A Bio-Route Production of Biodiesel

  • A. H. Kamaruddin
  • N. A. Serri
  • J. H. Sim
  • S. F. A. Halim
  • S. R. A. Rahaman


The rapid increase in the crude oil prices due to diminishing reserves of fossil fuels and the increased rate of world energy consumption have drawn attention of the researchers for alternative energy source. Biodiesel, also known as fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), has become more attractive as an alternative fuel resource because of its environmental benefit such as biodegradable, nontoxic, and low emission profiles. Presently, Malaysia is now looked upon as the pioneer palm biofuel producer. Malaysia is well known to be the largest producer of palm oil and palm oil products. Therefore, sustainability of feedstock for biodiesel production is not an issue for the present demand of alternative energy resources. Currently, industries are implementing chemical routes using alkaline catalyst which is a non-­environmental friendly process and the presence of impurities as by-product needs to go through further purification steps in the downstream process. The green technology of enzymatic transesterification is suggested as an alternative method for biodiesel production. The study of transesterification from edible and nonedible oil such as crude palm oil (CPO), waste cooking oil, and sea mango oil by immobilized lipase is highlighted. The transformation of palm oil into value-added product biodiesel can help to increase its commercial value of palm oil.


Biodiesel Transesterification Green technology Plant oils 



The authors would like to express their gratitude to the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI), Malaysia, for their financial support of the postgraduate study, National Science Fellowship (NSF) and project funding through E-Science Fund (project no. 02-01-05-SF0122 and 6013202). The research university grant (project no. 1001/PJKIMIA/814004) and research university postgraduate research grant scheme (project no. 1001/PJKIMIA/8031036) awarded by Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) are also appreciated.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. H. Kamaruddin
    • 1
  • N. A. Serri
    • 2
  • J. H. Sim
    • 3
  • S. F. A. Halim
    • 4
  • S. R. A. Rahaman
    • 2
  1. 1.Chemical Engineering DepartmentUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia
  2. 2.Universiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia
  3. 3.Universiti Tun Abdul RazakKuala LumpurMalaysia
  4. 4.Chemical Engineering DepartmentUniversiti Teknologi MaraPenangMalaysia

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