Skip to main content

Disorders of Sleep

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Understanding Sleep and Dreaming
  • 9287 Accesses

Abstract

There are three sleep disorders that are most common: sleep disordered breathing, narcolepsy, and insomnia. People who suffer from sleep disordered breathing, such as sleep apnea, do not breathe properly when sleeping which interferes with getting good sleep. Narcolepsy is characterized by sudden irresistible sleep attacks, sudden muscle weakness, feeling paralyzed upon awakening, and perceiving apparitions when falling asleep or waking up. Insomnia is difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, and/or waking too early. Other less common problems include people who are always sleepy (idiopathic hypersomnia), those who have uncomfortable sensations in their legs that make it difficult to sleep (restless legs), or those who regularly jerk their legs or arms for part of the time while asleep (periodic limb movement disorder). The circadian clock may be out of phase with their environment or be malfunctioning for some people (circadian rhythm sleep disorders), while others may act out some of their violent dreams while still asleep (REM behavior disorder) or eat while still asleep (sleep-related eating disorder). Children are vulnerable to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and behavioral insomnia of childhood.

Portions of this chapter have been adapted from Moorcroft 1993 with permission of the publisher. Specific references to statements in this chapter that can be found there and in multiple, widely available sources are not included in the text. A selection of these sources is listed below and can also be consulted for verification or for more detail. (Kryger et al. 2011; Lee-Chiong 2011; Cartwright 2010; Horne 2006).

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 79.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 99.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 139.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Notes

  1. 1.

    Some screening for sleep disorders can be done in the patient’s own bed at their home. It is thought as technology improves there will be even more home screening for sleep disorders

  2. 2.

    All of the names used in this chapter are fictitious. The case histories are based on real patient histories with embellishments and additions for clarity and completeness. Many of the case histories presented were derived by combining the case histories of more than one patient.

  3. 3.

    Excessive daytime sleepiness is a common problem among people with sleep disorders. It has been found to occur in up to one out of every five people resulting in problems such as reduced quality of life, cognitive deficits, and even higher mortality (Ohayon 2006).

  4. 4.

    Fleming and Blair 2007.

References

  • Backhaus, J., Hohagen, F., Voderholzer, U., & Riemann, D. (2001). Long-term effectiveness of a short-term cognitive-behavioral group treatment for primary insomnia. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 251, 35–41.

    Google Scholar 

  • Belanger, L., Belleville, G., & Morin, C. M. (2009). Management of hypnotic discontinuation in chronic insomnia. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 4, 583–692.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bootzin, R. (2012, June). Orgins and future directions of behavioral sleep medicine treatments for insomnia and sleep disturbance. Presentation at the inaugural meeting of the society for behavioral sleep medicine. Boston.

    Google Scholar 

  • Calhoun, S. L., Fernandez-Mendoza, J., Vgontzas, A., Mayes, S. D., Tsaoussoglou, M., Rodriguez-Muñoz, A., et al. (2012). Learning, attention/hyperactivity, and conduct problems as sequelae of excessive daytime sleepiness in a general population study of young children. Sleep, 35, 627–632.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cartwright, R. C. (2010). The twenty-four hour mind. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cvengros, J., & Wyatt, J. (2009). Circadian rhythm disorders. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 4, 495–505.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dauvilliers, Y., & Billiard, M. (2006). Chronic hypersomnia. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 1, 79–88.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fleming, P., & Blair, P. S. (2007). Sudden infant death syndrome. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 2, 463–476.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Glidewell, R. N., Moorcroft, W. H., & Lee-Chiong, T. J. (2010). Comorbid insomnia: Reciprocal relationships and medication management. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 5, 627–646.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Horne, J. (2006). Sleepfaring. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Horne, J. (2011). The end of sleep: ‘Sleep debt’ versus biological adaptation of human sleep to waking needs. Biological Psychology, 87 , 1–14.

    Google Scholar 

  • Howell, M. J., Arneson, P. A., & Schenck, C. H. (2011). A novel therapy for REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 7, 639–644.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kripke, D.F., Langer, R.D., & Kline, L.E. (2012, February 27). Hypnotics’ association with mortality or cancer: A matched cohort study. BMJ Open, 2:e000850. Retrieved from http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/2/1/e000850.full.

  • Kryger, M. H., Roth, T. R., & Dement, W. C. (Eds.). (2011). Principles and practice of sleep medicine (5th ed.). St. Louis: Elsevier.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lack, L., Wright, H., & Bootzin, R. (2009). Delayed sleep-phase disorder. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 4, 229–239.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee-Chiong, T. (2011). Somnology 2. Seattle: Amazon.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lichstein, K. (Ed.). (2009). Sleep medicine clinics adult behavioral. Sleep medicine. 4, 473-610.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mahowald, M.W., Schenck, C.H., & Cramer Bornemann, M.A. (2011). Parasomnias and sleep forensics. In Chokroverty C, & Sahota, P. (Eds.), Acute and emergent events in sleep disorders (pp. 93–129). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Manber, R., Bernert, R., Suh, S., Nowakowski, S., Siebern, A., & Ong, J. (2011). Cbt for insomnia in patients with high and low depressive symptom severity: adherence and clinical out¬comes. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 7, 645-652.

    Google Scholar 

  • Moorcroft, W. H. (1993). Sleep, dreaming, and sleep disorders: An introduction (2nd ed.). Lanham: University Press of America.

    Google Scholar 

  • Morin, C. M., Colecchi, C., Stone, J., Sood, R., & Brink, D. (1999). Behavioral and pharmacological therapies for late-life insomnia: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 281, 991–999.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • National Institutes of Health. (2005). NIH state-of-the-science conference statement on manifestations and management of chronic insomnia in adults. NIH Consensensus State of the Science Statements, 22, 1–30.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ohayon, M. M. (2006). Epidemiology of excessive daytime sleepiness. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 1, 9–16.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pigeon, W. R., & Yurcheshen, M. (2009). Behavioral sleep medicine interventions for restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 4, 487–494.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ramakrishnan, K., & Scheid, D. C. (2007). Treatment options for insomnia. American Family Physician, 76, 517–526.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Roehrs, T. A., Randall, S., Harris, E., Maan, R., & Roth, T. (2011). MSLT in primary insomnia: Stability and relation to nocturnal sleep. Sleep, 34, 1647–1652.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Spielman, A. J., & Glovinsky, P. (1991). The varied nature of insomnia. In P. HaurI (Ed.), Case studies in insomnia (pp. 1–15). New York: Plenum Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilson, S. J., Nutt, D. J., Alford, C., Argyropoulos, S. V., Baldwin, D. S., Bateson, A. N., et al. (2010). British association for psychopharmacology consensus statement on evidence-based treatment of insomnia, parasomnias and circadian rhythm disorders. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 24, 1577–1600.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to William H. Moorcroft .

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Moorcroft, W.H. (2013). Disorders of Sleep . In: Understanding Sleep and Dreaming. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6467-9_13

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics