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Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Volume 225 of the series Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology pp 77-93

Date:

Environmental Fate and Ecotoxicology of Fenpropathrin

  • Emerson KanawiAffiliated withDepartment of Environmental Toxicology, College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, University of California Email author 
  • , Robert BuddAffiliated withDepartment of Pesticide Regulation, California Environmental Protection Agency
  • , Ronald S. TjeerdemaAffiliated withDepartment of Environmental Toxicology, College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, University of California

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Abstract

Fenpropathrin ((RS)-α-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl-2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylate; Fig. 1) is a racemic mixture, broad-spectrum pyrethroid insecticide, and acaricide. Discovered by Sumitomo Chemical Company Ltd., then developed by Valent USA, fenpropathrin was the first of the light-stable pyrethroids to be produced. First synthesized in 1971 and commercialized in 1980 (Davies 1985), the technical product (90 % purity) is formulated as an emulsifiable concentrate (30.9 % active ingredient) and is registered in California as Danitol 2.4 EC Spray and Tame 2.4 EC Spray (CDPR 2012b). It is classified as a type II pyrethroid, characterized by the addition of a cyano group at the benzylic carbon. Such α-cyano pyrethroids have enhanced insecticidal activity because of their affinity for voltage-gated membrane channels (Bailey 2009). Synonymous chemical and common names include: α-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl 2,2,3,3-tetramethyl-1-cyclopropanecarboxylate; Danitol; Danitrol; Fenpropanate; Herald; Meothrin; Rody; S 3206; SD 41706; WL 41706; XE-938; Fenpropathrine; Kilumal; and Ortho Danitol (Kegley et al. 2012). In this chapter, we will discuss fenpropathrin’s uses, its mechanism of toxic action, physical and chemical properties, environmental fate, and ecotoxicology.