Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Refractory Partial Epilepsy

  • Lilia Maria Morales Chacón
  • Lázaro Gómez Fernández
  • Otto Trápaga Quincoses
  • Genco Marcio Estrada Vinajera
  • Lourdes Lorigados Pedre
  • Marilyn Zaldivar Bermudes
  • Luisa Rocha


This chapter reviews the principles of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) concerning its potential clinical use in diagnosis and therapy in medically intractable epilepsies. After introducing basic principles, stimulation protocols, and risks, TMS applications in epilepsies are summarized. Next, we discuss several clinical trials and animal studies, which show how low-frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) may reduce seizure frequency and epileptiform discharges, mainly in focal epilepsy patients with neocortical epileptogenic zones such as malformations of cortical development. Lastly, we address some TMS effects on neurofunctional imaging. We conclude that rTMS should be considered one of the future noninvasive, relatively safe, and inexpensive therapeutic methods in patients with medically intractable epilepsies.


Epilepsy Medically intractable epilepsies Seizures Transcranial magnetic stimulation Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation Electroencephalography 



We thank Odalys Morales Chacón and Dr. Erika Brust-Mascher for English assistance and Maria Luisa Rodriguez, Abel Sanchez, Hector Vazquez, and Leticia Neri for their useful cooperation. This work was sponsored by CONACYT (Project 98386).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lilia Maria Morales Chacón
    • 1
  • Lázaro Gómez Fernández
    • 1
  • Otto Trápaga Quincoses
    • 1
  • Genco Marcio Estrada Vinajera
    • 1
  • Lourdes Lorigados Pedre
    • 1
  • Marilyn Zaldivar Bermudes
    • 1
  • Luisa Rocha
    • 2
  1. 1.Clinical Neurophysiology Service, International Center for Neurological RestorationHabana, PlayaCuba
  2. 2.Department of PharmacobiologyCenter for Research and Advanced StudiesMexico CityMexico

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