Advertisement

Assessment and Treatment of Deficits in Social Skills Functioning and Social Anxiety in Children Engaging in School Refusal Behaviors

  • Frank M. Gresham
  • Michael J. Vance
  • Jeffrey Chenier
  • Katherine Hunter
Chapter

Abstract

Students who miss significant amounts of school are at risk for developing a myriad of difficulties that leave them unfit for a successful life. Despite evidence for these phenomena, students are continuing to miss school at an increasingly high rate. This chapter focuses on the assessment and treatment of school refusers, with a focus on those missing school because of social anxiety. A history of school refusal behavior and its definitions as related to social anxiety are presented, as well as current evidence-based methods of assessing school refusal behavior. Additionally, an RTI model of assessing and treating school refusal behavior as it relates to social anxiety is outlined.

Keywords

Anxiety Disorder Social Skill Social Anxiety Social Anxiety Disorder School Refusal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Alexander, K. L., Entwisle, D. R., & Kabbani, N. S. (2001). The dropout process in life course perspective: Early risk factors at home and school. Teachers College Record, 103, 760–822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Revised 4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2011). Proposed draft revisions to DSM disorders and criteria. Retrieved from http://www.dsm5.org.
  4. Beidel, D. C., & Turner, S. M. (1997). At risk for anxiety. I. Psychopathology in the offspring of anxious parents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 918–924.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berg, I., Nichols, K., & Pritchard, C. (1969). School phobia – Its classification and relationship to dependency. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 10, 123–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bernstein, G. A. (1991). Comorbidity and severity of anxiety and depressive disorders in a clinic sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 43–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bernstein, G. A., & Garfinkel, B. D. (1986). School phobia: The overlap of affective and anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 25, 235–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bernstein, G. A., & Garfinkel, B. D. (1992). The visual analogue scale for anxiety – revised: Psychometric properties. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 6, 223–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Birmaher, B., Brent, D. A., Chiappetta, L., Bridge, J., Mimga, S., & Baugher, M. (1999). Psychometric properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED): A replication study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 1230–1236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Birmaher, B., Khetarpal, S., Brent, D. A., Cully, M., Balach, L., Kaufman, J., et al. (1997). The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED): Scale construction and psychometric characteristics. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 545–553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Broadwin, I. T. (1932). A contribution to the study of truancy. Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 2, 253–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burt, C. (1925). The young delinquent. London: University of London Press.Google Scholar
  13. Compton, S., Burns, B., Egger, H., & Robertson, E. (2002). Review of the evidence base for treatment of childhood psychopathology: Internalizing disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(6), 1240–1266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cook, C. (2010). Student Internalizing Behavior Screener. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University.Google Scholar
  15. Coolidge, J. C., Hahn, P. B., & Peck, A. L. (1957). School phobia: Neurotic crisis or way of life? American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 27, 296–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Coplan, R. J., Arbeau, K. A., & Armer, M. (2008). Don’t fret, be supportive! Maternal characteristics linking child shyness to psychosocial and school adjustment in kindergarten. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 359–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dube, S., & Orpinas, P. (2009). Understanding excessive absenteeism as school refusal behavior. Children and Schools, 31(2), 87–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Durand, V. M., & Crimmins, D. B. (1988). Identifying the variables maintining self-injurious behavior. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 18, 99–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Elliott, S. N., & Gresham, F. M. (2007). SSIS classwide intervention program teacher’s guide. Minneapolis, MN: NCS Pearson.Google Scholar
  20. Elliott, S. N., & Gresham, F. M. (2008). SSIS intervention guide. Minneapolis, MN: NC Pearson.Google Scholar
  21. Gresham, F. M. (1981). Assessment of children’s social skills. Journal of School Psychology, 19, 120–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gresham, F. M. (2002). Teaching social skills to high-risk children and youth: Preventive and remedial approaches. In M. Shinn, H. Walker, & G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches (pp. 403–432). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.Google Scholar
  23. Gresham, F. M., & Elliott, S. N. (2008). Social Skills Improvement System: Rating Scales. Bloomington, MN: Pearson Assessments.Google Scholar
  24. Gresham, F. M., Elliott, S. N., & Kettler, R. J. (2010). Base rates of social skills acquisition/performance deficits, strengths, and problem behaviors: An analysis of the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales. Psychological Assessment, 22(4), 809–815.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Healy, W. (1915). The individual delinquent. London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  26. Iwata, B. A., Dorsey, M. F., Slifer, K. J., Bauman, K. E., & Richam, G. S. (1994). Toward a functional analysis of self-injury. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 197–209 (Reprinted from Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 1982, 2, 3–20).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Johnson, A. M., Falstein, E. I., Szurek, S. A., & Svendsen, M. (1941). School phobia. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 11, 702–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kearney, C. A. (2001). School refusal behavior in youth: A functional approach to assessment and treatment. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kearney, C. A. (2002). Identifying the function of school refusal behavior: A revision of the school refusal assessment scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 24, 235–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kearney, C. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis of the school refusal assessment scale-revised: Child and parent versions. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 28(3), 139–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kearney, C. A. (2007). Forms and functions of school refusal behavior in youth: An empirical analysis of absenteeism severity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48(1), 53–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kearney, C. A. (2008). School absenteeism and school refusal behavior in youth: A contemporary review. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 451–471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kearney, C. A., & Albano, A. (2004). The functional profiles of school refusal behavior: Diagnostic aspects. Behavior Modification, 28(1), 147–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kearney, C. A., & Silverman, W. K. (1993). Measuring the function of school refusal behavior: The school refusal assessment scale. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22, 85–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kearney, C. A., & Silverman, W. K. (1996). The evolution and reconciliation of taxonomic strategies for school refusal behavior. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 3(4), 339–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kennedy, W. A. (1965). School phobia: Rapid treatment of fifty cases. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 70(4), 285–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. King, N. J., & Bernstein, G. A. (2001). School refusal in children and adolescents: A review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(2), 197–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. La Greca, A. M., & Stone, W. L. (1993). Social anxiety scale for children-revised: Factor structure and concurrent validity. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 23, 17–27.Google Scholar
  39. Last, C. G., Francis, G., & Strauss, C. C. (1989). Assessing fears in anxiety-disordered children with the Revised Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-R). Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 18, 137–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. March, J. S., Parker, J. D. A., Sullivan, K., Stallings, P., & Conners, K. (1997). The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MSAC): Factor, structure, reliability, and validity. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 554–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. March, J. S., Sullivan, K., & Parker, J. (1999). Test–retest reliability of the multidimensional anxiety scale for children. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13(4), 349–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Merrell, K. W., & Gueldner, B. A. (2010). Preventive interventions for students with internalizing disorders: Effective strategies for promoting mental health in schools. In M. R. Shinn & H. M. Walker (Eds.), Interventions for achievement and behavior problems in a three-tier model including RTI (pp. 799–824). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.Google Scholar
  43. Ollendick, T. H. (1983). Reliability and validity of the Revised Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-R). Behaviour Research and Therapy, 21, 685–692.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ollendick, T. H., & Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R. (2002). The developmental psychopathology of social anxiety disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 44–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Partridge, J. M. (1939). Truancy. Journal of Mental Science, 85, 45–81.Google Scholar
  46. Rapee, R. M. (1997). Potential role of childrearing practices in the development of anxiety and depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 17, 47–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Reinherz, H. Z., Tanner, J. L., Paradis, A. D., Beardslee, W. R., Szigethy, E. M., & Bond, A. E. (2006). Depressive disorders. In C. A. Essau (Ed.), Child and adolescent psychopathology: Theoretical and clinical implications (pp. 113–139). New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  48. Reynolds, C. R., & Richmond, B. O. (1985). Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale: Manual. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  49. Reynolds, C. R., & Richmond, B. O. (2008). Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale Second Edition: Manual. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  50. Romero, M., & Lee, Y. (2007). A national portrait of chronic absenteeism in the early grades. Retrieved from: Columbia University, National Center for Children in Poverty, http://www.nccp.org/publications/pdf/text_771.pdf
  51. Scherer, M. W., & Nakamura, C. Y. (1968). A Fear Survey for Children (FSSC): A factor-analytic comparison with manifest anxiety (CMAS). Behaviour Research and Therapy, 6, 173–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Silverman, W. K., & Albano, A. M. (1996). Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children for DSM-IV: (Child and Parent Versions). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation/Graywind.Google Scholar
  53. Silverman, W. K., & Ollendick, T. H. (2005). Evidence-based assessment of anxiety and its disorders in children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34(3), 380–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sourander, A., & Helstela, L. (2005). Childhood predictors of externalizing and internalizing problems in adolescence: A prospective follow-up study from age 8 to 16. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 14(8), 415–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Spielberger, C. (1973). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  56. U.S. Census Bureau. (2005). Educational attainment in the United State: 2004. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  57. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2006). The condition of education 2006, NCES 2006-071. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  58. Vasa, R. A., & Pine, D. S. (2006). Anxiety disorders. In C. A. Essau (Ed.), Child and adolescent psychopathology: Theoretical and clinical implications (pp. 78–112). New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  59. Weeks, M., Coplan, R. J., & Kingsbury, A. (2009). The correlates and consequences of early appearing social anxiety in young children. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 965–972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Williams, H. D. (1927). Truancy and delinquency. Journal of Applied Psychology, 11, 276–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wood, J. J., McLeod, B. D., Sigman, M., Hwang, W. C., & Chu, B. C. (2003). Parenting and childhood anxiety: Theory, empirical findings, and future directions. Journal of Child Psychology, 44, 134–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank M. Gresham
    • 1
  • Michael J. Vance
    • 1
  • Jeffrey Chenier
    • 1
  • Katherine Hunter
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA

Personalised recommendations