandy Clay Loam Soil Light Clay Pyrethroid Exposure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Support was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Branch of the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR), California Environmental Protection Agency. The statements and conclusions are those of the authors and not necessarily those of CDPR. The mention of commercial products, their source, or their use in connection with materials reported herein is not to be construed as actual or implied endorsement of such products.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emerson Kanawi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Robert Budd
    • 2
  • Ronald S. Tjeerdema
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Toxicology, College of Agricultural & Environmental SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pesticide RegulationCalifornia Environmental Protection AgencySacramentoUSA

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