Disorders of Sleep

Chapter

Abstract

There are three sleep disorders that are most common: sleep disordered breathing, narcolepsy, and insomnia. People who suffer from sleep disordered breathing, such as sleep apnea, do not breathe properly when sleeping which interferes with getting good sleep. Narcolepsy is characterized by sudden irresistible sleep attacks, sudden muscle weakness, feeling paralyzed upon awakening, and perceiving apparitions when falling asleep or waking up. Insomnia is difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, and/or waking too early. Other less common problems include people who are always sleepy (idiopathic hypersomnia), those who have uncomfortable sensations in their legs that make it difficult to sleep (restless legs), or those who regularly jerk their legs or arms for part of the time while asleep (periodic limb movement disorder). The circadian clock may be out of phase with their environment or be malfunctioning for some people (circadian rhythm sleep disorders), while others may act out some of their violent dreams while still asleep (REM behavior disorder) or eat while still asleep (sleep-related eating disorder). Children are vulnerable to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and behavioral insomnia of childhood.

Keywords

Fatigue Depression Aspirin Schizophrenia Caffeine 

References

  1. Backhaus, J., Hohagen, F., Voderholzer, U., & Riemann, D. (2001). Long-term effectiveness of a short-term cognitive-behavioral group treatment for primary insomnia. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 251, 35–41.Google Scholar
  2. Belanger, L., Belleville, G., & Morin, C. M. (2009). Management of hypnotic discontinuation in chronic insomnia. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 4, 583–692.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bootzin, R. (2012, June). Orgins and future directions of behavioral sleep medicine treatments for insomnia and sleep disturbance. Presentation at the inaugural meeting of the society for behavioral sleep medicine. Boston.Google Scholar
  4. Calhoun, S. L., Fernandez-Mendoza, J., Vgontzas, A., Mayes, S. D., Tsaoussoglou, M., Rodriguez-Muñoz, A., et al. (2012). Learning, attention/hyperactivity, and conduct problems as sequelae of excessive daytime sleepiness in a general population study of young children. Sleep, 35, 627–632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cartwright, R. C. (2010). The twenty-four hour mind. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Cvengros, J., & Wyatt, J. (2009). Circadian rhythm disorders. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 4, 495–505.Google Scholar
  7. Dauvilliers, Y., & Billiard, M. (2006). Chronic hypersomnia. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 1, 79–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fleming, P., & Blair, P. S. (2007). Sudden infant death syndrome. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 2, 463–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Glidewell, R. N., Moorcroft, W. H., & Lee-Chiong, T. J. (2010). Comorbid insomnia: Reciprocal relationships and medication management. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 5, 627–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Horne, J. (2006). Sleepfaring. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Horne, J. (2011). The end of sleep: ‘Sleep debt’ versus biological adaptation of human sleep to waking needs. Biological Psychology, 87 , 1–14.Google Scholar
  12. Howell, M. J., Arneson, P. A., & Schenck, C. H. (2011). A novel therapy for REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 7, 639–644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Kripke, D.F., Langer, R.D., & Kline, L.E. (2012, February 27). Hypnotics’ association with mortality or cancer: A matched cohort study. BMJ Open, 2:e000850. Retrieved from http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/2/1/e000850.full.
  14. Kryger, M. H., Roth, T. R., & Dement, W. C. (Eds.). (2011). Principles and practice of sleep medicine (5th ed.). St. Louis: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  15. Lack, L., Wright, H., & Bootzin, R. (2009). Delayed sleep-phase disorder. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 4, 229–239.Google Scholar
  16. Lee-Chiong, T. (2011). Somnology 2. Seattle: Amazon.Google Scholar
  17. Lichstein, K. (Ed.). (2009). Sleep medicine clinics adult behavioral. Sleep medicine. 4, 473-610.Google Scholar
  18. Mahowald, M.W., Schenck, C.H., & Cramer Bornemann, M.A. (2011). Parasomnias and sleep forensics. In Chokroverty C, & Sahota, P. (Eds.), Acute and emergent events in sleep disorders (pp. 93–129). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Manber, R., Bernert, R., Suh, S., Nowakowski, S., Siebern, A., & Ong, J. (2011). Cbt for insomnia in patients with high and low depressive symptom severity: adherence and clinical out¬comes. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 7, 645-652.Google Scholar
  20. Moorcroft, W. H. (1993). Sleep, dreaming, and sleep disorders: An introduction (2nd ed.). Lanham: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  21. Morin, C. M., Colecchi, C., Stone, J., Sood, R., & Brink, D. (1999). Behavioral and pharmacological therapies for late-life insomnia: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 281, 991–999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. National Institutes of Health. (2005). NIH state-of-the-science conference statement on manifestations and management of chronic insomnia in adults. NIH Consensensus State of the Science Statements, 22, 1–30.Google Scholar
  23. Ohayon, M. M. (2006). Epidemiology of excessive daytime sleepiness. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 1, 9–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pigeon, W. R., & Yurcheshen, M. (2009). Behavioral sleep medicine interventions for restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 4, 487–494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ramakrishnan, K., & Scheid, D. C. (2007). Treatment options for insomnia. American Family Physician, 76, 517–526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Roehrs, T. A., Randall, S., Harris, E., Maan, R., & Roth, T. (2011). MSLT in primary insomnia: Stability and relation to nocturnal sleep. Sleep, 34, 1647–1652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Spielman, A. J., & Glovinsky, P. (1991). The varied nature of insomnia. In P. HaurI (Ed.), Case studies in insomnia (pp. 1–15). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  28. Wilson, S. J., Nutt, D. J., Alford, C., Argyropoulos, S. V., Baldwin, D. S., Bateson, A. N., et al. (2010). British association for psychopharmacology consensus statement on evidence-based treatment of insomnia, parasomnias and circadian rhythm disorders. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 24, 1577–1600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Northern Colorado Sleep ConsultantsFort CollinsUSA
  2. 2.Emeritus Professor Sleep and Dreaming Laboratory and Psychology DepartmentLuther College DecorahDecorahUSA

Personalised recommendations