Harnessing the Web: Internet and Self-Help Therapy for People with Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

  • Steffen Moritz
  • Kiara R. Timpano
  • Charlotte E. Wittekind
  • Christine Knaevelsrud


Notwithstanding advances in the treatment of anxiety disorders, many patients show incomplete symptom remission following even state-of-the-art (psycho)therapy. Moreover, many people suffering from anxiety do not seek treatment at all. Self-help is increasingly regarded as a low-threshold approach to fill the apparent treatment gap. Our review summarizes the expanding but still small literature on self-help and Internet interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggesting that self-help rooted in evidence-based concepts is a promising clinical tool that may aid and facilitate face-to-face treatment.


Beck Depression Inventory Ptsd Symptom Family Accommodation Internet Study Compulsive Hoarding 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to thank Jeannette Jörkell, Andrea Keretic, Katharina Struck, Miriam Voigt, and Ricarda Weil for help with the literature review.


  1. Amstadter, A. B., Broman-Fulks, J., Zinzow, H., Ruggiero, K. J., & Cercone, J. (2009). Internet-based interventions for traumatic stress-related mental health problems: A review and suggestion for future research. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 410–420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Angermeyer, M. C., & Matschinger, H. (1996). Public attitude towards psychiatric treatment. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 94, 326–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bachofen, M., Nakagawa, A., Marks, I. M., Park, J.-M., Greist, J. H., & Baer, L. (1999). Self-treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder using a manual and a computer-conducted telephone interview: Replication of a US-UK study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 60, 545–549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baer, L., Minichiello, W. E., & Jenike, M. A. (1987). Use of a portable-computer program in behavioral treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barak, A., Hen, L., Boniel-Nissim, M., & Shapira, N. (2008). A comprehensive review and a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of internet-based psychotherapeutic interventions. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 26, 109–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Basso, M. R., Bornstein, R.A., Carona, F. & Morton, R. (2001). Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology, 14, 241–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Besiroglu, L., Cilli, A. S., & Askin, R. (2004). The predictors of health care seeking behavior in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 45, 99–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blanco, C., Olfson, M., Stein, D. J., Simpson, H. B., Gameroff, M. J., & Narrow, W. H. (2006). Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder by US-psychiatrists. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67, 946–951.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Böhm, K., Förstner, U., Külz, A., & Voderholzer, U. (2008). Versorgungsrealität der Zwangsstörungen: Werden Expositionsverfahren eingesetzt? [Health care provision for patients with obsessive compulsive disorder: Is exposure treatment used?]. Verhaltenstherapie, 18, 18–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bremner, J. D., Quinn, J., Quinn, W., & Veledar, E. (2006). Surfing the net for medical information about psychological trauma: An empirical study of the quality and accuracy of trauma-related websites. Medical Informatics and the Internet in Medicine, 31, 227–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Budden, A. (2009). The role of shame in posttraumatic stress disorder: A proposal for a socio-emotional model for DSM-V. Social Science & Medicine, 69, 1032–1039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bugg, A., Turpin, G., Mason, S., & Scholes, C. (2009). A randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of writing as a self-help intervention for traumatic injury patients at risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47, 6–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carlbring, P., Nilsson-Ihrfelt, E., Waara, J., Kollenstam, C., Buhrman, M., & Kaldo, V. (2005). Treatment of panic disorder: Live therapy vs. self-help via the Internet. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, 1321–1333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Clark, A., Kirkby, K. C., Daniels, B. A., & Marks, I. M. (1998). A pilot study of computer-aided vicarious exposure for obsessive-compulsive disorder. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 32, 268–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Coles, M. E., Cook, L. M., & Blake, T. R. (2007). Assessing obsessive compulsive symptoms and cognitions on the internet: Evidence for the comparability of paper and Internet administration. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 2232–2240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Craig, G. H. (2003). The EFT manual (version 11/2009). The Sea Ranch, CA: The Sea Ranch.Google Scholar
  17. Demling, J. H., Neubauer, S., Luderer, H. J., & Worthmuller, M. (2002). A survey on psychiatric patients’ use of non-medical alternative practitioners: Incidence, methods, estimation, and satisfaction. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 10, 193–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ehlers, A., Clark, D. M., Hackmann, A., McManus, F., Fennell, M., & Herbert, C. (2003). A randomized controlled trial of cognitive therapy, a self-help booklet, and repeated assessments as early interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 1024–1032.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eichenberg, C., Blokus, G., & Brähler, E. (2010, 26–30 September). Einstellung von Psychotherapeuten und potenziellen Patienten zu internetbasierten Informations- und Interventionsmöglichkeiten [Attitudes of psychotherapists and potential patients towards internet-based information and intervention options]. Paper presented at the 47th Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie, Bremen [Germany].Google Scholar
  20. Elhai, J. D., North, T. C., & Frueh, B. C. (2005). Health service use predictors among trauma survivors: A critical review. Psychological Services, 2, 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fisher, P., & Wells, A. (2009). Metacognitive therapy. Hove: Routledge.Google Scholar
  22. Foa, E. B., Huppert, J. D., Leiberg, S., Langner, R., Kichic, R., & Hajcak, G. (2002). The Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory: Development and validation of a short version. Psychological Assessment, 14, 485–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Foa, E. B., Kozak, M. J., Salkovskis, P. M., Coles, M. E., & Amir, N. (1998). The validation of a new obsessive compulsive disorder scale: The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (OCI). Psychological Assessment, 10, 206–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fritzler, B. K., Hecker, J. E., & Losee, M. C. (1997). Self-directed treatment with minimal therapist contact: Preliminary findings for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 627–631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gaudiano, B. A., & Herbert, J. D. (2000). Can we really tap our problems away? A critical analysis of thought field therapy. The Skeptical Inquirer, 24, 29–36.Google Scholar
  26. Goodman, W. K., Price, L. H., Rasmussen, S. A., Mazure, C., Fleischmann, R. L., Hill, C. L., Heninger, G. R., & Charney, D. S. (1989). The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. I. Development, use, and reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46(11), 1006–1011.Google Scholar
  27. Greisberg, S., & McKay, D. (2003). Neuropsychology of obsessive-compulsive disorder: A review and treatment implications. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 95–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Greist, J. H., Marks, I. M., Baer, L., Kobak, K. A., Wenzel, K. W., & Hirsch, M. J. (2002). Behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder guided by a computer or by a clinician compared with relaxation as a control. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 63, 138–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Harwood, T. M., & L’Abate, L. (2009). Self-help in mental health. A critical review. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  30. Hauschildt, M., Jelinek, L., Randjbar, S., Hottenrott, B., & Moritz, S. (2010). Generic and illness-specific quality of life in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 38, 417–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hirai, M., & Clum, G. A. (2005). An Internet-based self-change program for traumatic event related fear, distress, and maladaptive coping. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18, 631–636.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hodgson, R. J., & Rachman, S. (1977). Obsessional-compulsive complaints. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 15, 389–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hoge, C. W., Auchterlonie, J. L., & Milliken, C. S. (2006). Mental health problems, use of mental health services, and attrition from military service after returning from deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 295, 1023–1032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hollander, E., Kwon, J. H., Stein, D. J., Broatch, J., Rowland, C. T., & Himelein, C. A. (1996). Obsessive-compulsive and spectrum disorders: Overview and quality of life issues. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 57(Suppl 8), 3–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Horowitz, M., Wilner, N., & Alvarez, W. (1979). Impact of Event Scale: A measure of subjective stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 41, 209–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Jelinek, L., Hottenrott, B., & Moritz, S. (2009). When cancer is associated with illness but no longer with animal or zodiac sign: Investigation of biased semantic networks in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 1031–1036.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kenwright, M., Marks, I., Graham, C., Franses, A., & Mataix-Cols, D. (2005). Brief scheduled phone support from a clinician to enhance computer-aided self-help for obsessive-compulsive disorder: Randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61, 1499–1508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kirkby, K. C., Berrios, G. E., Daniels, B. A., Menzies, R. G., Clark, A., & Romano, A. (2000). Process-outcome analysis in computer-aided treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 41, 259–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kiropoulos, L. A., Klein, B., Austin, D. W., Gilson, K., Pier, C., & Mitchell, J. (2008). Is internet-based CBT for panic disorder and agoraphobia as effective as face-to-face CBT? Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 1273–1784.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Klecha, D., Barke, A., & Gureje, O. (2004). Die Versorgung psychisch Kranker in den Ländern der dritten Welt am Beispiel von Nigeria [Mental health care in developing countries: The example of Nigeria]. Nervenarzt, 75, 1118–1122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Klein, B., Mitchell, J., Abbott, J., Shandley, K., Austin, D., & Gilson, K. (2010). A therapist-assisted cognitive behavior therapy Internet intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder: Pre-, post- and 3-month follow-up results from an open trial. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 635–644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Knaevelsrud, C., & Maercker, A. (2007). Internet-based treatment for PTSD reduces distress and facilitates the development of a strong therapeutic alliance: A randomized controlled clinical trial. BMC Psychiatry, 7, 13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Knaevelsrud, C., & Maercker, A. (2010). Long-term effects of an internet-based treatment for posttraumatic stress. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 39, 72–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kohn, R., Saxena, S., Levav, I., & Saraceno, B. (2004). The treatment gap in mental health care. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, 82, 858–866.Google Scholar
  45. Korrelboom, K., de Jong, M., Huijbrechts, I., & Daansen, P. (2009). Competitive memory training (COMET) for treating low self-esteem in patients with eating disorders: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 974–980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Korrelboom, K., van der Gaag, M., Hendriks, V. M., Huijbrechts, I., & Berretty, E. W. (2008). Treating obsessions with competitive memory training: A pilot study. The Behavior Therapist, 31, 31–36.Google Scholar
  47. Kubany, E. S., Haynes, S. N., Abueg, F. R., Manke, F. P., Brennan, J. M., & Stahura, C. (1996). Development and validation of the trauma-related guilt inventory (TRGI). Psychological Assessment, 8, 428–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Külz, A. K., Hohagen, F., & Voderholzer, U. (2004). Neuropsychological performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder: A critical review. Biological Psychology, 65, 185–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Külz, A. K., Hassenpflug, K., Riemann, D., Linster, H. W., Dornberg, M., & Voderholzer, U. (2009). Psychotherapeutic care in OCD outpatients—Results from an anonymous therapist survey. Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie, 59, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lange, A., Rietdijk, D., Hudcovicova, M., van de Ven, J.-P., Schrieken, B., & Emmelkamp, P. M. G. (2003). Interapy: a controlled randomized trial of the standardized treatment of posttraumatic stress through the internet. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 901–909.Google Scholar
  51. Lange, A., Schrieken, B., van de Ven, J.-P., Bredeweg, B., Emmelkamp, P., & van der Kolk, J. (2000). ‘INTERAPY’: The effects of a short protocolled treatment of post-traumatic stress and pathological grief through the Internet. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 28, 103–120.Google Scholar
  52. Lange, A., van de Ven, J. P., Schrieken, B., & Emmelkamp, P. M. (2001). Interapy, treatment of posttraumatic stress through the Internet: A controlled trial. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 32, 73–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lauber, C., Nordt, C., & Rossler, W. (2005). Recommenda­tions of mental health professionals and the general population on how to treat mental disorders. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 40, 835–843.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Litz, B. T., Engel, C. C., Bryant, R. A., & Papa, A. (2007). A randomized, controlled proof-of-concept trial of an Internet-based, therapist-assisted self-management treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 1676–1683.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Litz, B. T., Williams, L., Wang, J., Bryant, R., & Engel, C. C., Jr. (2004). A therapist-assisted Internet self-help program for traumatic stress. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35, 628–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Marks, I. M., Baer, L., Greist, J. H., Park, J. M., Bachofen, M., & Nakagawa, A. (1998). Home self-assessment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Use of a manual and a computer-conducted telephone interview: Two UK-US studies. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 406–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Marks, I. M., Mataix-Cols, D., Kenwright, M., Cameron, R., Hirsch, S., & Gega, L. (2003). Pragmatic evaluation of computer-aided self-help for anxiety and depression. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 183, 57–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Marques, L., LeBlanc, N. J., Weingarden, H. M., Timpano, K. R., Jenike, M., & Wilhelm, S. (2010). Barriers to treatment and service utilization in an internet sample of individuals with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Depression and Anxiety, 27, 470–475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Masters, K. (2008). For what purpose and reasons do doctors use the Internet: A systematic review. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 77, 4–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mataix-Cols, D., & Marks, I. M. (2006). Self-help with minimal therapist contact for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A review. European Psychiatry, 21, 75–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Meyer, B., Berger, T., Caspar, F., Beevers, C. G., Andersson, G., & Weiss, M. (2009). Effectiveness of a novel integrative online treatment for depression (Deprexis): Randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 11, e15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Moritz, S. (2010). Erfolgreich gegen Zwangsstörungen: Metakognitives Training—Denkfallen erkennen und entschärfen [Successful against OCD. Metacognitive training—Detecting and defusing cognitive traps]. Heidelberg: Springer. also: Google Scholar
  63. Moritz, S., Aravena, S. C., Guczka, S. R., Schilling, L., Eichenberg, C., & Raubart, G. (2010). Knock, and it will be opened to you? An evaluation of meridian-tapping in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 42, 81–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Moritz, S., Birkner, C., Kloss, M., Jacobsen, D., Fricke, S., Böthern, A., & Hand, I. (2001). Impact of comorbid depressive symptoms on neuropsychological performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 653–657.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Moritz, S., & Jelinek, L. (2007). Association splitting—Self-help guide for reducing obsessive thoughts. Hamburg: VanHam Campus.Google Scholar
  66. Moritz, S. & Jelinek, L. (2011). Further evidence for the efficacy of association splitting as a self-help technique for reducing obsessive thoughts. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 574–581.Google Scholar
  67. Moritz, S., Jelinek, L., Hauschildt, M., & Naber, D. (2010). How to treat the untreated: Effectiveness of a self-help metacognitive training program (myMCT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Dialogues in Clinical Neurosciences, 12, 209–220. Google Scholar
  68. Moritz, S., Jelinek, L., Klinge, R., & Naber, D. (2007). Fight fire with fireflies! Association splitting: A novel cognitive technique to reduce obsessive thoughts. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 35, 631–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Moritz, S., Peters, M. J. V., Karow, A., Deljkovic, A., & Naber, D. (2009). Cure or curse? Ambivalent attitudes towards neuroleptic medication in schizophrenia and non-schizophrenia patients. Mental Illness, 1, e2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Moritz, S., Wahl, K., Ertle, A., Jelinek, L., Hauschildt, M., & Klinge, R. (2009). Neither saints nor wolves in disguise: Ambivalent interpersonal attitudes and behaviors in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behavior Modification, 33, 274–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Moritz, S., Wess, N., Treszl, A., & Jelinek, L. (2011). The attention training technique as an attempt to decrease intrusive thoughts in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): From cognitive theory to practice and back. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 41, 135–143.Google Scholar
  72. Muroff, J., Steketee, G., Himle, J., & Frost, R. (2010). Delivery of internet treatment for compulsive hoarding (D.I.T.C.H.). Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48, 79–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Nijenhuis, E. R. S., Spinhoven, P., Van Dyck, R., Van der Hart, O., & Vanderlinden, J. (1997). The development of the somatoform dissociation questionnaire (SDQ-5) as a screening instrument for dissociative disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 96, 311–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions Working Group. (1997). Cognitive assessment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions Working Group. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 667–681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions Working Group. (2001). Development and initial validation of the obsessive beliefs questionnaire and the interpretation of intrusions inventory. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 987–1006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions Working Group. (2003). Psychometric validation of the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire and the Interpretation of Intrusions Inventory: Part I. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 863–878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions Working Group. (2005). Psychometric validation of the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire and the Interpretation of Intrusions Inventory—Part II: Factor analyses and testing of a brief version. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, 1527–1542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Otto, A., & Eichenberg, C. (2010, 26–30 September 2010). Einflüsse gesundheitsbezogener Internetnutzung auf die Arzt-Patient-Beziehung: eine Befragung niedergelassener Ärzte in NRW [Impact of health-related internet use for the physician-patient relationship: a survey on practioners]. Paper presented at the 47th Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie, Bremen [Germany].Google Scholar
  79. Pietrzak, R. H., Johnson, D. C., Goldstein, M. B., Malley, J. C., & Southwick, S. M. (2009). Perceived stigma and barriers to mental health care utilization among OEF-OIF veterans. Psychiatric Services, 60, 1118–1122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pinto, A., Mancebo, M. C., Eisen, J. L., Pagano, M. E., & Rasmussen, S. A. (2006). The Brown Longitudinal Obsessive Compulsive Study: Clinical features and symptoms of the sample at intake. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67, 703–711.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Raubart, G., & Seebeck, A. (2008). Den Zwang abstellen—schnell und effektiv mit Klopfakupressur und Qigong [To switch off OCD—Fast and effectively with tapping acupressure and Qigong]. Lingen: Lotus Press.Google Scholar
  82. Redding, R. E., Herbert, J. D., Forman, E. M., & Gaudiano, B. A. (2008). Popular self-help books for anxiety, depression, and trauma: How scientifically grounded and useful are they? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39, 537–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ruggiero, K. J., Resnick, H. S., Acierno, R., Carpenter, M. J., Kilpatrick, D. G., Coffey, S. F., et al. (2006). Internet-based intervention for mental health and substance use problems in disaster-affected populations: a pilot feasibility study. Behavior Therapy, 37, 190–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sanavio, E. (1988). Obsessions and compulsions: The Padua Inventory. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 26, 169–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Shaked, N. (2005). Psychology self-help books: A comprehensive analysis and content evaluation. Dissertation Abstract International Section A. Humanities and Social Science, 66(895).Google Scholar
  86. Silenzio, V. M. (2002). What is the role of complementary and alternative medicine in public health? American Journal of Public Health, 92, 1562–1564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Spek, V., Cuijpers, P., Nykicek, I., Riper, H., Keyzer, J., & Pop, V. (2007). Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for symptoms of depression and anxiety: A meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine, 37, 319–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Steketee, G., & White, K. (1990). When once is not enough: Help for obsessive-compulsives. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.Google Scholar
  89. Storch, E. A., Caporino, N. E., Morgan, J. R., Lewin, A. B., Rojas, A., Brauer, L., Larson, M. J., & Murphy, T. K. (2011). Preliminary investigation of web-camera delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Resarch, 30, 407–412.Google Scholar
  90. Tolin, D. F., Hannan, S., Maltby, N., Diefenbach, G. J., Worhunsky, P., & Brady, R. E. (2007). A randomized controlled trial of self-directed versus therapist-directed cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder patients with prior medication trials. Behavior Therapy, 38, 179–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tumur, I., Kaltenthaler, E., Ferriter, M., Beverley, C., & Parry, G. (2007). Computerised cognitive behaviour therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A systematic review. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 76, 196–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Turpin, G., Downs, M., & Mason, S. (2005). Effectiveness of providing self-help information following acute traumatic injury: Randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 187, 76–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Unützer, J., Klap, R., Sturm, R., Young, A. S., Marmon, T., & Shatkin, J. (2000). Mental disorders and the use of alternative medicine: Results from a national survey. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 1851–1857.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wagner, B., Schulz, W., & Knaevelsrud, C. (in press). Efficacy of an internet-based intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder in Iraq: A pilot study. Psychiatry Research.Google Scholar
  95. Wagner, B., Brand, J., Schulz, W., & Knaevelsrud, C. (2012). Online working alliance predicts posttraumatic stress disorder in war-traumatized patients in the Middle East. Depression and Anxiety, 29(7), 646–651.Google Scholar
  96. Wangberg, S., Andreassen, H., Kummervold, P., Wynn, R., & Sørensen, T. (2009). Use of the internet for health purposes: Trends in Norway 2000–2010. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23, 691–696.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wells, A., & Papageorgiou, C. (2004). Metacognitive therapy for depressive rumination. In C. Papageorgiou & A. Wells (Eds.), Depressive rumination. Nature, theory, and treatment (pp. 259–273). West Sussex: Wiley.Google Scholar
  98. Wells, A., White, J., & Carter, C. (1997). Attention training: Effects on anxiety and beliefs in panic and social phobia. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 4, 226–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. White, P. (2000). What can general practice learn from complementary medicine? British Journal of General Practice, 50, 821–823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Wootton, B. M., & Titov, N. (2010). Distance treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behaviour Change, 27, 112–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steffen Moritz
    • 1
  • Kiara R. Timpano
    • 2
  • Charlotte E. Wittekind
    • 1
  • Christine Knaevelsrud
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and PsychotherapyUniversity Medical Center in Hamburg-EppendorfHamburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MiamiCoral GablesUSA
  3. 3.Clinical Psychology and PsychotherapyFree University BerlinBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations