The Effects of Kaolin/PESF Ratios on the Microstructures of Kaolin Hollow Tubes

  • R. Sarbatly
  • Z. Kamin


The effects of kaolin/polyethersulfone (PESf) (k/p) ratios on the microstructures of kaolin hollow tubes have been investigated. Kaolin suspension containing k/p ratios between 1 and 3.5 was used to spin kaolin hollow-tube precursors via a dry-jet wet spinning method at 0-cm air gap. The cross-sectional microstructures of the kaolin hollow-tube precursors were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that, at k/p ratios of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.5 (low viscosity) and k/p ratios of 3.0 and 3.5 (high viscosity), the finger like voids dominated the outer regions and inner regions of the cross sections of the kaolin hollow tubes, respectively.


Coagulation Bath Kaolin Clay Tube Cross Section Kaolin Suspension Kaolin Particle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to thank the Universiti Malaysia Sabah and the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation, Malaysia, for the usage of facilities and funding this research, respectively.


  1. Bouzerara, F., Harabi, A., Achour, S., & Larbot, A. (2006). Porous ceramic supports for membranes prepared from kaolin and doloma mixtures. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 26, 1663–1671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Clausi, D. T., McKelvey, S. A., & Koros, W. J. (1999). Characterization of substructure resistance in asymmetric gas separation membranes. Journal of Membrane Science, 160, 51–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Kingsbury, B. F. K., & Li, K. (2009). A morphological study of ceramic hollow fibre membranes. Journal of Membrane Science, 328, 134–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Liu, S., & Li, K. (2003). Preparation of TiO2/Al2O3 composite hollow fibre membranes. Journal of Membrane Science, 218, 269–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Liu, Y., & Li, K. (2005). Preparation of SrCe0.95Yb0.05O3-[alpha] hollow fibre membranes: Study on sintering processes. Journal of Membrane Science, 259, 47–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Liu, S., Tan, X., Li, K., & Hughes, R. (2001). Preparation and characterisation of SrCe0.95Yb0.05O2.975 hollow fibre membranes. Journal of Membrane Science, 193, 249–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Mohammadi, T., & Pak, A. (2002). Making zeolite a membrane from kaolin by electrophoresis. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 56, 81–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Mohammadi, T., & Pak, A. (2003). Effect of calcination temperature of kaolin as a support for zeolite membranes. Separation and Purification Technology, 30, 241–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Mohammadi, T., Pak, A., Karbassian, M., & Golshan, M. (2004). Effect of operating conditions on microfiltration of an oil-water emulsion by a kaolin membrane. Desalination, 168, 201–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Sarbatly, R. & Kamin, Z. (2012). Effect of the sintering process on the morphology of kaolin hollow tubes: 12th International Conference on Inorganic Membranes 9–13 July 2012, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  11. Shen, L.-Q., Xu, Z.-K., Liu, Z.-M., & Xu, Y.-Y. (2003). Ultrafiltration hollow fiber membranes of sulfonated polyetherimide/polyetherimide blends: Preparation, morphologies and anti-fouling properties. Journal of Membrane Science, 218, 279–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Tan, X., Liu, S., & Li, K. (2001). Preparation and characterization of inorganic hollow fiber membranes. Journal of Membrane Science, 188, 87–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Wara, N. M., Francis, L. F., & Velamakanni, B. V. (1995). Addition of alumina to cellulose acetate membranes. Journal of Membrane Science, 104, 43–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Wei, C. C., Chen, O. Y., Liu, Y., & Li, K. (2008). Ceramic asymmetric hollow fibre membranes-one step fabrication process. Journal of Membrane Science, 320, 191–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Xiuli, Y., Hongbin, C., Xiu, W., & Yongxin, Y. (1998). Morphology and properties of hollow-fiber membrane made by PAN mixing with small amount of PVDF. Journal of Membrane Science, 146, 179–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Membrane Technology Research Group, School of Engineering and Information TechnologyUniversiti Malaysia SabahKota KinabaluMalaysia
  2. 2.TAS Institute of Oil and Gas, School of Engineering and Information TechnologyUniversiti Malaysia SabahKota KinabaluMalaysia

Personalised recommendations