Regulatory Control of Food Composition, Quality, and Safety
Attempts at regulating the composition of foods go back to the Middle Ages. Primarily restricted to certain food items such as bread or beer, these ancient regulations were intended to protect the consumer from fraudulent practices. The original Bavarian beer purity law dating from the Middle Ages is still quoted today to indicate that nothing but water, malt, yeast, and hops have been used in the production of beer. The foundations for many of our modern food laws were laid in the last quarter of the 19th century. Increasing urbanization and industrialization meant that many people had less control over the food that had to be brought into the urban centers. Foodstuffs were deliberately contaminated to increase bulk or improve appearance. Chalk was mixed with flour, and various metal salts were added to improve color (Reilly 1991). Some of these added substances were highly toxic. One practice leading to disastrous results was the distillation of rum in stills constructed of lead.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Camire, M.E. 1996. Blurring the distinction between dietary supplements and foods. Food Technol. 50, no. 6: 160.Google Scholar
- Concon, J.M. 1988. Food toxicology. Part A: Principles and concepts. Part B: Contaminants and additives. New York: Marcel Dekker. Google Scholar
- Food Safety Council. 1982. A proposed food safety evaluation process: Final report of board of trustees. Washington, DC. Google Scholar
- Fuchs, R.L., and J.D. Astwood. 1996. Allergenicity assessment of foods derived from genetically modified plants. Food Technol. 50, no. 2: 83-88.Google Scholar
- Hall, R.L. 1975. GRAS: Concept and application. Food Technol. 29: 48-53.Google Scholar
- Mendez, G.R., Jr. 1993. Codex Alimentarius promotes international co-operation. Food Technol. 47, no. 6: 14.Google Scholar
- Norris, B., and A.L. Black. 1989. Food administration in Australia. In International food regulation handbook, ed. R.D. Middlekauff and P. Shubik. New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
- Pszczola, D.E. 1998. The ABC's of nutraceutical ingredients. Food Technol. 52, no. 3: 30-37.Google Scholar
- Reilly, C. 1991. Metal contamination of food. 2nd ed. London: Elsevier Applied Science.Google Scholar
- Scheuplein, R.J., and W.G. Flamm. 1989. A historical perspective on FDA's use of risk assessment. In International food regulation handbook, ed. R.D. Middlekauff and R Shubik. New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
- Vettorazi, G. 1989. Role of international scientific bodies. In International food regulation handbook, ed. R.D. Middlekauff and P. Shubik. New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar