Dreams

Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, we will focus on the characteristics and content of dreams. But first several issues are explored. Does dreaming only occur in REM sleep or also in NREM sleep? How good are our memories of our dreams? And does the method of obtaining dream reports such as in the sleep lab versus “at home;” whether written, voice recorded, dictated to another person; and just who that person is, affect the report? Beyond these issues, what people typically dream about is different from what is commonly believed. Although similarities far outnumber differences, in many interesting ways women’s dreams differ from men’s dreams. Characters and their interactions and activities are a major focus of dreams. Emotions or moods are commonly present in dreams but are not often mentioned in dream recalls. Bizarreness is a striking feature present in most dreams. Children’s dreams are different from those of adults and show characteristic changes with age. A person typically has several dreams during a night of sleep that can be seen as related to a theme for that night. Other aspects explored include lucid dreaming, creativity in dreams, and how an individual can improve their dream recalls.

Keywords

Benzene Transportation Hyde Alan Glean 

References

  1. Antrobus, J. S. (1983). REM and NREM sleep reports: comparison of word frequencies by cognitive classes. Psychophysiology, 20, 562–568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antrobus, J., Hartwig, P., Rosa, D., Reinsel, R., & Fein, G. (1987). Brightness and clarity of REM and NREM imagery: Photo response scale. Sleep Research, 16, 240.Google Scholar
  3. Aserinsky, E., & Kleitman, N. (1953). Regularly occurring periods of eye mobility and concomitant phenomena during sleep. Science, 18, 273–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barrett, D. (1993). The “committee of sleep”: A study of dream incubation for problem solving. Dreaming, 3, 115–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blagrove, M., & Akehurst, L. (2000). Personality and dream recall frequency: Further negative findings. Dreaming, 10, 139–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Busink, R., & Kuiken, D. (1996). Identifying types of impactful dreams: A replication. Dreaming, 6, 97–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carskadon, M. A. (Ed.). (1993). Encyclopedia of sleep and dreaming. New York: Macmillian.Google Scholar
  8. Cartwright, R. D. (1978). A primer on sleep and dreaming. Reading: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  9. Cartwright, R. D. (1979). The nature and function of repetitive dreams: A survey and speculation. Psychiatry, 42, 131–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cartwright, R. D. (2010). The twenty-four hour mind. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Delaney, G. (1998). All about dreams. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  12. Dement, W., & Kleitman, N. (1957). The relation of eye movements during sleep to dream activity. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 53, 89–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Domhoff, G. W. (1996). Finding Meaning in Dreams: A quantitative Approach. New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Domhoff, G. W. (2003). The scientific study of dreams: Neural networks, cognitive development, and content analysis. Washington: American Psychological Association Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Domhoff, G. W., & Schnelder, A. (1999). Much ado about very little: the small effect sizes when home and laboratory collected dreams are compared. Dreaming, 9, 139–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fiss, H. (1991). Experimental strategies for the study of the function of dreaming. In S. Ellman & J. Antrobus (Eds.), The mind in sleep: Psychology and psychophysiology (2nd ed., pp. 265–307). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  17. Foulkes, D. (1978). A Grammar of Dreams. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  18. Foulkes, D. (1982). Children’s dreams: Longitudinal studies. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  19. Foulkes, D. (1999). Children’s dreams and the development of consciousness. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Hall, C., & Van de Castle, R. (1966). The content analysis of dreams. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  21. Hicks, R., Lucero, K., & Mistry, R. (1991). Dreaming and habitual sleep duration. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 72, 1281–1282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hobson, J. A., Pace-Schott, E., & Stickgold, R. (2000). Dreaming and the brain: Toward a cognitive neuroscience of conscious states. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 793–842 and 904–1121.Google Scholar
  23. Hong, C. C., Potkin, S. G., Antrobus, J. S., Dow, B. M., Callaghan, G. M., & Gillin, J. C. (1997). REM sleep eye movement counts correlate with visual imagery in dreaming: A pilot study. Psychophysiology, 34, 377–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Horne, J. (2006). Sleepfaring. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Hurovitz, C., Dunn, S., Domhoff, G. W., & Fiss, H. (1999). The dreams of blind men and women: A replication and extension of previous findings. Dreaming, 9, 183–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kryger, M. H., Roth, T. R., & Dement, W. C. (Eds.). (2011). Principles and practice of sleep medicine (5th ed.). St. Louis: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  27. Lee-Chiong, T. (Ed.). (2006). Sleep: A comprehensive handbook. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  28. Moorcroft, W. H. (1993). Sleep, dreaming, and sleep disorders: An introduction (2nd ed.). Lanham: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  29. Nielsen, T. A. (2000). A review of mentation in REM and NREM sleep: “Covert” REM sleep as a possible reconciliation of two opposing models. Behavioral Brain Science, 23, 851–866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pagel, J. F., & Myers, P. (2002). Definitions of dreaming: A comparison of definitions of dreaming utilized by different study populations (college psychology students, sleep lab patients, and medical professionals. Sleep, 25, A299–A300.Google Scholar
  31. Pagel, J. F., Blagrove, M., Levin, R., States, B., Stickgold, B., & White, S. (2001). Defining dreaming—a paradigm for comparing disciplinary specific definitions of dream. Dreaming, 11, 195–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rechtschaffen, A. (1978). The single-mindedness and isolation of dreams. Sleep, 1, 97–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Rechtschaffen, A., & Buchignani, C. (1983). Visual dimensions and correlates of dream images. Sleep Research, 12, 189.Google Scholar
  34. Resnick, J., Stickgold, R., Rittenhouse, C. D., & Hobson, J. A. (1994). Self-representation and bizarreness in children’s dream reports collected in the home setting. Consciousness and Cognition, 3, 30–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schredl, M. (2001, July). Factors of dream recall. Presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Study of Dreams. Santa Cruz, California.Google Scholar
  36. Stickgold, R., Hobson, J. A., Fosse, R., & Fosse, M. (2001). Sleep, learning, and dreams: Off-line memory reprocessing. Science, 294, 1052–1057.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Strauch, I., & Meier, B. (1996). In search of dreams. Results of experimental dream research. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  38. Uga, V., Lemut, M. C., Zampi, C., & Salzarulo, P. (2006). Music in dreams. Consciousness and Cognition, 15, 351–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Emeritus Professor Sleep and Dreaming Laboratory and Psychology Department Luther College DecorahNorthern Colorado Sleep ConsultantsFort CollinsUSA
  2. 2.Emeritus Professor Sleep and Dreaming Laboratory and Psychology DepartmentLuther College DecorahDecorahUSA

Personalised recommendations