Biology and Ecology of Long Island Sound

  • Glenn LopezEmail author
  • Drew Carey
  • James T. Carlton
  • Robert Cerrato
  • Hans Dam
  • Rob DiGiovanni
  • Chris Elphick
  • Michael Frisk
  • Christopher Gobler
  • Lyndie Hice
  • Penny Howell
  • Adrian Jordaan
  • Senjie Lin
  • Sheng Liu
  • Darcy Lonsdale
  • Maryann McEnroe
  • Kim McKown
  • George McManus
  • Rick Orson
  • Bradley Peterson
  • Chris Pickerell
  • Ron Rozsa
  • Sandra E. Shumway
  • Amy Siuda
  • Kelly Streich
  • Stephanie Talmage
  • Gordon Taylor
  • Ellen Thomas
  • Margaret Van Patten
  • Jamie Vaudrey
  • Charles Yarish
  • Gary Wikfors
  • Roman Zajac
Part of the Springer Series on Environmental Management book series (SSEM)


Many compelling management issues in Long Island Sound (LIS) focus on how organisms respond to stresses such as commercial and recreational harvesting, eutrophication, hypoxia, habitat degradation, invasion of non-native species, ocean acidification, and climate change. In order to address these complex problems, we must first understand the factors controlling biological processes and how organisms interact ecologically. This chapter provides an overview of the major groups of organisms occupying the dominant habitats of LIS.



Glenn Lopez would like to thank Hans Dam, Bob Whitlatch, and Roman Zajac for efforts in planning and organizing this chapter, all the coauthors for their contributions, the editors for their comments and corrections, and Robert Christian for his valuable review.

J. Vaudrey would like to recognize the contribution and support provided by the Department of Marine Sciences at the University of Connecticut, Connecticut Sea Grant (Kremer: R/ER-23), and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (Kremer: FY2003 EPA 319 NPS #03-33 and FY2004 LISS Enhancement Project #AG0606257). Thanks to Dr. A. Branco and 15 Coastal Studies majors (University of Connecticut) for field assistance, 1999–2004.

C. Pickerell would like to recognize the contribution and support of the Sound Futures Fund of the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation for funding all of CCE’s eelgrass restoration work in LIS. Without this support, none of this work would have been possible. Additional partners within the Sound Futures Fund have included the LIS Study, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and Shell Oil Company. Save the Sound, CT also funded some of the early eelgrass work in LIS. Members of the CCE team instrumental in developing and refining site selection and planting methods for LIS include S. Schott and K. Petersen Manzo. This work would not have been possible without their hard work and dedication.

C. Yarish wishes to thank The Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection’s Long Island Sound Research Fund (CWF-314-R), M. DiGiacomo-Cohen and R. Lewis of the Long Island Sound Resource Center and R. Rozsa for assistance with historical data for Long Island Sound seagrasses; to many undergraduate and graduate students from the UConn Department of Marine Sciences and the late R.A. Cooper, Director Emeritus of the Marine Science Technology Center; to A. Calabrese, Director Emeritus, Milford Laboratory, (NMFS, NOAA, DOC), Milford, Connecticut; and to M. Keser, J. Foertch and J. Swenarton, Millstone Environmental Laboratory, Millstone Power Station, Dominion Resources Services, Inc., Waterford, Connecticut.

H. Dam would like to thank the CTDEEP and the Office of LISS for funding that provided much of the data and analysis for the section on plankton.

Ellen Thomas thanks CT Sea Grant and the LISS EPA office for funding, and many Wesleyan undergraduate students for their hard work.

Chris Elphick thanks Patrick Comins, Frank Gallo, and Greg Hanisek for a careful reading of the text and the Center for Environmental Science and Engineering at the University of Connecticut for providing CSE with office space during the preparation of this manuscript.

Rob DiGiovanni extends his appreciation to Kimberly Durham and Julika Wocial for their help in preparing this document and providing historical background on the marine mammal and sea turtle rescue program.

Gordon Taylor is indebted to the many students and colleagues who have participated in the fieldwork and generously shared their insights into hypoxia. This contribution was supported in part by Hudson River Foundation Grant 012/96A.


  1. Able KW, Fahey MP (1998) The first year in the life of estuarine fishes in the Middle Atlantic Bight. Rutgers University Press, New BrunswickGoogle Scholar
  2. Addy CE, Johnson R (1947) Status of eelgrass along the Atlantic coast during 1947. In: Proceedings, Northeastern Game Conference, pp 73–78Google Scholar
  3. Adl SM, Simpson ABG, Farmer MA, Andersen RA, Anderson OR, Barta JR, Bowser SA, Brugerolle G, Fensome RA, Fredericq S, James TY, Karpov S, Kugrens P, Krug J, Lane CF, Lewis LA, Lodge J, Lynn DH, Mann DG, McCourt RM, Mendoza L, Moestrup Ø, Mozley-Standridge SE, Nerad T, Shearer CA, Smirnov AV, Spiegel FW, Taylor MFJR (2005) The new higher level classification of Eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of Protists. J Eukaryot Microbiol 52:39–451Google Scholar
  4. Alber M, Swenson EM, Adamowicz SC, Mendelssohn IA (2008) Sudden marsh dieback: an overview of recent events in the US. Est Coast Shelf Sci 80:1–11Google Scholar
  5. Albert R (1988) The historical context of water quality management for the Delaware estuary. Estuaries, Coasts 11:99–107Google Scholar
  6. Aller RC (1984) The importance of relict burrow structures and burrow irrigation in controlling sedimentary solute distributions. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 48(10):1929–1934Google Scholar
  7. Aller RC (1994) The sedimentary Mn cycle in Long Island Sound: its role as intermediate oxidant and the influence of bioturbation, O2, and Corg flux on diagenetic reaction balances. J Mar Res 52:259–295Google Scholar
  8. Aller RC, Benninger LK (1981) Spatial and temporal patterns of dissolved ammonium, manganese, and silica fluxes from bottom sediments of Long Island Sound, USA. J Mar Res 39:295–314Google Scholar
  9. Allin CC, Husband TP (2003) Mute swan (Cygnus olor) impact on submerged aquatic vegetation and macroinvertebrates in a Rhode Island coastal pond. Northeast Nat 10:305–318Google Scholar
  10. Altieri AH (2008) Dead zones enhance key fisheries species by providing predation refuge. Ecol 89(10):2808–2818Google Scholar
  11. Altobello MA (1992) The economic importance of Long Island Sound’s water quality dependent activities. University of Connecticut. Report to the US Environmental Protection Agency for the Long Island Sound Study, 41 ppGoogle Scholar
  12. Alve E (1995) Benthic foraminiferal responses to estuarine pollution: an overview. J Foram Res 25:190–203Google Scholar
  13. Alve E (1996) Benthic foraminiferal evidence of environmental change in the Skagerrak over the past six decades. Norske Geologiske Undersoknung, Bull 430:85–93Google Scholar
  14. Alve E, Murray JW (1995) Benthic foraminiferal distribution and abundance changes in Skagerrak surface sediments: 1937 (Höglund) and 1992/1993 data compared. Mar Micropaleontol 25:269–288Google Scholar
  15. Anderson SS (1972) The ecology of Morecambe Bay: II. Intertidal invertebrates and factors affecting their distribution. J Appl Ecol 9:161–178Google Scholar
  16. Anderson TH, Taylor GT (2001) Nutrient pulses, plankton blooms and hypoxia in western Long Island Sound. Estuaries 24:228–243Google Scholar
  17. Anisfeld SC, Hill TD (2011) Fertilization effects on elevation change and belowground carbon balance in a Long Island Sound tidal marsh. Estuaries Coasts 35:201–211Google Scholar
  18. Armstrong H, Brasier MD (2005) Microfossils. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Malden, pp 143–187Google Scholar
  19. Arnold WS, Marelli DC, Parker M, Hoffman P, Frischer M, Scarpa J (2002) Enhancing hard clam (Mercenaria spp.) population density in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida: a comparison of strategies to maintain the commercial fishery. J Shellfish Res 21:659–672Google Scholar
  20. ASMFC (2010) Recruitment failure in the Southern New England lobster stock. Technical Report to the Lobster Management Board, April 2010.
  21. Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) (2009) American lobster stock assessment report for peer review. Stock Assessment Report 09-01.
  22. Auster PJ, Heinonen KB, Witharana C, McKee M (2009) A habitat classification scheme for The Long Island Sound Region. Final Report, EPA Long Island Sound StudyGoogle Scholar
  23. Babcock HL (1919) Turtles of New England. Mem Boston Soc, Nat Hist 8:325–431Google Scholar
  24. Baden SP, Loo LO, Pihl L, Rosenberg R (1990) Effects of eutrophication on benthic communities including fish: Swedish west coast. Ambio 19(3):113–22Google Scholar
  25. Balcom N, Howell P (2006) Responding to a resource disaster: American lobsters in Long Island Sound, 1999–2004. Connecticut Sea Grant Report CTSG-06-02Google Scholar
  26. Båmstedt U, Nejstgaard JC, Solberg PT, Høisaeter T (1999) Utilisation of small-sized food algae by Calanus finmarchicus (Copepod, Calanoida) and the significance of feeding history. Sarsia 84(1):19–28Google Scholar
  27. Banks M (1990) Aboriginal weirs in southern New England. Bull Archaeol Soc Connect 53:73–84Google Scholar
  28. Batiuk RA, Orth RJ, Moore KA, Dennison WC, Stevenson JC (1992) Chesapeake Bay submerged aquatic vegetation habitat requirements and restoration targets: a technical synthesis. Virginia Inst of Marine Science, Gloucester PointGoogle Scholar
  29. Batiuk RA, Bergstrom P, Kemp M, Koch EW, Murray L, Stevenson JC, Bartleson R, Carter V, Rybicki NB, Landwehr JM, Gallegos CL, Karrh L, Naylor M, Wilcox D, Moore KA, Ailstock S, Teichberg M (2000) Chesapeake Bay submerged aquatic vegetation water quality and habitat-based requirements and restoration targets: a second technical synthesis. US Environmental Protection Agency, AnnapolisGoogle Scholar
  30. Bayard TS, Elphick CS (2011) Planning for sea-level rise: quantifying patterns of Saltmarsh Sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus) nest flooding under current sea-level conditions. Auk 128:393–403Google Scholar
  31. Beck MW, Heck KL Jr, Able KW, Childers DL, Eggleston DB, Gillanders BM, Halpern B, Hays CG, Hoshino K, Minello TJ, Orth RJ, Sheridan PF, Weinstein MP (2001) The identification, conservation, and management of estuarine and marine nurseries for fish and invertebrates. Bioscience 51:633–641Google Scholar
  32. Bejda AJ, Phelan BA, Studholme AL (1992) The effect of dissolved oxygen on the growth of young-of-the-year winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus. Env Biol Fishes 34:321–327Google Scholar
  33. Bell GW, Eggleston DB (2005) Species-specific avoidance responses by blue crabs and fish to chronic and episodic hypoxia. Mar Biol 146:761–770Google Scholar
  34. Bell GW, Eggleston DB, Noga EJ (2010) Molecular keys unlock the mysteries of variable survival responses of blue crabs to hypoxia. Oecologia 163:57–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Bellchambers LM, Richardson AMM (1995) The effect of substrate disturbance and burial depth on the venerid clam, Katelysis scalarina (Lamark, 1818). J Shellfish Res 14:41–44Google Scholar
  36. Beman JM, Arrigo KR, Matson PA (2005) Agricultural runoff fuels large phytoplankton blooms in vulnerable areas of the ocean. Nature 434:211–214Google Scholar
  37. Bender K, Davis WR (1984) The effect of feeding by Yoldia limatula on bioturbation. Ophelia 23:91–100Google Scholar
  38. Benoit GJ, Turekian KK, Benninger LK (1979) Radiocarbon dating of a core from Long Island Sound. Est Coast Mar Sci 9:171–180Google Scholar
  39. Berge JA, Bjerkeng B, Pettersen O, Schaanning MT, Oxnevad S (2006) Effects of increased sea water concentrations of CO2 on growth of the bivalve Mytilus edulis L. Chemosphere 62:681–687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Berman J, Harris L, Lambert W, Buttrick M, Dufresne M (1992) Recent invasions of the Gulf of Maine: three contrasting ecological histories. Conservation Biol 6:435–441Google Scholar
  41. Bernhard JM, Bowser SS (1999) Benthic foraminifera of dysoxic sediments: chloroplast sequestration and functional morphology. Earth Sci Rev 46:149–165Google Scholar
  42. Bernstein DJ (2006) Long-term continuity in the archaeological record from the coast of New York and Southern New England, USA. J Island Coastal Archaeol 1(2):27–284Google Scholar
  43. Berrill M, Berrill D (1981) A Sierra Club naturalist’s guide to the North Atlantic Coast. Sierra Club Books, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  44. Bertness MD (1999) The ecology of Atlantic Shorelines. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland 417 ppGoogle Scholar
  45. Bertness MD (2007) Atlantic shorelines: natural history and ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton 431 ppGoogle Scholar
  46. Bertness MD, Gaines SD, Hay ME (eds) (2001) Marine community ecology. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, 550 ppGoogle Scholar
  47. Bertness MD, Silliman BR, Holdredge C (2009) Shoreline development and the future of New England salt marsh landscapes. In: Silliman BR, Grosholz ED, Bertness MD (eds) Human impacts on salt marshes. University of California Press, Los Angeles, pp 137–148Google Scholar
  48. Bintz JC, Nixon SW, Buckley BA, Granger SL (2003) Impacts of temperature and nutrients on coastal lagoon plant communities. Estuaries 26:765–776Google Scholar
  49. Blake M, Smith E (1984) A marine resources management plan for the State of Connecticut. Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Fisheries, 244 ppGoogle Scholar
  50. Blake JA, Grassle JP, Eckelbarger EJ (2009) Capitella teleta, a new species designation for the opportunistic and experimental Capitella sp. I, with a review of the literature for confirmed records. Zoosymposia 2:25–53Google Scholar
  51. Blakeslee AMH, Byers JE, Leser MP (2008) Solving cryptogenic histories using host and parasite molecular genetics: the resolution of Littorina littorea’s North American origin. Mol Ecol 17:3684–3696PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Blight SP, Bentley TL, Lefevre D, Robinson C, Rodrigues R, Rowlands J, Williams PJL (1995) Phasing of autotrophic and heterotrophic plankton metabolism in a temperate coastal ecosystem. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 128:61–75Google Scholar
  53. Boer WF (2007) Seagrass-sediment interactions, positive feedbacks and critical thresholds for occurrence: a review. Hydrobiologia 591:5–24Google Scholar
  54. Bohlen WF, Cundy DF, Tramontano JM (1979) Suspended material distribution in the wake of estuarine channel dredging operations. Est Coast Mar Sci 9:699–711Google Scholar
  55. Bokuniewicz HJ (1988) Sedimentation of fine-grained particles in Long Island Sound: a review of evidence prior to 1987. Special report 83, Reference 88-2, EPA National Estuaries Program, 36 ppGoogle Scholar
  56. Bokuniewicz HJ (1989) Behavior of sand caps on subaqueous dredged-sediment disposal sites. In: Hood DW, Schoener A, Park PK (eds) Oceanic processes in marine pollution, vol 4., Scientific monitoring strategies for ocean waste disposalKreiger Publishing Co, Malabar, pp 221–229Google Scholar
  57. Bokuniewicz HJ, Gordon RB (1980) Sediment transport and deposition in Long Island Sound. Adv Geophys 22:69–106Google Scholar
  58. Bokuniewicz H, Tanski JJ (1983) Sediment partitioning at an eroding coastal bluff. Northeastern Geol 5:73–81Google Scholar
  59. Bolam SG, Rees H (2003) Minimising the impacts of maintenance dredged material disposal in the coastal environment: a habitat approach. Environ Manag 32(2):171–188Google Scholar
  60. Bolam SG, Rees HL, Somerfield P, Smith R, Clarke KR, Warwick RM, Atkins M, Garnacho E (2006) Ecological consequences of dredged material disposal in the marine environment: a holistic assessment of activities around the England and Wales coastline. Mar Poll Bull 52(6):415–426Google Scholar
  61. Boos K, Ashton GV, Cook EJ (2011) The Japanese skeleton shrimp Caprella mutica (Crustacea: Amphipoda): a global invader of coastal waters. In: Galil BS, Clark PF, Carlton JT (eds) In the wrong place-Alien marine crustaceans: distribution, biology, and impacts. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 129–156Google Scholar
  62. Bos AR, Bouma TJ, de Kort GLJ, van Katwijk MM (2007) Ecosystem engineering by annual intertidal seagrass beds: sediment accretion and modification. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 74:344–348Google Scholar
  63. Bouck GE, Morgan E (1957) The occurrence of Codium in Long Island Waters. Bull Torrey Bot Club 84:384–387Google Scholar
  64. Bouma TJ, De Vries MB, Low E, Peralta G, Tánczos IC, Van De Koppel J, Herman PMJ (2005) Trade-offs related to ecosystem engineering: a case study on stiffness of emerging macrophytes. Ecology 86:2187–2199Google Scholar
  65. Bousfield EL (1973) Shallow-water Gammaridean Amphipoda of New England. Cornell University Press, New York, pp 312Google Scholar
  66. Bowman MJ (1977) Nutrient distributions and transport in Long Island Sound. Est Coast Mar Sci 5:531–548Google Scholar
  67. Bradshaw JS (1957) Laboratory studies on the rate of growth of the foraminifer ‘Streblus’ beccarii (Linne) var. tepida (Cushman). J Paleontol 31:1138–1147Google Scholar
  68. Bradshaw JS (1968) Environmental parameters and marsh foraminifera. Limnol Oceanogr 13:26–28Google Scholar
  69. Brady DC, Targett TE (2010) Characterizing the escape response of juvenile summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus to diel-cycling hypoxia. J Fish Biol 77:137–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Brady DC, Tuzzolino DM, Targett TE (2009) Behavioral responses of juvenile weakfish, Cynoscion regalis, to diel-cycling hypoxia: swimming speed, angular correlation, expected displacement and effects of hypoxia acclimation. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 66(3):415–424Google Scholar
  71. Brandt SB, Demers E, Tyler JA, Gerken MA (1998) Fish bioenergetic modelling: Chesapeake Bay ecosystem modelling program (1993–1998). Report to the Chesapeake Bay Program, US Environmental Protection Agency, Chesapeake Bay Program Office, Annapolis, MDGoogle Scholar
  72. Brandt SB, Gerken M, Hartman KJ, Demers E (2009) Effects of hypoxia on food consumption and growth of juvenile striped bass (Morone saxatilis). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 38:(1) pp S143–S149Google Scholar
  73. Breitburg DL (1994) Behavioral responses of fish larvae to low dissolved oxygen concentrations in a stratified water column. Mar Biol 120:615–625Google Scholar
  74. Breitburg DL (2002) Effects of hypoxia, and the balance between hypoxia and enrichment, on coastal fishes and fisheries. Estuaries 25:886–900Google Scholar
  75. Breitburg DL, Adamack A, Rose KA, Kolesar SE, Decker B, Purcell JE, Keister JE, Cowan HH (2003) The pattern and influence of low dissolved oxygen in the Patuxent River, a seasonally hypoxic estuary. Estuaries 26(2A):280–297Google Scholar
  76. Breitburg DL, Craig JK, Fulford RS, Rose KA, Boyton WR, Brady D, Ciotti BJ, Diaz RJ, Freidland KD, Hagy JD III, Hart DR, Hines AH, Houde ED, Kolesar SE, Nixon SW, Rice JA, Secor DH, Targett TE (2009a) Nutrient enrichment and fisheries exploitation: interactive effects on estuarine living resources and their management. Hydrobiologia 629:31–47Google Scholar
  77. Breitburg DL, Hondorp DW, Davias LW, Diaz RJ (2009b) Hypoxia, nitrogen and fisheries: integrating effects across local and global landscapes. Ann Rev Mar Sci 1:329–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Breitburg DL, Pihl, L, Kolesar SE (2001) Effects of low dissolved oxygen on the behavior, ecology, and harvest of fishes: A comparison of the Chesapeake Bay and the Baltic-Kattegat Systems. In : Coastal Hypoxia: Consequences for the living resources and ecosystems. Coastal and Estuarine Studies 58, Rabelais, NN and RE Turner, eds. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  79. Breitburg DL, Steinberg N, DuBeau S, Cooksey C, Houde ED (1994) Effects of low dissolved oxygen on predation on estuarine fish larvae. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 104(3):235–246Google Scholar
  80. Brett JR, Groves TDD (1979) Physiological energetics. In: Hoar WS, Randall DJ, Brett JR (eds) Fish physiology, Vol VIII: bioenergetics and growth. Academic Press, New York, p 786Google Scholar
  81. Bricelj VM, Kuenstner SH (1989) Effects of the “brown tide” on the feeding physiology and growth of bay scallops and mussels. In: Cosper EM, Bricelj VM, Carpenter EJ (eds) Novel phytoplankton blooms: causes and impacts of recurrent brown tides and other unusual blooms. Springer, Berlin, pp 491–509Google Scholar
  82. Bricelj VM, MacQuarrie SP (2007) Effects of brown tide (Aureococcus anophagefferens) on hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria larvae and implications for benthic recruitment. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 331:147–159Google Scholar
  83. Bricelj VM, MacQuarrie SP, Schaffner RA (2001) Differential effects of Aureococcus anophagefferens isolates (“brown tide”) in unialgal and mixed suspensions on bivalve feeding. Mar Biol 139:605–615Google Scholar
  84. Briggs PT, Waldman JR (2002) Annotated list of fishes reported from the marine waters of New York. Northeast Nat 9:47–80Google Scholar
  85. Brinkhuis BH (1976) The ecology of salt marsh fucoids. Mar Biol 34:325–333Google Scholar
  86. Brinkhuis BH (1983) Seaweeds in New York waters: a primer. New York Sea Grant Institute, Stony Brook , 21 ppGoogle Scholar
  87. Brinkhuis BH, Davies D, Hanisak D, Herman H, Macler B, Peterson W (1982) In: Squires D, McKay L (eds) Marine biomass: New York State species and site studies. Report to New York State Energy Research and Development Authority Gas Research Institute. ERDA Report 82–87, 139 ppGoogle Scholar
  88. Brinkhuis BH, Breda VA, Mariani ED, Tobin S, Macler BA (1983) New York biomass program-culture of Laminaria saccharina. J Mariculture Soc 14:360–379Google Scholar
  89. Brodie J, Andersen RA, Kawachi M, Millar AJK (2009) Endangered algal species and how to protect them. Phycologia 48(3):423–438Google Scholar
  90. Broom JE, Nelson WA, Yarish C, Jones WA, Aguilar Rosas R, Aguilar Rosas LE (2002) A reassessment of the taxonomic status of Porphyra suborbiculata, Porphyra carolinensis and Porphyra lilliputiana (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) based on molecular and morphological data. Eur J Phycol 37:227–235Google Scholar
  91. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries (1963) A program of fishery research and services, North Atlantic Region. US Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Washington DC, 20 ppGoogle Scholar
  92. Burke VJ, Standora EA, Morreale SJ (1991) Factors affecting strandings of cold stunned juvenile Kemp’s ridley and loggerhead sea turtles in Long Island, New York. Copeia 1991:1136–1138Google Scholar
  93. Burke VJ, Morreale SJ, Standora EA (1994) Dietary composition of Kemp’s ridley sea turtles in the waters of New York. Fish Bull 92:26–32Google Scholar
  94. Burnett LE (1997) The changes of living in hypoxia and hypercapnia aquatic environments. Amer Zool 37:633–640Google Scholar
  95. Bussell JA, Lucas I, Seed R (2007) Patterns in the invertebrate assemblage associated with Corallina officinalis in tide pools. J Mar Biol Assn U K 87:383–388Google Scholar
  96. Buzas MA (1965) The distribution and abundance of Foraminifera in Long Island Sound. Smithsonian Inst Miscellaneous Coll 149(1):1–88Google Scholar
  97. Buzas MA (1966) The discrimination of morphological groups of Elphidium (foraminifera) in Long Island Sound through canonical analysis and invariant characters. J Paleontol 40:585–594Google Scholar
  98. Buzas MA, Culver SJ, Isham LB (1985) A comparison of fourteen Elphidiidid (Foraminiferida) taxa. J Paleontol 59:1075–1090Google Scholar
  99. Calbet A, Landry MR (2004) Phytoplankton growth, microzooplankton grazing, and carbon cycling in marine systems. Limnol Oceanogr 49:51–57Google Scholar
  100. Caley MJ, Carr MH, Hixon MA, Hughes TP, Jones GP, Menge BA (1996) Recruitment and the local dynamics of open marine populations. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 27:477–500Google Scholar
  101. Campagna VA, Cech JJ Jr (1981) Gill ventilation and respiratory efficiency of Sacramento Blackfish. Orthodon microlepidotus in hypoxic environments. J Fish Biol 19:581–591Google Scholar
  102. Campbell L (1985) Investigations of marine, phycoerythrin-containing Synechococcus spp. (Cyanobacteria): distribution of serogroups and growth rate measurements. Ph.D. dissertation, Stony Brook, State University of New YorkGoogle Scholar
  103. Campbell JG, Goodman LR (2004) Acute sensitivity of juvenile shortnose sturgeon to low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Trans Am Fish Soc 133(3):772–776Google Scholar
  104. Campbell L, Olson RJ, Sosik HM et al (2010) First harmful Dinophysis bloom in the US is revealed by automated imaging flow cytometry. J Phycol 46:66–75Google Scholar
  105. Canning MH, Carlton JT (2000) Predation on kamptozoans (Entoprocta). Invert Biol 119:386–387Google Scholar
  106. Capriulo GM (1982) Feeding of field collected tintinnid micro-zooplankton on natural food. Mar Bio 71:73–86Google Scholar
  107. Capriulo GM, Carpenter EJ (1980) Grazing by 35 to 202 μm micro-zooplankton in Long Island Sound. Mar Biol 56:319–326Google Scholar
  108. Capriulo GM, Carpenter EJ (1983) Abundance, species composition and feeding impact of tintinnid microzooplankton in central Long Island Sound. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 10:277–288Google Scholar
  109. Capriulo GM, Smith G, Troy R, Wikfors G, Pellet J, Yarish C (2002) The planktonic food web structure of a temperate zone estuary, and its alternation due to due to eutrophication. Hydrobiologia 475(476):263–333Google Scholar
  110. Carey AG (1962) An ecological study of two benthic animal populations in Long Island Sound. PhD dissertation, Yale University, 61 ppGoogle Scholar
  111. Carey DA, Lewis D, Wolf S, Greenblatt M, Fredette TJ (2006) Long term stability of capped dredged material disposal mounds: Stamford, New Haven North and Cap Site 2 in Long Island Sound. Proceedings of the 26th annual Western Dredging Association Technical Conference, San Diego, CA. Https://
  112. Carey DA, Hickey K, Myre PL, Read LB, Esten ME (2012) Monitoring surveys at the historical Brenton Reef disposal site 2007 and 2009. DAMOS Contribution 187, US Army Corps of Engineers, New England District, Concord, MA, 134 ppGoogle Scholar
  113. Carlton JT (1982) The historical biogeography of Littorina littorea on the Atlantic coast of North America, and implications for the interpretation of the structure of New England intertidal communities. Malacological Rev 15:146Google Scholar
  114. Carlton JT (1992) Introduced marine and estuarine mollusks of North America: an end-of-the-20th-century perspective. J Shellfish Res 11:489–505Google Scholar
  115. Carlton JT (1996) Biological invasions and cryptogenic species. Ecology 77:1653–1655Google Scholar
  116. Carlton JT (2009) Deep invasion ecology and the assembly of communities in historical time. In: Rilov G, Crooks JA (eds) Biological invasions in marine ecosystems. Springer, Berlin, pp 13–56Google Scholar
  117. Carlton JT (2010) Invertebrates, marine. In: Simberloff D, Rejmanek M (eds) Encyclopedia of biological invasions. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  118. Carlton JT, Cohen AN (2003) Episodic global dispersal in shallow water marine organisms: the case history of the European shore crabs Carcinus maenas and Carcinus aestuarii. J Biogeography 30:1809–1820Google Scholar
  119. Carlton JT, Scanlon JA (1985) Progression and dispersal of an introduced alga: Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) on the Atlantic coast of North America. Bot Mar 28:155–165Google Scholar
  120. Carlton JT, Newman WA, Pitombo FB (2011) Barnacle invasions: introduced, cryptogenic, and range expanding Cirripedia of North and South America. In: Galil BS, Clark PF, Carlton JT (eds) In the wrong place–Alien marine crustaceans: distribution, biology, and impacts. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 159–213Google Scholar
  121. Carmona R, Kraemer GP, Zertuche JA, Chanes L, Chopin T, Neefus C, Yarish C (2001) Exploring Porphyra species for use as nitrogen scrubbers in integrated aquaculture. J Phycol 37(3):10. Google Scholar
  122. Caron DA, Dennett MR, Lonsdale DL, Moran DM, Shalapyonok L (2000) Microzooplankton herbivory in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Deep-Sea Res 11(47):3249–3272Google Scholar
  123. Carriker MR (2001) Embryogenesis and organogenesis of Veligers and early juveniles. In: Kraeuter JN, Castagna M (eds) Biology of the hard clam. Elsevier Science, New York, pp 77–115Google Scholar
  124. Carroll J, Gobler CJ, Peterson BJ (2008) Resource-restricted growth of eelgrass in New York estuaries: light limitation, and alleviation of nutrient stress by hard clams. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 369:51–62Google Scholar
  125. Cavanaugh CM, McKiness ZP, Newton ILG, Stewart FJ (2006) Marine chemosynthetic symbioses. Prokaryotes 1:475–507Google Scholar
  126. Cech JJ Jr, Mitchel SJ, Wragg TE (1984) Comparative growth of juvenile white sturgeon and striped bass–effects of temperature and hypoxia. Estuaries 7(1):12–18Google Scholar
  127. Cech JJ, Mitchell SJ, Castleberry DT, McEnroe M (1990) Distribution of California stream fishes: influences of environmental temperature and hypoxia. Environ Biol Fishes 29:95–105Google Scholar
  128. Cedhagen T (1991) Retention of chloroplasts and bathymetric distribution in the sublittoral foraminiferan Nonionellina labradorica. Ophelia 33:17–30Google Scholar
  129. Cerrato RM, Bokuniewicz HJ (1986) The benthic fauna at four potential containment/wetlands stabilization areas. Marine Sciences Research Center Special Report No 73. State University of New York, Stony Brook, p 117Google Scholar
  130. Cerrato RM, Holt LC (2008) North Shore bays benthic mapping: ground truth studies. Marine Sciences Research Center Special Report No 135. Marine Sciences Research Center, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 184 ppGoogle Scholar
  131. Cerrato RM, Caron DA, Lonsdale DJ, Rose JM, Schaffner RA (2004) Effect of the northern quahog Mercenaria mercenaria on the development of blooms of the brown tide alga Aureococcus anophagefferens. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 281:93–108Google Scholar
  132. Chabot D, Dutil J-D (1999) Reduced growth of Atlantic cod in non-lethal hypoxic conditions. J Fish Biol 55:472–491Google Scholar
  133. Chambers RM, Meyerson LA, Saltonstall K (1999) Expansion of Phragmites australis into tidal wetlands of North America. Aquat Botany 64:261–273Google Scholar
  134. Chapman VJ, Chapman DJ (1980) Seaweeds and their uses. Chapman and Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  135. Cheek AO, Landry CA, Steele SL, Manning S (2009) Diel hypoxia in marsh creeks impairs the reproductive capacity of estuarine fish populations. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 392:211–221Google Scholar
  136. Cheng IJ, Lopez GR (1991) Contributions of bacteria and sedimentary organic matter to the diet of Nucula proxima, a deposit-feeding protobranchiate bivalve. Ophelia 34:157–170Google Scholar
  137. Chesney EJ, Houde ED (1989) Laboratory studies on the effect of hypoxic waters on the survival of eggs and yolk-sac larvae of the bay anchovy, Anchoa mitchilli, p.184–191. In ED Houde, EJ Chesney,TA Newberger, AV Vazquez, CE Zastrow, LG Morin. HR Harvey, and JW Gooch, (eds.). Population Biology of the Bay Anchovy in Mid-Chesapeake Bay. Final Report to Maryland Sea Grant Ref. No. (UM-CEES) CBI, 89–141, Solomons, MarylandGoogle Scholar
  138. Chopin T, Yarish C, Wilkes R, Belyea E, Lu S, Mathieson A (1999) Developing Porphyra/salmon integrated aquaculture for bioremediation and diversification of the aquaculture industry. J Appl Phycol 11:463–472Google Scholar
  139. Chopin T, Buschmann AJ, Halling C, Troell M, Kautsky N, Neori A, Kraemer GP, Zertuche-Gonzalez JA, Yarish C, Neefus C (2001) Integrating seaweeds into mariculture systems: a key towards sustainability. J Phycol 37(6):975–986Google Scholar
  140. Christensen V, Walters CJ, Ahrens R, Alder J, Buszowski J, Christensen LB, Cheung WWL, Dunne J, Froese R, Karpouzi V, Kaschner K, Kearney K, Lai S, Lam V, Palomares MLD, Peters-Mason A, Piroddi C, Sarmiento JL, Steenbeek J, Sumaila R, Watson R, Zeller D, Pauly D (2009) Database-driven models of the world’s largest marine ecosystems. Ecol Model 220:1984–1996Google Scholar
  141. Churchill AC, Cok AE, Riner MI (1978) Stabilization of subtidal sediments by the transplantation of the seagrass Zostera marina L. New York Sea Grant Report, NYSSGR-RS-78-15, Albany, NYGoogle Scholar
  142. Claireaux G, Webber DM, Lagardère J-P, Kerr SR (2000) Influence of water temperature and oxygenation on the aerobic metabolic scope of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). J Sea Res 44:257–265Google Scholar
  143. Cloern JE (2001) Our evolving conceptual model of the coastal eutrophication problem. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 210:223–253Google Scholar
  144. Cohen JB, Barclay JS, Major AR, Fisher JP (2000) Wintering scaup as biomonitors of metal contamination in federal wildlife refuges in the Long Island region. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 38:83–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Collette B, Klein-MacPhee G (eds) (2002) Bigelow and Schroeder’s fishes of the Gulf of Maine, 3rd edn. Smithsonian Inst Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  146. Collie JS, Wood AD, Jeffries HP (2008) Long-term shifts in the species composition of a coastal fish community. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 65:1352–1365Google Scholar
  147. Colson S, Sturmer LN (2000) One shining moment known as Clamelot: the Cedar Key story. J Shellfish Res 19:477–480Google Scholar
  148. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CT DEP) (2000) Impact of 1999 lobster mortality in Long Island Sound. Report to the Natl Marine Fisheries Service (US Commerce Dept) in support of disaster assistance under the Sustainable Fisheries Act, 55 ppGoogle Scholar
  149. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (2000) A total maximum daily load analysis to achieve water quality standards for dissolved oxygen in Long Island SoundGoogle Scholar
  150. Conover SAM (1956) Oceanography of Long Island Sound, 1952–1954. IV. Phytoplankton. Bull Bingham Oceanogr Collect 15:62–112Google Scholar
  151. Corlett H, Jones B (2007) Epiphyte communities on Thalassia testudinum from Grand Cayman, British West Indies: their composition, structure, and contribution to lagoonal sediments. Sed Geol 194:245–262. doi: 10.1016/j.sedgeo.2006.06.010 Google Scholar
  152. Cosper EM, Dennison WC, Carpenter EJ, Bricelj VM, Mitchell JG, Kuenstner SH, Colflesh DC, Dewey M (1987) Recurrent and persistent “brown tide” blooms perturb coastal marine ecosystem. Estuaries 10:284–290Google Scholar
  153. Cottam C (1933) Disappearance of eelgrass along the Atlantic Coast. Plant Dis Rep 17:46–53Google Scholar
  154. Cragg SM (2006) Development, physiology, behaviour, and ecology of scallop larvae. In: Shumway SE, Parsons GJ (eds) Scallops: biology, ecology, and aquaculture. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 45–122Google Scholar
  155. Crain CM, Gedan KM, Dionne M (2009) Tidal restrictions and mosquito ditching in New England marshes. In: Silliman BR, Grosholz ED, Bertness MD (eds) Human impacts on salt marshes. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 149–169Google Scholar
  156. Crocker CE, Cech JJ Jr (1997) Effects of environmental hypoxia on oxygen consumption rate and swimming activity in juvenile white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus in relation to temperature and life intervals. EnvIron Biol Fish 50:383–388Google Scholar
  157. Croker RA (1970) Intertidal sand macrofauna from Long Island, New York. Chesapeake Sci 11:134–137Google Scholar
  158. Cronan JM Jr (1957) Food and feeding habits of the scaups in Connecticut waters. Auk 74:459–468Google Scholar
  159. Crossin G, Al-Ayoub S, Jury S, Howell W, Watson W (1998) Behavioral thermoregulation in the American lobster Homarus americanus. J Exp Biol 201:365–374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. CT DEP (Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection) (2000) Impact of 1999 lobster mortalities in Long Island Sound. CT DEP Marine Fisheries Office, Old Lyme, CT, 47 ppGoogle Scholar
  161. CT DEP MFIS (Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection Marine Fisheries Information System) (2010) Marine Fisheries Office, Old Lyme, CTGoogle Scholar
  162. Culver SJ, Buzas M (1982) Recent benthic foraminiferal provinces between Newfoundland and Yucatan. Geol Soc Am Bull 93:269–277Google Scholar
  163. Culver SJ, Buzas M (1995) The effects of anthropogenic habitat disturbance, habitat destruction, and global warming on shallow marine benthic foraminifera. J Foram Res 25:204–211Google Scholar
  164. Cumbler JT (1991) The early making of an environmental consciousness: fish, fisheries commissions and the Connecticut River. Env History Rev 15(4):73–91Google Scholar
  165. Cuomo MC (1985) Sulphide as a larval settlement cue for Capitella sp. I. Biogeochem 1:169–181Google Scholar
  166. Cuomo C, Zinn GA (1997) Benthic invertebrates of the Lower West River. In: Casagrande DG (ed) Restoration of an urban salt marsh: an interdisciplinary approach, pp 152-161, Center for Coastal and Watershed Systems, Bull No 100. Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven, p 270Google Scholar
  167. Cuomo C, Valente R, Dogru D (2005) Seasonal variations in sediment and bottom water chemistry of western Long Island Sound: implications for lobster mortality. J Shellfish Res 24(3):805–814Google Scholar
  168. Dalton CM, Ellis D, Post DM (2009) The impact of double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) predation on anadromous alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) in south-central Connecticut, USA. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 66:177–186Google Scholar
  169. Dam Guerrero HG (1989) The dynamics of copepod grazing in Long Island Sound. PhD Dissertation, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NYGoogle Scholar
  170. Dam HG, McManus GB (2009) Final report: monitoring mesozooplankton and microzooplankton in Long Island Sound, National Coastal Assessment, reporting period: March 2007–April 2008Google Scholar
  171. Dam HG, Peterson WT (1988) The effect of temperature on the gut clearance rate constant of planktonic copepods. J Exp Mar Bio Ecol 123:1–14Google Scholar
  172. Dam HG, Peterson WT (1991) In situ feeding behavior of the copepod Temora longicornis effects of seasonal changes in chlorophyll size fractions and female size. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 71:113–123Google Scholar
  173. Dam HG, Peterson WT (1993) Seasonal contrasts in the diel vertical distribution, feeding behavior, and grazing impact of the copepod Temora longicornis in Long Island Sound. J Mar Res 51:561–594Google Scholar
  174. Dam HG, Peterson WT, Bellantoni DC (1994) Seasonal feeding and fecundity of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa in Long Island Sound: is omnivory important to egg production? Hydrobiologia 292(293):191–199Google Scholar
  175. Dam HG, Roman MR, Youngbluth MJ (1995) Downward export of respiratory carbon and dissolved inorganic nitrogen by diel-migrant mesozooplankton at the JGOFS Bermuda time-series station. Deep-Sea Res Pt I 42:1187–1197Google Scholar
  176. Dam HG, O’Donnell J, Siuda AN (2010) A synthesis of water quality and planktonic resource monitoring data for Long Island Sound. Final report EPA grant number LI-97127501Google Scholar
  177. Davis JC (1975) Minimal dissolved oxygen requirements of aquatic life with emphasis of Canadian species: a review. J Fish Res Board Canada 32:2295–2332Google Scholar
  178. Davis HC, Chanley PE (1956) Effects of some dissolved substances on bivalve larvae. Proc Natl Shellfisheries Assoc 46:59–74Google Scholar
  179. Davison IR, Jordan TL, Fegley JC, Grobe C (2007) Response of Laminaria saccharina (Phaeophyta) growth and photosynthesis to simultaneous ultraviolet radiation and nitrogen limitation. J Phycol 43:636–646Google Scholar
  180. Dawson MA (1990) Blood chemistry of the Windowpane flounder Scophthalamus aquosus in Long Island Sound: geographical, season, and experimental variations. Fish Bull, US 88:429–437Google Scholar
  181. De Guise S, Maratea J, Chang E, Perkins C (2005) Resmethrin immunotoxicity and endocrine disrupting effects in the American lobster (Homarus americanus) upon experimental exposure. J Shellfish Res 24(3):781–786Google Scholar
  182. De Rijk S (1995) Agglutinated foraminifera as indicators of salt marsh development in relation to Late Holocene sea level rise. PhD dissertation, Vrije University, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  183. De Rijk S, Troelstra S (1999) The application of a foraminiferal actuo-facies model to salt-marsh cores. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 149:59–66Google Scholar
  184. De Silva, CD and P Tytler. 1973. The influence of reduced environmental oxygen on the metabolism and survival of herring and plaice larvae. Neth. J Sea Res 7:345–362Google Scholar
  185. De Sola R (1931) Sex determination in a species of the Kinosternidae, with notes on sound production in reptiles. Copeia 1931:124–125Google Scholar
  186. De Vorsey L (2007) Americas: exploration voyages, 1500–1620 (Eastern Coast). In: Hattendorff JB (ed) The Oxford encyclopedia of maritime history. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 28–36Google Scholar
  187. Deevey GB (1956) Oceanography of Long Island Sound, 1952-1954: Zooplankton. Bull Bingham Oceangr Collect 15:133–155Google Scholar
  188. Dennison WC (1987) Effects of light on seagrass photosynthesis, growth and depth distribution. Aquatic Bot 27:15–26Google Scholar
  189. Dennison WC, Alberte RS (1985) Role of daily light period in the depth distribution of Zostera marina (eelgrass). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 25:51–61Google Scholar
  190. Dennison WC, Orth RJ, Moore KA, Stevenson JC, Carter V, Kollar S, Bergstrom P, Batiuk RA (1993) Assessing water quality with submersed aquatic vegetation. Bioscience 43:86–94Google Scholar
  191. Deubler EE Jr, Posner GS (1963) Responses of postlarval flounders, Paralichthys lethostigma, to water of low oxygen concentrations. Copeia 2:312–317Google Scholar
  192. Diaz RJ, Rosenberg R (1995) Marine benthic hypoxia: a review of its ecological effects and the behavioral responses of benthic macrofauna. Oceanogr Mar Biol Ann Rev 33:245–303Google Scholar
  193. Diaz RJ, Rosenberg R (2008) Spreading dead zones and consequences for marine ecosystems. Science 321:926–929PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. DiGiovanni RA, Durham K, Spangler-Martin D (2000) Marine mammal and sea turtle stranding program 1996 through 2000 report to NYS DECGoogle Scholar
  195. DiGiovanni RA, Durham KF, Wocial JN, Chaillet AM (2009) An increase in gray seal (Halichoerous grypus) sightings in New York waters. Abstract for the 18th biennial conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. Quebec, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  196. DiMichele L, Powers D (1984) The relationship between oxygen consumption and hatching in Fundulus heteroclitus. Physiol Zool 57:46–51Google Scholar
  197. Doeller JE, Gaschen BK, Parrino V, Kraus DW (1999) Chemolithoheterotrophy in a metazoan tissue: sulfide supports cellular work in ciliated mussel gills. J Exp Biol 202:1953–1961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Dominion Nuclear Connecticut (DNC) (2010) Unpublished temperature data, Don Landers, Millstone Environmental Laboratory (personal communication)Google Scholar
  199. Doney SC, Fabry VJ, Feely RA, Kleypas JA (2009) Ocean acidification: the other CO2 problem. Ann Rev Mar Sci 1:169–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Donnelly JP, Bertness MD (2001) Rapid shoreward encroachment of salt marsh cordgrass in response to accelerated sea-level rise. Proc Nat Acad Sci U S A 98:14218–14223Google Scholar
  201. Dove A, LoBue C, Bowser P, Powell M (2004) Excretory calcinosis: a new fatal disease of wild American lobster Homarus americanus. Dis Aquat Org 58:215–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Dove A, Allam B, Powers J, Sokolowski M (2005) A prolonged thermal stress experiment on the American lobster Homarus americanus. J Shellfish Res 24:761–765Google Scholar
  203. Draxler AFJ, Robohm RA, Wieczorek D, Kapereiko D, Pitchford S (2005) Effect of habitat biogeochemicals on survival of lobsters (Homarus americanus). J Shellfish Res 24(3):821–824Google Scholar
  204. Dreyer GD, Niering WA (eds) (1995) Tidal marshes of Long Island Sound: ecology, history and restoration. Connecticut College Arboretum Bull 34:77 ppGoogle Scholar
  205. Dring MJ (1992) Biology of marine plants. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  206. Dring M, Wagner A, Lüning K (2001) Contribution of the UV component of natural sunlight to photoinhibition of photosynthesis in six species of subtidal brown and red seaweeds. Plant, Cell Environ 24:1153–1164Google Scholar
  207. Duarte CM (1991) Seagrass depth limits. Aquat Bot 40:363–377Google Scholar
  208. Duarte CM (1995) Submerged aquatic vegetation in relation to different nutrient regimes. Ophelia 41:87–112Google Scholar
  209. Duarte CM, Middelburg JJ, Caraco N (2005) Major role of marine vegetation on the oceanic carbon cycle. Biogeosci 2:1–8Google Scholar
  210. Dubilier N (1988) H2S-A settlement cue or a toxic substance for Capitella sp. I larvae. Biol Bull 174:30–38Google Scholar
  211. Dunton KJ, Jordaan A et al (2010) Abundance and distribution of Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) within the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, determined from five fishery-independent surveys. Fish Bull 108(4):450–465Google Scholar
  212. Ducheney P, Murray Jr, RF, Waldrip JE, Tomichek CA (2006) Fish passage at Hadley Falls: past, present, and future.
  213. Eby LA, Crowder LB (2002) Hypoxia-based habitat compression in the Neuse River Estuary: context-dependent shifts in behavioral avoidance thresholds. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 59(6):952–9655Google Scholar
  214. Eby L, Crowder L, McClellan CM, Peterson CH, Powers MJ (2005) Habitat degradation from intermittent hypoxia: impacts on demersal fishes. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 291:49–261Google Scholar
  215. Edwards RJ, Wright AJ, van de Plassche O (2004a) Surface distributions of salt-marsh foraminifera from Connecticut, USA: modern analogues for high-resolution sea level studies. Mar Micropaleontol 51:1–21Google Scholar
  216. Edwards RJ, van de Plassche O, Gehrels WR, Wright AJ (2004b) Assessing sea-level data from Connecticut, USA using a foraminiferal transfer function for tide level. Mar Micropaleontol 51:239–255Google Scholar
  217. Egan B, Yarish C (1988) The distribution of the genus Laminaria (Phaeophyta) at its southern limit in the western Atlantic Ocean. Botanica Mar 31:155–161Google Scholar
  218. Egan B, Yarish C (1988) The distribution of the genus Laminaria (Phaeophyta) at its southern limit in the western Atlantic Ocean. Botanica Mar 31: 155–161Google Scholar
  219. Egan B, Yarish C (1990) Productivity and life history of Laminaria longicruris de la Pyl. at its southern limit in the Western Atlantic Ocean. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 76:263–273Google Scholar
  220. Egan B, Vlasto A, Yarish C (1989) Seasonal acclimation to temperature and light in Laminaria longicruris de la Pyl. (Phaeophyta). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 129:1–16Google Scholar
  221. Egan B, Garcia-Esquivel Z, Brinkhuis BH, Yarish C (1990) Genetics of morphology and growth in Laminaria from the North Atlantic Ocean-Implications for biogeography. In: Garbary DJ, South GR (eds) Evolutionary biogeography of the marine algae of the North Atlantic. NATO ASI 22. Springer, Berlin, pp 147–172Google Scholar
  222. Elmer WH, Marra RE (2011) New species of Fusarium associated with dieback of Spartina alterniflora in Atlantic salt marshes. Mycologia 103:806–819PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. ENSR (2007) Baseline bathymetric surveys at the Central and Western Long Island Sound disposal sites, July 2005. DAMOS Contribution 177. US Army Corps of Engineers, New England District, Concord, MA, 85 ppGoogle Scholar
  224. EOBRT (Eastern Oyster Biological Review Team) (2007) Status review of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Report to the Natl Marine Fisheries Service, Northeast Regional Office. 16 Feb 2007, 105 ppGoogle Scholar
  225. EPA/USACE (US Environmental Protection Agency/US Army Corps of Engineers) (1991) Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal: testing manual. EPA-503/8-91/001Google Scholar
  226. Falkowski PG, Algeo T, Codispoti L, Deutsch C, Emerson S, Hales B, Huey RB, Jenkins WJ, Kump LR, Levin LA, Lyons TW, Nelson NB, Schofield OS, Summons R, Talley LD, Thomas E, Whitney F, Pilcher CB (2011) Ocean deoxygenation: past, present, and future. EOS 92(46):409–420Google Scholar
  227. Farrell AP, Richards JG (2009) Defining hypoxia: an integrative synthesis of the responses of fish to hypoxia. In: Hypoxia, Richards JG, Farrell AP, Brauner CJ (eds) Fish physiology vol 27. Academic press, New York, pp 487–503Google Scholar
  228. Farrow DRG, Arnold FD, Lombardi ML, Main MB, Eichelberger PD (1986) The national coastal pollution discharge inventory, estimates for Long Island Sound. NOAA Office of Oceanography and Marine Assessment, Rockville 40 ppGoogle Scholar
  229. Fauchald P, Mauritzen M et al (2006) Density-dependent migratory waves in the marine pelagic ecosystem. Ecology 87(11):2915–2924PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Feely RA, Sabine CL, Hernandez-Ayon M, Ianson D, Hales B (2008) Evidence for upwelling of corrosive “acidified” water onto the continental shelf. Science 320:1490–1492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Fisher C (1983) Social organization and change during the early horticultural period in the Hudson River valley. PhD Dissertation, SUNY, AlbanyGoogle Scholar
  232. Fisher CR (1990) Chemoautotrophic and methanotrophic symbioses in marine invertebrates. Rev Aquat Sci 2:399–436Google Scholar
  233. Fitzgerald DM, Fenster MS, Argow BA, Buynevich IV (2008) Coastal impacts due to sea level rise. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 36:601–647Google Scholar
  234. Foertch J, Swenarton J, Keser M (2009) Multivariate analysis to show trends in the algae. Presentation at the Northeast Algal Soc Annual Meeting 2009, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MAGoogle Scholar
  235. Fogarty MJ, Murawski SA (1998) Large-scale disturbance and the structure of marine systems: fisheries impacts on Georges Bank. Ecol App 8:S6–S22Google Scholar
  236. Forbes TL, Lopez GR (1990) The effect of food concentration, body size, and environmental oxygen tension on the growth of the deposit-feeding polychaete, Capitella species I. Limnol Oceanogr 35:1535–1544Google Scholar
  237. Forbes TL, Forbes VE, Depledge MH (1994) Individual physiological responses to environmental hypoxia and organic enrichment: implications for early soft-bottom community succession. J Mar Res 52:1081–1100Google Scholar
  238. Francis CA, Roberts KJ, Beman JM, Santoro AE, Oakley BB (2005) Ubiquity and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea in water columns and sediments of the ocean. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:14683–14688PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Frederiksen M, Edwards M, Richardson AJ, Halliday NC, Wanless S (2006) From plankton to top predators: bottom-up control of a marine food web across four trophic levels. J Anim Ecol 75:1259–1268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Frederiksen M, Furness RW, Wanless S (2007) Regional variation in the role of bottom-up and top-down processes in controlling sandeel abundance in the North Sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 337:279–286Google Scholar
  241. Fredette TJ (1998) DAMOS: Twenty years of dredged material disposal site monitoring. Isn’t that enough? Chem Ecol 14:231–239Google Scholar
  242. Fredette TJ, French GT (2004) Understanding the physical and environmental consequences of dredged material disposal: history in New England and current perspectives. Mar Poll Bull 49:93–102Google Scholar
  243. Fredette TJ, Germano JD, Carey DA, Murray PM, Kullberg P (1992) Chemical stability of capped dredged material disposal mounds in Long Island Sound, USA. Chem Ecol 7:173–194Google Scholar
  244. Fredette TJ, Kullberg PG, Carey DA, Germano JD, Morton R (1993) Twenty-five years of dredged material disposal site monitoring in Long Island Sound: a long-term perspective, pp 153–161. In: Van Patten MS (ed) Long Island Sound Research Conference Proc, Univ of Connecticut Sea Grant, Pub No CT-SG-93-03. Storrs, CTGoogle Scholar
  245. Frisk MG, Miller TJ et al (2008) New hypothesis helps explain elasmobranch “outburst” on Georges Bank in the 1980s. Ecol App 18(1):234–245Google Scholar
  246. Frisk MG, Martell SJD et al (2010) Exploring the population dynamics of winter skate (Leucoraja ocellata) in the Georges Bank region using a statistical catch-at-age model incorporating length, migration, and recruitment process errors. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 67(5):774–792Google Scholar
  247. Frisk MG, Duplisea DE et al (2011a) Exploring the abundance-occupancy relationships for the Georges Bank finfish and shellfish community from 1963 to 2006. Ecol App 21(1):227–240Google Scholar
  248. Frisk MG, Miller TJ et al (2011b) Assessing biomass gains from marsh restoration in Delaware Bay using Ecopath with Ecosim. Ecol Model 222(1):190–200Google Scholar
  249. Gainey LF, Shumway SE (1991) The physiological effect of Aureococcus anophagefferens (“brown tide”) on the lateral cilia of bivalve mollusks. Biol Bull 181:298–306Google Scholar
  250. Gattuso J-P, Hansson L (eds) (2011) Ocean acidification. Oxford University Press, New York, 326 ppGoogle Scholar
  251. Gattuso J-P, Frankignoulle M, Wollast R (1998) Carbon and carbonate metabolism in coastal aquatic ecosystems. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 29:405–434Google Scholar
  252. Gazeau F, Quiblier C, Jansen JM, Gattuso JP, Middelburg J, Heip CHR (2007) Impact of elevated CO2 on shellfish calcification. Geophys Res Lett 34. doi: 10.1029/2006GL028554
  253. General Dynamics (1968) Study of means to revitalize the Connecticut fisheries industry. Report prepared by the Marine Sciences Section, Research and Development Department, Electric Boat Division for the CT Research Commission under contract RSA-66-8Google Scholar
  254. Gerard VA (1995) Recent changes in shallow, hardbottom communities in Long Island Sound. In: McElroy A, Zeidner J (eds) Proc Long Island Sound Research Conference: is the Sound getting better or worse? State University of New York. New York Sea Grant Institute, New York, pp 77–79Google Scholar
  255. Gerard VA (1997) The role of nitrogen nutrition in high-temperature tolerance of the kelp Laminaria saccharina (Chromophyta). J Phycol 33:800–810Google Scholar
  256. Gerard VA (1999) Positive interaction between cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, and the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum ecad scorpiodes, in a mid-Atlantic coast salt marsh. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 239:157–164Google Scholar
  257. Gerard VA, Du Bois KR (1988) Temperature ecotypes near the southern boundary of the kelp Laminaria saccharina. Mar Biol 97:575–580Google Scholar
  258. Gerard VA, DuBois K, Greene R (1987) Growth responses of two Laminaria saccharina populations to environmental variation. Hydrobiologia 151(152):229–232Google Scholar
  259. Gerard VA, Cerrato RM, Larson A (1999) Potential impacts of a western Pacific grapsid crab on intertidal communities of the northwestern Atlantic. Biol Invasions 1:353–361Google Scholar
  260. Gerino M, Aller RC, Cochran JK, Aller JY, Green MA, Hirschberg D (1998) Comparison of different tracers and methods used to quantify bioturbation during a spring bloom: 234-Thorium, luminophores and chlorophyll a. Est Coast Shelf Sci 46:531–547Google Scholar
  261. Germano JD, Rhoads DC (1984) REMOTS® sediment profiling at the field verification program (FVP) disposal site. In: Montgomery RL, Leach JW (eds) Dredging and dredged material disposal proceedings, vol 1. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, pp 536–544Google Scholar
  262. Germano JD, Rhoads DC, Lunz JD (1994) An integrated, tiered approach to monitoring and management of dredged material disposal sites in the New England region. DAMOS Contribution 87. US Army Corps of Engineers, New England Division, Waltham, MAGoogle Scholar
  263. Germano JD, Rhoads DC, Valente RM, Carey D, Solan M (2011) The use of sediment profile imaging (SPI) for environmental impact assessments and monitoring studies: lessons learned from the past four decades. Oceanogr Mar Biol Ann Rev 49:247–310Google Scholar
  264. Getchis TS (2005) An assessment of the needs of Connecticut’s shellfish aquaculture industry. CTSG-05-02. Connecticut Sea Grant College Program. Groton, CT, 12 ppGoogle Scholar
  265. Giannini C, Howell P (2010) Connecticut lobster (Homarus americanus) population studies. Five-year performance report for National Marine Fisheries Service Interjurisdictional Grant 3IJ-168-NA05NMF4071033, Connecticut Department of Environmental ProtectionGoogle Scholar
  266. Gibson M, Wahle R (2005) Reduced recruitment of inshore lobster in Rhode Island in association with an outbreak of shell disease and management implications. In: Tlusky M, Halvorson H, Smolowitz R, Sharma U (eds) Lobster shell disease workshop. Aquat Forum Series 05-1, New England Aquar, Boston, MA, pp 115–130Google Scholar
  267. Gifford DJ, Dagg MJ (1991) The microzooplankton-mesozooplankton link: consumption of planktonic protozoa by the calanoid copepods Acartia tonsa Dana and Neocalanus plumchrus Murukawa. Mar Microb Food Webs 5:161–171Google Scholar
  268. Giorgi AE (1981) The environmental biology of the embryo, egg mass, and nesting sites of the lingcod, Ophiodon elongates. NWAFC processed report 81-6, US Department of Commerce, Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center, NMFSGoogle Scholar
  269. Glenn R, Pugh T (2006) Epizootic shell disease in American lobster (Homarus americanus) in Massachusetts coastal waters: interactions of temperature, maturity, and intermolt duration. J Crustacean Biol 26(4):639–645Google Scholar
  270. Glibert PM, Anderson DM, Gentien P, Graneli E, Sellner K (2005) The global, complex phenomena of harmful algal blooms. Oceanography 18(2):132–141Google Scholar
  271. Gobler CJ, Lonsdale DJ, Boyer GL (2005) A synthesis and review of causes and impact of harmful brown tide blooms caused by the alga, Aureococcus anophagefferens. Estuaries 28:726–749Google Scholar
  272. Gobler CJ, Sañudo-Wilhelmy SA, Buck NJ, Sieracki ME (2006) Nitrogen and silicon limitation of phytoplankton communities across an urban estuary: The East River-Long Island Sound system. Est Coast Shelf Sci 68:127–138Google Scholar
  273. Gobler CJ, Berry DL, Anderson OR, Burson A, Koch F, Rodgers BS, Moore LK, Goleski JA, Allam B, Bowser P, Tang YZ, Nuzzi R (2008) Characterization, dynamics, and ecological impacts of harmful Cochlodinium polykrikoides blooms on eastern Long Island, NY, USA. Harmful Algae 7:293–307Google Scholar
  274. Goebel NL, Kremer JN (2007) Temporal and spatial variability of photosynthetic parameters and community respiration in Long Island Sound. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 329:23–42Google Scholar
  275. Goebel NL, Kremer JN, Edwards CA (2006) Primary production in Long Island Sound. Estuar Coasts 29:232–245Google Scholar
  276. Goedkoop W, Gullberg KR, Johnson RK, Ahlgren I (1997) Microbial response of a freshwater benthic community to a simulated diatom sedimentation event: interactive effects of benthic fauna. Microbial Ecol 34:131–143Google Scholar
  277. Goldberg R, Pereira J, Clark P (2000) Strategies for enhancement of natural bay scallop, Argopecten irradians irradians, populations: a case study in the Niantic River estuary, Connecticut, USA. Aquac Int 8:139–158 (Kluwer Academic Publishers)Google Scholar
  278. Gooday AJ (1993) Benthic foraminifera (protista) as tools in deep-water paleooceanography: environmental influences on faunal characteristics. Adv Mar Biol 46:1–90Google Scholar
  279. Gooday AJ, Jorissen F, Levin LA, Middelburg JJ, Naqvi SWA, Rabalais NN, Scranton M, Zhang J (2009) Historical records of coastal-eutrophication induced hypoxia. Biogeosciences 6:1707–1745Google Scholar
  280. Gordon BL (1974) The marine fishes of Rhode Island, 2nd edn. Book & Tackle Shop, Watch Hill 136 ppGoogle Scholar
  281. Gosselin LA, Qian PY (1997) Juvenile mortality in benthic marine invertebrates. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 146:265–282Google Scholar
  282. Gottschall K, Pacileo D (2010) Long Island Sound trawl survey. In: A study of marine recreational fisheries in Connecticut, Job 2.1. Federal aid in sport fish restoration grant F-54-R-29, Connecticut Department of Environmental ProtectionGoogle Scholar
  283. Graf G, Bengtsson W, Diesner U, Schulz R, Theede H (1982) Benthic response to sedimentation of a spring phytoplankton bloom: process and budget. Mar Biol 67:201–208Google Scholar
  284. Grant J (1996) The relationship of bioenergetics and the environment to the field growth of cultured bivalves. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 200:239–256Google Scholar
  285. Grant WS, Root WS (1952) Fundamental stimulus for erythropoiesis. Physiol Rev 32:449–498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Gray IE (1954) Comparative study of the gill area of marine fishes. Biol Bull 107:219–225Google Scholar
  287. Gray JS, Wu RS-S, Or YY (2002) Effects of hypoxia and organic enrichment on the coastal marine environment. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 238:249–279Google Scholar
  288. Greaney GS, Pace AR, Cashon RE, Smith G, Powers DA (1980) Time course of changes in enzyme activities and blood respiratory properties of killifish during long-term acclimation to hypoxia. Physiol Zool 53:136–144Google Scholar
  289. Green AA, Root RW (1933) The equilibrium between hemoglobin and oxygen in the blood of certain fishes. Biol Bull Mar Biol Lab Woods Hole 64:383–404Google Scholar
  290. Green MA, Jones ME, Boudreau CL, Moore RL, Westman BA (2004) Dissolution mortality of juvenile bivalves in coastal marine deposits. Limnol Oceanogr 49:727–734Google Scholar
  291. Green MA, Waldbusser GG, Reilly SL, Emerson K, O’Donnell S (2009) Death by dissolution: sediment saturation state as a mortality factor for juvenile bivalves. Limnol Oceanogr 54:1037–1047Google Scholar
  292. Greenfield DI, Lonsdale DJ (2002) Mortality and growth of juvenile hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria during brown tide. Mar Biol 141:1045–1050Google Scholar
  293. Greenfield DI, Lonsdale DJ, Cerrato RM, Lopez GR (2004) Effects of background concentrations of Aureococcus anophagefferens (brown tide) on growth and feeding in the bivalve Mercenaria mercenaria. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 274:171–181Google Scholar
  294. Greenfield DI, Lonsdale DJ, Cerrato RM (2005) Linking phytoplankton community composition with juvenile-phase growth in the northern quahog Mercenaria mercenaria (L.). Estuaries 28:241–251Google Scholar
  295. Greening H, Janicki A (2006) Toward reversal of eutrophic conditions in a subtropical estuary: water quality and seagrass response to nitrogen loading reductions in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA. Environ Manag 38:163–178Google Scholar
  296. Grieshaber MK, Völkel S (1998) Animal adaptations for tolerance and exploitation of poisonous sulfide. Ann Rev Physiol 60:33–53Google Scholar
  297. Grieshaber MK, Hardewig I, Kreutzer U, Pörtner H-O (1994) Physiological and metabolic responses to hypoxia in invertebrates. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol 125:44–147Google Scholar
  298. Gross AC (1966) Vegetation of the Brucker Marsh and the Barn Island Natural Area, Stonington, Connecticut. Master’s dissertation, Connecticut College, 103 ppGoogle Scholar
  299. Grove M, Breitburg DL (2005) Growth and reproduction of gelatinous zooplankton exposed to low dissolved oxygen. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 301:185–198Google Scholar
  300. Guderley H, Pörtner H-O (2010) Metabolic power budgeting and adaptive strategies in zoology: examples from scallops and fish. Can J Zool 88(8):753–763Google Scholar
  301. Gutierrez JL, Jones CG, Strayer DL, Iribarne OO (2003) Mollusks as ecosystem engineers: the role of shell production in aquatic habitats. Oikos 101:79–90Google Scholar
  302. Hales LS, Able KW (1995) Effects of oxygen concentration on somatic and otolith growth rates of juvenile black sea bass (Cetropristis striata). In: Sector DH, Dean JM, Campana SE (eds) Recent developments of fish otolith research. University of SC Press, Columbia, pp 135–153Google Scholar
  303. Hall GF, Gray IE, Lepkovskys S (1926) The influence of asphyxiation on the blood constituents of marine fishes. J Biol Chem 67:549–554Google Scholar
  304. Hall CJ, Jordaan A, Frisk MG (2011) The historic influence of dams on diadromous fish habitat with a focus on river herring and hydrologic longitudinal connectivity. Landsc Ecol 26(1):95–107Google Scholar
  305. Hallegraeff GM (1993) A review of harmful algal blooms and their apparent global increase*. Phycologia 32:79–99Google Scholar
  306. Hallegraeff GM, Lucas IAN (1988) The marine dinoflagellate genus Dinophysis (Dinophyceae): photosynthetic, neritic and non-photosynthetic, oceanic species. Phycologia 27:25–42Google Scholar
  307. Hall-Spencer JM, Rodolfo-Metalpa R, Martin S, Ransome E, Fine M, Turner SM, Rowley SJ, Tedesco D, Buia M-C (2008) Volcanic carbon dioxide vents reveal ecosystem effects of ocean acidification. Nature 454:96–99. doi: 10.1038/nature07051 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Hammerson GA (2004) Connecticut wildlife: biodiversity, natural history, and conservation. University pf Press of New England, One Court Street, LebanonGoogle Scholar
  309. Hansen PJ, Calado AJ (1999) Phagotrophic mechanisms and prey selection in free-living dinoflagellates. J Eukaryotic Microbiol 46:382–389Google Scholar
  310. Hare JA, Alexander MA, Fogarty MJ, Williams EH, Scott JD (2010) Forecasting the dynamics of a coastal fishery species using a coupled climate-population model. Ecol Appl 20(2):452–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. Hargraves PE, Maranda L (2002) Potentially toxic or harmful microalgae from the northeast coast. Northeast Nat 9:81–120Google Scholar
  312. Harris E, Riley GA (1956) Oceanography of Long Island Sound, 1952-1954. VIII. Chemical composition of the plankton. Bull Bingham Oceanogr Collect 15:315–323Google Scholar
  313. Haska CL, Yarish C, Kraemer G, Blaschick N, Whitlatch R, Zhang H, Lin S (2012) Bait worm packaging as potential vector of invasive species. Biol Invasions 14:481–493. doi: 10.1007/s10530-011-0091-y Google Scholar
  314. Hathaway WE (1910) Effects of menhaden fishing upon the supply of menhaden and of the fishes that prey upon them. Proc 4th Internatl Fishery Congress: Washington, 1908. Government Printing Office, Washington, p 8Google Scholar
  315. Hattenrath TK, Anderson DM, Gobler CJ (2010) The influence of anthropogenic nitrogen loading and meteorological conditions on the dynamics and toxicity of Alexandrium fundyense blooms in a New York (USA) estuary. Harmful Algae 9:402–412Google Scholar
  316. Hauxwell J, Cebrián J, Valiela I (2003) Eelgrass Zostera marina loss in temperate estuaries: relationship to land-derived nitrogen loads and effect of light limitation imposed by algae. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 247:59–73Google Scholar
  317. Hayward BW, Holzmann M, Grenfell HA, Pawlowski J, Triggs CM (2004) Morphological distinction of molecular types in Ammonia-towards a taxonomic revision of the world’s most commonly misidentified foraminifera. Mar Micropaleontol 50:237–271Google Scholar
  318. He P, Yarish C (2006) The developmental regulation of mass cultures of free living conchocelis for commercial net seeding of Porphyra leucosticta from Northeast America. Aquaculture 257:373–381Google Scholar
  319. Heath A (1987) Water Pollution and Fish Physiology. CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  320. Heck KL Jr, Hays G, Orth RJ (2003) Critical evaluation of the nursery role hypothesis for seagrass meadows. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 253:123–136Google Scholar
  321. Hégaret H, Shumway SE, Wikfors GH, Pate S, Burkholder JAM (2008) Potential transport of harmful algae though relocation of bivalve mollusks. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 361:169–179Google Scholar
  322. Heil CA, Glibert PM, Fan CL (2005) Prorocentrum minimum (Pavillard) Schiller—a review of a harmful algal bloom species of growing worldwide importance. Harmful Algae 4:449–470Google Scholar
  323. Heisler J, Glibert P, Burkholder J, Anderson D, Cochlan W, Dennison W, Dortch Q, Gobler CJ, Heil C, Humphries E, Lewitus A, Magnien R, Marshall H, Sellner Stockwell K, Stoecker D, Suddleson M (2008) Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: a scientific consensus. Harmful Algae 8:3–13Google Scholar
  324. Hemminga M, Duarte CM (2000) Seagrass ecology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  325. Hendy IL, Pedersen TF (2006) Oxygen minimum zone expansion in the eastern tropical North Pacific during deglaciation. Geophys Res Lett 33:L20602, 5 ppGoogle Scholar
  326. Herbst JFW (1782–1804) Versuch einer Naturgeschichte der Krabben und Krebse nebst einer systematischen Beschriebung ihrer verschiedenen Arten, vol 1 (1782–1790), 274 pp, vol 2 (1791–1796), 225 pp, vol 3 (1799–1804), 66 ppGoogle Scholar
  327. Hewitt JE, Thrush SF, Halliday J, Duffy C (2005) The importance of small-scale habitat structure for maintaining beta diversity. Ecology 86:1619–1626Google Scholar
  328. Hines ME, Orem WH, Lyons WB, Jones GE (1982) Microbial activity and bioturbation-induced oscillations in pore water chemistry of estuarine sediments in spring. Nature 299:433–435Google Scholar
  329. Holzmann M, Pawlowski J (1997) Molecular, morphological and ecological evidence for species recognition in Ammonia (Foraminifera). J Foram Res 27:311–318Google Scholar
  330. Hoover MD (2009) Connecticut’s changing salt marshes: a remote sensing approach to sea level rise and possible salt marsh migration. Master’s dissertation, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CTGoogle Scholar
  331. Horton BP, Edwards RJ (2006) Quantifying Holocene sea-level change using intertidal foraminifera: lessons from the British Isles. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Pub No 40, 97 ppGoogle Scholar
  332. Houghton RA (1985) The effect of mortality on estimates of net above-ground production of Spartina alterniflora. Aq Botany 22:121–132Google Scholar
  333. Howarth RW (2008) Coastal nitrogen pollution: a review of sources and trends globally and regionally. Harmful Algae 8:14–20Google Scholar
  334. Howell P, Simpson D (1994) Abundance of marine resources in relation to dissolved oxygen in Long Island Sound. Estuaries 17(2):394–402Google Scholar
  335. Hu Z, Guiry MD, Critchley AT, Duan D (2010) Phylogeographic patterns indicate transatlantic migration from Europe to North America in the red seaweed Chondrus crispus (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). J Phycol 46:889–900Google Scholar
  336. Hudson IR, Pond DW, Billett DSM, Tyler PA, Lampitt RS, Wolff GA (2004) Temporal variations in fatty acid composition of deep-sea holothurians: evidence of bentho-pelagic coupling. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 281:109–120Google Scholar
  337. Hughes GM (1984) Scaling of respiratory areas in relationship to oxygen consumption of vertebrates. Experientia 40:519–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. HydroQual, Inc (1995) Analysis of factors affecting historical dissolved oxygen trends in western Long Island Sound. Job # NENG0040. Management Committee of the Long Island Sound Estuary Study, Stamford, CT, and the New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission. HydroQual, Inc, Mahwah, NJGoogle Scholar
  339. Iriarte A, Purdie DA (2004) Controlling the timing of major spring bloom events in an UK south coast estuary. Est Coast Shelf Sci 61:679–690Google Scholar
  340. Isaksen MF, Jorgensen BB (1996) Adaptation of psychrophilic and psychrotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria to permanently cold marine environments. Appl Env Microbiol 62:408–414Google Scholar
  341. Jackson MJ, James R (1979) The influence of bait digging on cockle, Cerastoderma edule, population in North Norfolk. J Appl Ecol 16:671–679Google Scholar
  342. Jackson JBC, Kirby MX, Berger WH, Bjorndal KA, Botsford LW, Bourque BJ, Bradbury RH, Cooke R, Erlandson J, Estes JA, Hughes TP, Kidwell S, Lange CB, Lenihan HS, Pandolfi JM, Peterson CH, Steneck RS, Tegner MJ, Warner RR (2001) Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293:629–637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. Janiak D (2010) Comparisons of epifaunal communities associated with the invasive Grateloupia turuturu and native Chondrus crispus in Long Island Sound. CT. Master’s dissertation, University of ConnecticutGoogle Scholar
  344. Javaux E, Scott DB (2003) Illustration of modern benthic foraminifera from Bermuda and remarks on distribution in other subtropical/tropical areas. Palaeontologia Electronica 6(4):29, 2.1 MB.
  345. Jensen FB, Nikinmaa M, Weber RE (1993) Environmental perturbations of oxygen transport in teleost fishes: causes, consequences and compensations. In: Jensen FB, Rankin JC (eds) Fish ecophysiology. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 161–179Google Scholar
  346. St. John JP, Leo WM, Dodge LJ, Gaffoglio R (1991) Modeling analysis of CSO impacts in a tidal basin. Proceedings of the 1991 special conference on environmental engineering, New York (USA), ASCE, pp 457–462Google Scholar
  347. Johnson M, Beckwith EJ, Carey D, Parker E, Smith E, Volk J, Aarrestad P, Huang M, Mariani E, Rozsa R, Simpson D, Yamalis H (2007) An assessment of the impacts of commercial and recreational fishing and other activities to eelgrass in Connecticut’s waters and recommendations for management. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection and Connecticut Department of Agriculture, Hartford 119Google Scholar
  348. Jordaan A, Chen Y, Townsend DW, Sherman S (2010) Identification of ecological structure and species relationships along an oceanographic gradient in the Gulf of Maine using multivariate analysis with bootstrapping. Can J Fish Aq Sci 67(4):701–719Google Scholar
  349. Jordaan A, Crocker J, Chen Y (2011) Linkages among physical and biological properties in tidepools on the Maine coast. Env Biol Fishes 92(1):13–23Google Scholar
  350. Jørgensen BB (1977) The sulfur cycle of a coastal marine sediment (Limfjorden, Denmark). Limnol Oceanogr 22(5):814–832Google Scholar
  351. Jorissen FJ, Fontanier C, Thomas E (2007) Paleoceanographical proxies based on deep-sea benthic foraminiferal assemblage characteristics. In: Hillaire-Marcel C, de Vernal A (eds) Proxies in Late Cenozoic paleoceanography: Pt 2: Biological tracers and biomarkers. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 63–326Google Scholar
  352. Jury S, Watson W (2000) Thermosensitivity of the lobster, Homarus americanus, as determined by cardiac assay. Biol Bull 199(3):257–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. Kaputa NP, Olson CB (2000) Long Island Sound ambient water quality monitoring program: summer hypoxia monitoring survey 1991-1998 data review. CT Department of Environmental Protection, 45 pp + appendicesGoogle Scholar
  354. Karlsen AW, Cronin TM, Ishman SE, Willard DA, Kerhin R, Holmes CW, Marot M (2000) Historical trends in Chesapeake Bay dissolved oxygen based on benthic Foraminifera from sediment cores. Estuaries 23:488–508Google Scholar
  355. Keeling RF, Garcia H (2002) The change in oceanic O2 inventory associated with recent global warming. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:7848–7853PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. Keeling RF, Kortzinger A, Gruber N (2010) Ocean deoxygenation in a warming world. Ann Rev Mar Sci 2:199–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. Keister JE, Houde ED, Breitburg DL (2000) Effects of bottom-layer hypoxia on abundances and depth distributions of organisms in Patuxent River, Chesapeake Bay. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 205:43–59Google Scholar
  358. Keller AA, Oviatt CA, Walker HA, Hawk JD (1999) Predicted impacts of elevated temperature on the magnitude of the winter-spring phytoplankton bloom in temperate coastal waters: a mesocosm study. Limnol Oceanogr 44:344–356Google Scholar
  359. Keller AA, Taylor C, Oviatt C, Dorrington T, Holcombe G, Reed L (2001) Phytoplankton production patterns in Massachusetts Bay and the absence of the 1998 winter-spring bloom. Mar Biol 138:1051–1062Google Scholar
  360. Kersten M, Britton RH, Dugan PJ, Hafner H (1991) Flock feeding and food intake in little egrets: the effects of prey distribution and behavior. J Anim Ecol 60:241–252Google Scholar
  361. Keser M, Swenarton JT, Vozarik JM, Foertch JF (2003) Decline in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Long Island Sound near Millstone Point, Connecticut (USA) unrelated to thermal input. J Sea Res 49:11–26Google Scholar
  362. Keser M, Foertch J, Swenarton J (2010) Rocky shore community changes noted over 30 + years of monitoring at Millstone Environmental Lab, CT, USA. Oral presentation, Session VI, Northeast Algal Symposium, 2010Google Scholar
  363. Kim JK, Kraemer GP, Yarish C (2008) Physiological activity of Porphyra in relation to zonation. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 365:75–85Google Scholar
  364. Kim JK, Kraemer GP, Yarish C (2009) A comparison of growth and nitrate uptake by New England Porphyra species from different tidal elevations in relation to desiccation. Phycol Res 57:152–157Google Scholar
  365. Kimble ME, Able KW (2007) Nekton utilization of intertidal salt marsh creeks: Tidal influences in natural Spartina, invasive Phragmites, and marshes treated for Phragmites removal. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 347:87–101Google Scholar
  366. Kiørboe T, Hansen JLS, Alldredge AL, Jackson GA, Passow U, Dam HG, Drapeau DT, Waite A, Garcia CM (1996) Sedimentation of phytoplankton during a diatom bloom: rates and mechanisms. J Mar Res 54:1123–1148Google Scholar
  367. Kjeilen-Eilertsen G, Trannum H, Jak RG, Smit MGD, Neff J, Durell G (2004) Literature report on burial: derivation of PNEC as component in the MEMW model tool. Report AM 2004/024, ERMS report 9BGoogle Scholar
  368. Klein AS, Mathieson AC, Neefus CD, Cain DF, Taylor HA, West AL, Hehre EJ, Brodie J, Yarish C, Teasdale B, Wallace AL (2003) Identifications of northwestern Atlantic Porphyra (Bangiaceae, Bangiales) based on sequence variation in nuclear SSU and rbcL genes. Phycologia 42(2):109–122Google Scholar
  369. Knebel H, Poppe LJ (2000) Sea-floor environments within Long Island Sound: a regional overview. Thematic Section, J Coast Res 16:533–550Google Scholar
  370. Kneib RT (1986) The role of Fundulus heteroclitus in salt marsh tophic dynamics. Am Zool 26:259–269Google Scholar
  371. Koch EW (2001) Beyond light: physical, geological, and geochemical parameters as possible submersed aquatic vegetation habitat requirements. Estuaries 24:1–17Google Scholar
  372. Koch EW, Beer S (1996) Tides, light and the distribution of Zostera marina in Long Island Sound, USA. Aquat Bot 53:97–107Google Scholar
  373. Koch F, Gobler CJ (2009) The effects of tidal export from salt marsh ditches on estuarine water quality and plankton communities. Estuaries Coasts 32:261–275Google Scholar
  374. Komar PD (1998) Beach processes and sedimentation. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River 544 ppGoogle Scholar
  375. Kott P (2004) A new species of Didemnum (Ascidiacea, Tunicata) from the Atlantic coast of North America. Zootaxa 732:1–10Google Scholar
  376. Kraeuter JN (2001) Predators and predation, Chapter 11. In: Kraeuter JN, Castagna M (eds) Biology of the hard clam. Elsevier, New York, pp 441–589Google Scholar
  377. Kraeuter JN, Klinck JM, Powell EN, Hofmann EE, Buckner SC, Grizzle RE, Bricelj VM (2008) Effects of the fishery on the northern quahog (=hard clam, Mercenaria mercenaria L.) population in Great South Bay, New York: a modeling study. J Shellfish Res 27:653–666Google Scholar
  378. Kramer DL (1987) Dissolved oxygen and fish behavior. Env Biol Fishes 18:81–92Google Scholar
  379. Kramer DL, Manley D, Bourgeois R (1983) The effect of respiratory mode and oxygen concentration on the risk of aerial predation in fishes. Can J Zool 61:653–665Google Scholar
  380. Kranz PM (1974) The anastrophic burial of bivalves and its paleoecological significance. J Geol 82:237–265Google Scholar
  381. Kremer JN, Vaudrey JNP, Branco A (2008) Habitat characterization data set for 10 New England estuaries. “Hammonasett River 2002”
  382. Kristensen E, Andersen FO, Blackburn TH (1992) Effects of benthic macrofauna and temperature on degradation of macroalgal detritus: the fate of organic carbon. Limnol Oceanogr 37:1404–1419Google Scholar
  383. Kroeger KD (1997) Temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration as factors influencing the secondary production rate of Nucula annulata in Long Island Sound. Univ of Connecticut, USA. Master’s dissertationGoogle Scholar
  384. Kudela RM, Gobler CJ (2012) Harmful dinoflagellate blooms caused by Cochlodinium sp.: global expansion and ecological strategies facilitating bloom formation. Harmful Algae 14:71–86Google Scholar
  385. Kurihara H, Kato S, Ishimatsu A (2007) Effects of increased seawater pCO2 on early development of the oyster Crassostrea gigas. Aquat Biol 1:91–98Google Scholar
  386. Kurihara H, Asai T, Kato S, Ishimatsu A (2008) Effects of elevated pCO2 on early development in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Aquat Biol 4:225–233Google Scholar
  387. Kurlansky M (2006) The Big Oyster: History on the half shell. Ballantine Books, pp 307Google Scholar
  388. Lambert G (2009) Adventures of a sea squirt sleuth: unraveling the identity of Didemnum vexillum, a global ascidian invader. Aquat Invasions 4:5–28Google Scholar
  389. Landeck Miller RE, Wands JR, Chytalo KN, D’Amico RA (2005) Application of water quality modeling technology to investigate the mortality of lobsters (Homarus americanus) in western Long Island Sound. J Shellfish Res 24(3):859–864Google Scholar
  390. Landry MR, Hassett RP (1982) Estimating the grazing impact of marine microzooplankton. Mar Bio 67:283–288Google Scholar
  391. Landry CA, Steele SL, Manning S, Cheek AO (2007) Long term hypoxia suppresses reproductive capacity in the estuarine fish, Fundulus grandis. Comp Biochem Physiol Part A 148:317–323Google Scholar
  392. Landsberg JH (2002) The effects of harmful algal blooms on aquatic organisms. Rev Fisheries Sci 10:113–390Google Scholar
  393. Larsson A, Johansson-Sjöbeck M, Fänge R (1976) Comparative study of some of the haematological and biochemical blood parameters in fishes from the Skagerrak. J Fish Biol 9:425–440Google Scholar
  394. Latham R (1917) Migration notes of fishes, 1916, from Orient, Long Island. Copeia 41:17–23Google Scholar
  395. Latham R (1969) Sea turtles recorded in the Southold township region of Long Island. Engelhardtia 1:7Google Scholar
  396. Latimer JS, Rego SA (2010) Empirical relationship between eelgrass extent and predicted watershed-derived nitrogen loading for shallow New England estuaries. Est Coast Shelf Sci 90:231–240Google Scholar
  397. Lee RE (1989) Phycology, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 645 ppGoogle Scholar
  398. Lee JJ, Anderson OR (1991) Symbiosis in foraminifera. In: Lee JJ, Anderson OR (eds) Biology of foraminifera. Academic Press, London, pp 157–220Google Scholar
  399. Lee JA, Brinkhuis BH (1988) Seasonal light and temperature interaction effects on development of Laminaria saccharina (Phaeophyta) gametophytes and juvenile sporophytes. J Phycology 24(2):181–191Google Scholar
  400. Lee JJ, Lee RE (1989) Chloroplast retention in Elphidids (Foraminifera). In: Nardon P, Gianinazzi-Pearson V, Greiner AM, Margulis L, Smith DC (eds) 4th Internatl colloquium on endocytobiology and symbiosis. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Paris, pp 215–220Google Scholar
  401. Lee YJ, Lwiza KMM (2008) Characteristics of bottom dissolved oxygen in Long Island Sound, New York. Est Coast Shelf Sci 76:187–200Google Scholar
  402. Lee JJ, Lanners E, TerKuile B (1988) The retention of chloroplasts by the foraminifer Elphidium crispum. Symbiosis 5:45–60Google Scholar
  403. Lee KS, Park SR, Kim YK (2007) Effects of irradiance, temperature, and nutrients on growth dynamics of seagrasses: a review. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 350:144–175Google Scholar
  404. Lembi CA, Waaland JR (eds) (2007) Algae and human affairs. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 600 ppGoogle Scholar
  405. Levinton JS (1970) The paleoecological significance of opportunistic species. Lethaia 3:69–78Google Scholar
  406. Lewis RR III, Clark PA, Fehring WK, Greening HS, Johansson RO, Paul RT (1998) The rehabilitation of the Tampa Bay Estuary, Florida, USA, as an example of successful integrated coastal management. Mar Poll Bull 37:468–473Google Scholar
  407. Lightfoot KG, Cerrato RM (1988) Prehistoric shellfish exploitation in coastal New York. J Field Archaeol 15(2):141–149Google Scholar
  408. Limburg KE, Waldman JR (2009) Dramatic declines in North Atlantic diadromous fishes. Bioscience 59(11):955–965Google Scholar
  409. Lin S et al (in prep) Spore abundance of the invasive rhodophyte Grateloupia turuturu in Long Island Sound using real-time PCR: an assessment of potential dispersal pathwayGoogle Scholar
  410. Liu S, Lin S (2008) Temporal and spatial variation of phytoplankton community in Long Island Sound. Proceedings of the 9th Biennial Long Island Sound Conference, pp 28–34Google Scholar
  411. Liu H, Bidigare RR, Laws E, Landry MR, Campbell L (1999) Cell cycle and physiological characteristics of Synechococcus (WH7803) in chemostat culture. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 189:17–25Google Scholar
  412. Llanso RJ (1991) Tolerance of low dissolved oxygen and hydrogen sulfide by the polychaete Streblospio benedicti (Webster). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 153:165–178Google Scholar
  413. Lloyd R (1961) Effect of low dissolved oxygen concentration on the toxicity of several poisons to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). J Exp Biol 38:447–455Google Scholar
  414. Lobban CS, Harrison PJ (1994) Seaweed ecology and physiology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 365 ppGoogle Scholar
  415. Loglisci CA (2007) A mass balance approach to understanding copepod fecal pellet cycling in Long Island Sound. Master’s dissertation, University of ConnecticutGoogle Scholar
  416. Lohrer AM, Whitlatch RB (1997) Ecological studies on the recently introduced Japanese shore crab (Hemigrapsus sanguineus), in Eastern Long Island Sound. In: Balcom N (ed) Proc 2nd Northeast conference on nonindigenous aquatic nuisance species, Connecticut Sea Grant College Program CTSG-97-02. University of Connecticut, Avery Point, pp 49–60Google Scholar
  417. Lomas ML, Moran SB (2011) Evidence for aggregation and export of cyanobacteria and nano-eukaryotes from the Sargasso Sea euphotic zone. Biogeosciences 8:203–216Google Scholar
  418. Long Island Sound Study (1994) Summary of the comprehensive conservation and management plan July 1994. EPA 842-S-94-001Google Scholar
  419. Long Island Sound Study (2002) Habitat restoration initiative. Annual summary for the year 2002: Technical support for coastal habitat restorationGoogle Scholar
  420. Long Island Sound Study (2003) Long Island Sound habitat restoration initiative, technical support for coastal habitat restoration, Section 3: Submerged aquatic vegetationGoogle Scholar
  421. Long WC, Seitz RD (2008) Trophic interactions under stress: hypoxia enhances foraging in an estuarine food web. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 362:59–68Google Scholar
  422. Longstaff BJ, Dennison WC (1999) Seagrass survival during pulsed turbidity events: the effects of light deprivation on the seagrasses Halodule pinifolia and Halophila ovalis. Aquat Bot 65:105–121Google Scholar
  423. Lonsdale DJ, Cosper EM, Kim W-S, Doall M, Divadeenam A, Jonasdottir SH (1996) Food web interactions in the plankton of Long Island bays, with preliminary observations on brown tide effects. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 134:247–263Google Scholar
  424. Lonsdale DJ, Cerrato RM, Caron DA, Schaffner RA (2007) Zooplankton changes associated with grazing pressure of northern quahogs (Mercenaria mercenaria L.) in experimental mesocosms. Est Coast Shelf Sci 73:101–110Google Scholar
  425. Loosanoff VL (1958) Some aspects of behavior of oysters at different temperatures. Biol Bull 114:57–70Google Scholar
  426. Lopez E (1979) Algal chloroplasts in the protoplasm of three species of benthic foraminifera: taxonomic affinity, viability, and persistence. Mar Biol 53:201–211Google Scholar
  427. Lopez GR, Levinton JS (2011) Particulate organic detritus and detritus feeders in coastal food webs. In: Wolanski E, McLusky DS (eds) Treatise on estuarine and coastal sciences, vol 6. Academic Press, Waltham, pp 5–21Google Scholar
  428. Loucks ED, Johnson TZ (1991) Hydraulic impacts of I/I on system capacity. In: Krenkel PA (ed) Proceedings of the 1991 special conference on environmental engineering. American Society for Chemical Engineers, New York, pp 114–119Google Scholar
  429. Lucey SM, Nye JA (2010) Shifting species assemblages in the northeast US continental shelf large marine ecosystem. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 415:23–33Google Scholar
  430. Ludsin S, Zhang X, Brandt SB, Roman RM, Boicourt WC, Mason DM, Costantini M (2009) Hypoxia-avoidance by planktivorous fish in Chesapeake Bay: Implications for food web interactions and fish recruitment. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 381:S121–S131Google Scholar
  431. Lüning K (1990) Seaweeds—their environment, biogeography, and ecophysiology. In: Yarish C, Kirkman H (eds) Edited translation of the German language edition Meeresbotanik: Verbreitung, Okophysiologie und Nutzung der marinen Makroalgen, by Klaus Lüning. Wiley, New York, p 527Google Scholar
  432. Lutins A (1992) Prehistoric fishweirs in eastern North America. Master’s dissertation, State University of New York, BinghamtonGoogle Scholar
  433. Lwiza KMM (2008) Climatic aspects of extreme temperatures in coastal waters. Geophys Res Lett 35:L19604Google Scholar
  434. Lynch J, Cottam C (1937) Status of eelgrass (Zostera marina) on the North Atlantic coast, January 1937. USDA Wildlife Research and Management leaflet BS-94Google Scholar
  435. MacKenzie CL Jr (1997) The molluscan fisheries of Chesapeake Bay. In: MacKenzie CL Jr et al (eds) The history, present condition, and future of the molluscan fisheries of North and Central America and Europe, vol 1., Atlantic and Gulf CoastsUS Dept of Commerce, NOAA Tech Report NMFS, pp 141–170Google Scholar
  436. Mackin J, Aller RC, Vigil H, Rude P (1991) Nutrient and dissolved oxygen fluxes across the sediment–water interface, in Long Island Sound Study: Final report, Sediment geochemistry and biology. US EPA Contract CE 002870026. Section IV, 1–252Google Scholar
  437. MacLeod R (2009) Marine angler survey. A study of marine recreational fisheries in Connecticut. Federal aid in sport fish restoration, Grant F-54-R-28, Annual performance report, Job 1Google Scholar
  438. Maes J, Stevens M, Breine J et al (2007) Modelling the migration opportunities of diadromous fish species along a gradient of dissolved oxygen concentration in a European tidal watershed. Est Coast Shelf Sci 75:151–162Google Scholar
  439. Mai K, Mercer JP, Donlon J (1992) Comparative studies on the nutrition of two species of abalone, Haliotis tuberculata and H. discus hannai. In: Van Patten MS (ed) Irish-American technical exchange on the aquaculture of abalone, sea urchins, lobsters and kelp. Connecticut Sea Grant College Program and Martin Ryan Institute, 83 ppGoogle Scholar
  440. Mangum CP (1997) Adaptation of the oxygen transport system to hypoxia in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Amer Zool 37:604–611Google Scholar
  441. Maranda L, Shimizu Y (1987) Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in Narragansett Bay. Estuaries 10:298–302Google Scholar
  442. Marston M, Villalard-Bohnsack M (2002) Genetic variability and potential sources of Grateloupia doryphora (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta), an invasive species in Rhode Island waters (USA). J Phycology 38:649–658Google Scholar
  443. Martin S, Rodolfo-Metalpa R, Ransome E, Rowley S, Buia M, Gattuso J, Hall-Spencer J (2008) Effects of naturally acidified seawater on seagrass calcareous epibionts. Biol Lett 4(6):689–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  444. Mathieson AC, Pederson J, Dawes CJ (2008a) Rapid assessment surveys of fouling and introduced seaweeds in the Northwest Atlantic. Rhodora 110:406–478Google Scholar
  445. Mathieson AC, Pederson JR, Neefus CD, Dawes CJ, Bray TL (2008b) Multiple assessments of introduced seaweeds in the Northwest Atlantic. ICES J Mar Sci 65:730–741Google Scholar
  446. Mathieson AC, Dawes CJ, Pederson J, Gladych RA, Carlton JT (2008c) The Asian red seaweed Grateloupia doryphora (Rhodophyta) invades the Gulf of Maine. Biol Invasions 10:985–988Google Scholar
  447. Matthews JH (1927) Fisheries of the North Atlantic. Econ Geogr 3(1):1–22Google Scholar
  448. Maung ES (2010) Hypoxia and benthic invertebrate communities in Western Long Island Sound. Masters dissertation, University of Connecticut, 196 ppGoogle Scholar
  449. Maurer D, Keck RT, Tinsman JC, Leathem WA, Wethe C, Lord C, Church TM (1986) Vertical migration and mortality of marine benthos in dredged material: a synthesis. Int Revue Gesam Hydrobiol 71:49–63Google Scholar
  450. McCall PL (1975) The influence of disturbance on community patterns and adaptive strategies of the infaunal benthos of central Long Island Sound. PhD dissertation, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 198 ppGoogle Scholar
  451. McCall PL (1977) Community patterns and adaptive strategies of infaunal benthos of Long Island Sound. J Mar Res 35:221–266Google Scholar
  452. McDermott J (1998) The western Pacific brachyuran (Hemigrapsus sanguineus: Grapsidae) in its new habitat along the Atlantic coast of the United States: geographic distribution and ecology. ICES J Mar Sci 55:289–298Google Scholar
  453. McEnroe M (1991) Review of physiological effects of hypoxia on the forage-base organisms of the sound. Final report to Long Island Sound Study, US Environmental Protection Agency, Long Island Sound Study Office, Stamford, CT, 94 pgsGoogle Scholar
  454. McEnroe M, Allen L (1995) Behavioral and respiratory responses of mummichogs, Fundulus heteroclitus, to hypoxia. In: Proceedings of the Long Island Sound Research conference, NY Sea Grant Institute, SUNY Stony Brook, Publ No NYSGI-W-94-001, pp 85–87Google Scholar
  455. McEnroe M, Kroslowitz D (1997) Activity of juvenile winter flounder, Pleuronectes americanus, in response to progressive environmental hypoxia. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Long Island Sound Research conference, CT Sea Grant Publ No CTSG-97-08, Groton, CT, pp 53–59Google Scholar
  456. McEnroe M, Dubay S, Boccia T, Hersh M, Gordon P (1995) The fish community of a stressed environment: Milton Harbor, Rye, NY. In: Proceedings of the Long Island Sound Research conference, NY Sea Grant Institute, SUNY Stony Brook, Publ No NYSGI-W-94-001, pp 83–85Google Scholar
  457. McGlathery KJ, Sundbäck K, Anderson IC (2007) Eutrophication in shallow coastal bays and lagoons: the role of plants in the coastal filter. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 348:1–18Google Scholar
  458. McGovern TM, Hellberg ME (2003) Cryptic species, cryptic endosymbionts, and geographical variation in chemical defenses in the bryozoan Bugula neritina. Mol Ecol 12:1207–1215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  459. McIvor LM, Maggs CA, Provan J, Stanhope M (2001) RbcL sequences reveal multiple cryptic introductions of the Japanese red alga Polysiphonia harveyi. Mol Ecol 10:911–919PubMedGoogle Scholar
  460. McLeese D (1956) Effects of temperature, salinity and oxygen on the survival of the American lobster. J Fish Res Bd Canada 13(2):247–372Google Scholar
  461. McMahon KW, Ambrose WG Jr, Johnson BJ, Sun M-Y, Lopez GL, Clough LM, Carroll ML (2006) Benthic community response to ice algae and phytoplankton in Ny Ålesund, Svalbard. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 310:1–14Google Scholar
  462. McManus GB (1986) Ecology of heterotrophic nanoflagellates in temperate coastal waters. PhD dissertation, SUNY Stony Brook, 174 ppGoogle Scholar
  463. McNatt RA, Rice JA (2004) Hypoxia-induced growth rate reduction in two juvenile estuary-dependent fishes. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 311(1):147–156Google Scholar
  464. McRoy CP, McMillan C (1977) Production ecology and physiology of seagrasses. In: McRoy CP, Helfferich C (eds) Seagrass ecosystems: a scientific perspective. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp 53–87Google Scholar
  465. McVey JP, Stickney R, Yarish C, Chopin T (2002) Aquatic polyculture and balanced ecosystem management: new paradigms for seafood production. In: Stickney RR, McVey JP (eds) Responsible aquaculture. CAB International, Oxon, pp 91–104Google Scholar
  466. Mellergaard S, Nielsen E (1990) Fish disease investigations in Danish coastal waters with special reference to the impact of oxygen deficiency ICES, CM. 1190/E, Mar Env Qual CommGoogle Scholar
  467. Meng L, Powell JC, Taplin B (2001) Winter flounder growth rates to assess habitat quality across anthropogenic gradients in Narragansett Bay RI. Estuaries 24:576–584Google Scholar
  468. Meng L, Taylor DL, Serbst J, Powell JC (2008) Assessing habitat quality of Mount Hope Bay and Narragansett Bay using growth, RNA:DNA, and feeding habits of caged juvenile winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus Waldbaum). Northeast Naturalist 15(1):35–56Google Scholar
  469. Merwin DE (1993) Maritime history of southern New England: the view from Long Island, New York. Bull Archaeol Soc of Connecticut 65:3–18Google Scholar
  470. Metzler K, Rozsa R (1987) Additional notes on the tidal wetlands of the Connecticut River. Newslett Conn Bot Soc 15:1–4Google Scholar
  471. Michaelidis B, Ouzounis C, Paleras A, Portner HO (2005) Effects of long-term moderate hypercapnia on acid-base balance and growth rate in marine mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 293:109–118Google Scholar
  472. Michaels AF, Silver MW (1988) Primary production, sinking fluxes and the microbial food web. Deep-Sea Res II 35:473–490Google Scholar
  473. Middaugh DP, Scott GI, Dean JM (1981) Reproductive behavior of the Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia (Pisces, Atherinidae). Env Biol Fish 6:269–2276Google Scholar
  474. Miller W, Egler F (1950) Vegetation of the Wequetequock-Pawcatuck tidal marshes, Stonington, Connecticut. Ecol Monogr 20:143–172Google Scholar
  475. Miller AAL, Scott DB, Medioli FS (1982) Elphidium excavatum (Terquem): Ecophenotypic versus subspecific variation. J Foram Res 12:116–144Google Scholar
  476. Miller DC, Poucher SL, Coiro L, Rego S, Munns W (1995) Effects of hypoxia on growth and survival of crustaceans and fishes of Long Island Sound. In: Proceedings of the Long Island Sound research conference: is the sound getting better or worse? New York Sea Grant Inst NYSGI-W_94-001Google Scholar
  477. Miller DC, Poucher SL, Coiro L (2002) Determination of lethal dissolved oxygen levels for selected marine and estuarine fishes, crustaceans, and a bivalve. Mar Biol 140:287–296Google Scholar
  478. Miller AW, Reynolds AC, Sobrino C, Riedel GF (2009) Shellfish face uncertain future in high CO2 world: Influence of acidification on oyster larvae and growth in estuaries. Plos ONE 4(5): e5661. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005661
  479. Mills EL, Scheuerell MD, Carlton JT, Strayer DL (1997) Biological invasions in the Hudson River Basin: an inventory and historical analysis. NY State Museum Circ No 57, 51 ppGoogle Scholar
  480. Millstone Environmental Laboratory (2009) Monitoring the marine environment of Long Island Sound at Millstone Power Station, Waterford. Dominion Nuclear Inc, Connecticut 284 ppGoogle Scholar
  481. Minchinton TE, Bertness MD (2003) Disturbance-mediated competition and the spread of Phragmites australis in a coastal marsh. Ecol Appl 13:1400–1416Google Scholar
  482. Moodley L, Hess C (1992) Tolerance of infaunal benthic foraminifera for low and high oxygen concentrations. Biol Bull 183:94–98Google Scholar
  483. Moodley L, Middelburg JJ, Soetaert K, Boschker HTS, Herman PMJ, Heip CHR (2005) Similar rapid response to phytodetritus deposition in shallow and deep-sea sediments. J Mar Res 63:457–469Google Scholar
  484. Moore KA (1991) Field studies on the effects of variable water quality on temperate seagrass growth and survival. In: Kenworthy WJ, Haunert DE (eds) The light requirements of seagrass. NOAA Tech Mem NMFS-SEFC-287, pp 42–57Google Scholar
  485. Moore KA, Wetzel RL (2000) Seasonal variations in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) response to nutrient enrichment and reduced light availability in experimental ecosystems. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 244:1–28Google Scholar
  486. Moore KA, Neckles HA, Orth RJ (1996) Zostera marina (eelgrass) growth and survival along a gradient of nutrients and turbidity in the lower Chesapeake Bay. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 142:247–259Google Scholar
  487. Morreale SJ, Standora EA (1992) Habitat use and feeding activity of juvenile Kemp’s ridleys in inshore waters of the Northeastern US. In: Proceedings of the 11th annual workshop on sea turtle conservation and biology. NOAA Tech Mem NMFS-SEFSC-302, pp 75–77Google Scholar
  488. Morreale SJ, Standora EA (2005) Western North Atlantic waters: crucial developmental habitat for Kemp’s ridley and loggerhead sea turtles. Chelonian Conserv Biol 4:4872–4882Google Scholar
  489. Morreale SJ, Meylan A, Sadove SS, Standora EA (1992) Annual occurrence and winter mortality of marine turtles in New York waters. J Herpetol 26(3):301–308Google Scholar
  490. Moss DD (1965) A history of the Connecticut River and its fisheries. Connecticut Board of Fisheries and Game, 15 ppGoogle Scholar
  491. Mullen T, Nevis K, O’Kelly C, Gast R, Frasca S Jr (2005) Nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene-based characterization, molecular phylogeny and PCR detection of the Neoparamoeba from western Long Island Sound lobster. J Shellfish Res 24(3):719–732Google Scholar
  492. Murawski SA (1993) Climate-change and marine fish distributions-forecasting from historical analogy. Trans Am Fish Soc 122(5):647–658Google Scholar
  493. Murdy E, Birdsong R, Musick J (eds) (1997) Fishes of Chesapeake Bay. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  494. Murphy RC (1916) Long Island turtles. Copeia 33:56–60Google Scholar
  495. Murray JW (1976) Comparative studies of living and dead benthic foraminiferal distributions. In: Hedley RH, Adams CG (eds) Foraminifera, vol 2. Academic Press, New York, pp 45–109Google Scholar
  496. Murray JW (1991) Ecology and paleoecology of benthic foraminifera. Longman Scientific and Technical Publishers, Harlow 451 ppGoogle Scholar
  497. Murray JW (2006) Ecology and applications of benthic foraminifera. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  498. Murray JW (2007) Biodiversity of living benthic foraminifera: how many species are there? Mar Micropaleont 64:163–176Google Scholar
  499. Murray PM, Carey DA, Fredette TJ (1994) Chemical flux of pore water through sediment caps. Dredging’94, Proceedings of the 2nd international conference, sponsored by Waterways Committee of the Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Division, ASCE. Buena Vista, FL, pp 1008–1016Google Scholar
  500. Myers AA (1969) A revision of the amphipod genus Microdeutopus Costa (Gammaridea: Aoridae). Bull Brit Museum Nat Hist 17:93–148Google Scholar
  501. Myers RA, Baum JK, Shepherd TD, Powers SP, Peterson CH (2007) Cascading effects of the loss of apex predatory sharks from a coastal ocean. Science 315:1846–1850PubMedGoogle Scholar
  502. Myre PL, Germano JD (2007) Field verification program (FVP) disposal mound monitoring survey 2005. DAMOS Contribution No 175. US Army Corps of Engineers, New England District, Concord, MA, 71 ppGoogle Scholar
  503. Neckles HA, Short FT, Barker S, Kopp BS (2005) Disturbance of eelgrass Zostera marina by commercial mussel Mytilus edulis harvesting in Maine: dragging impacts and habitat recovery. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 285:57–73Google Scholar
  504. Neefus CD, Allen BP, Baldwin HP, Mathieson AC, Eckert RT, Yarish C, Miller MA (1993) An examination of the population genetics of Laminaria and other brown algae in the laminariales using starch gel electrophoresis. Hydrobiologia 260(261):67–79Google Scholar
  505. Neefus C, Mathieson AC, Yarish C, Klein A, West A, Teasdale B, Hehre EJ (2000) Five cryptic species of Porphyra from the Northwest Atlantic. J Phycol 36(3):73Google Scholar
  506. Neefus C, Mathieson AC, Bray TL, Yarish C (2008a) The occurrence of three introduced Asiatic species of Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) in the northwestern Atlantic. J Phycol 44:1399–1414Google Scholar
  507. Neefus C, Mathieson AC, Bray TL, Yarish C (2008b) The distribution, morphology, and ecology of three introduced Asiatic species of Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) in the Northwestern Atlantic. J Phycol 44(6):1399–1414Google Scholar
  508. Neely A, Zajac R (2008) Applying marine protected area design models in large estuarine systems. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 373:11–23Google Scholar
  509. Nettleton JC, Mathieson AC, Thornber C, Neefus CD, Yarish C (2012) (in preparation) Introduction and distribution of Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss (Rhodophyta, Gracilariales) in New England, USAGoogle Scholar
  510. Neuenfeldt S (2002) The influence of oxygen saturation on the distributional overlap of predator (cod, Gadus morhua) and prey (herring, Clupea harengus) in the Bornholm basin of the Baltic Sea. Fish Oceanogr 11:11–17Google Scholar
  511. New York State Seagrass Task Force (2009) Final report of the New York State seagrass task force: recommendations to the New York State Governor and Legislature.
  512. Newell RIE, Koch EW (2004) Modeling seagrass density and distribution in response to changes in turbidity stemming from bivalve filtration and seagrass sediment stabilization. Estuaries 27:793–806Google Scholar
  513. Nichols GE (1920) The vegetation of Connecticut, VII. The plant associations of depositing areas along the Seacoast. Bull Torrey Botan Club 47:511–548Google Scholar
  514. Niering WA, Warren RS (1980) Vegetation patterns and processes in New England salt marshes. Bioscience 30:301–307Google Scholar
  515. Niklitschek EJ (2001) Bioenergetics modeling and assessment of suitable habitat for juvenile Atlantic and shortnose sturgeons in Chesapeake Bay. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, MDGoogle Scholar
  516. Niklitschek EJ, Secor DH (2005) Modeling spatial and temporal variation of suitable nursery habitat for Atlantic sturgeon in the Chesapeake Bay. Est Coast Shelf Sci 64:135–148Google Scholar
  517. Niklitschek EJ, Secor DH (2009) Dissolved oxygen, temperature and salinity effects on the ecophysiology and survival of juvenile Atlantic sturgeon in estuarine waters. I. Laboratory results. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 383:S150–160Google Scholar
  518. Nikulina A, Polovodova I, Schoenfeld J (2008) Foraminiferal response to environmental changes in Kiel Fjord, SW Baltic Sea. eEarth 3:37–49.
  519. Nixon SW, Fulweiler RW, Buckley BA, Granger SL, Nowicki BL, Henry KM (2009) The impact of changing climate on phenology, productivity, and benthic-pelagic coupling in Narragansett Bay. Est Coast Shelf Sci 82:1–18Google Scholar
  520. NRC (National Research Council) (1993) Managing wastewater in coastal urban areas. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  521. Nuttall MA, Jordaan A, Cerrato RM, Frisk MG (2011) Identifying 120 years of decline in ecosystem structure and maturity of Great South Bay, New York using the Ecopath modelling approach. Ecol Model 222:3335–3345Google Scholar
  522. Nutting CC (1901) The hydroids of the Woods Hole region. Bull U S Fish Comm 1899:325–386Google Scholar
  523. Nybakken JW (2001) Marine biology: an ecological approach. Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco 516 ppGoogle Scholar
  524. Nydick K, Bidwell A, Thomas E, Varekamp JC (1995) A sea-level rise curve for Guilford, Connecticut, USA. Mar Geol 124:137–159Google Scholar
  525. Nye JA, Link JS, Hare JA, Overholtz WJ (2009) Changing spatial distribution of fish stocks in relation to climate and population size on the northeast United States continental shelf. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 393:111–129Google Scholar
  526. NYS Seagrass Task Force (2009) Final Report of the New York State Seagrass Task Force: recommendations to the New York State Governor and Legislature.
  527. O’Shea ML, Brosnan TM (2000) Trends in indicators of eutrophication in western Long Island Sound and the Hudson-Raritan Estuary. Estuaries 23:877–901Google Scholar
  528. Ocean Surveys Inc (2010) Final report–Eighteen-month benthic biology survey. A component of the benthic monitoring study for the Long Island replacement cable project December 2009, Sheffield Harbor and Long Island Sound, Norwalk, CT, Report No 07ES077.6B, 23 ppGoogle Scholar
  529. O’Donnell J, Dam HG, Bohlen WF, Fitzgerald W, Gay PS, Houk AE, Cohen DC, Howard-Strobel MM (2008) Intermittent ventilation in the hypoxic zone of western Long Island Sound during the summer of 2004. J Geophys Res 113:C09025. doi: 10.1029/2007JC004716 Google Scholar
  530. Officer CB, Smayda TJ, Mann R (1982) Benthic filter feeding—a natural eutrophication control. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 9:203–210Google Scholar
  531. Olesen B, Sand-Jensen K (1993) Seasonal acclimatization of eelgrass Zostera marina growth to light. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 94:91–99Google Scholar
  532. Oliver JD, Van Den Avyle MJ, Bozeman EL (1989) Species profiles: Life – histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates- bluefish. US Fish Wildlife Div Biol Serv Biol Rept 82/11.96, pp 4–15Google Scholar
  533. Olsson IC, Greenberg LA et al (2006) Environmentally induced migration: the importance of food. Ecol Lett 9(6):645–651PubMedGoogle Scholar
  534. Orth RJ, Moore KA (1988) Distribution of Zostera marina L. and Ruppia maritima L. sensu lato along depth gradients in the lower Chesapeake Bay, USA. Aquat Bot 32:291–305Google Scholar
  535. Orth RJ, Batiuk RA, Bergstrom PW, Moore KA (2002) A perspective on two decades of policies and regulations influencing the protection and restoration of submerged aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay, USA. Bull Mar Sci 71:1391–1403Google Scholar
  536. Orth RJ, Carruthers TJB, Dennison WC, Duarte CM, Fourqurean JW, Heck KL, Hughes AR, Kendrick GA, Kenworthy WJ, Olyarnik S, Short FT, Waycott M, Williams SL (2006) A global crisis for seagrass ecosystems. Bioscience 56:987–996Google Scholar
  537. Osman RW (1977) The establishment and development of a marine epifaunal community. Ecol Monogr 47:37–63Google Scholar
  538. Oviatt CA (2004) The changing ecology of temperate coastal waters during a warming trend. Estuaries 27:895–904Google Scholar
  539. Oviatt C, Keller A, Reed L (2002) Annual primary production in Narragansett Bay with no bay-wide winter-spring phytoplankton bloom. Est Coast Shelf Sci 54:1013–1026Google Scholar
  540. Paerl HW, Pinckney JL, Fear JM, Peierls BL (1998) Ecosystem responses to internal and watershed organic matter loading: consequences for hypoxia in the eutrophying Neuse river estuary, North Carolina, USA. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 166:17–25Google Scholar
  541. Palermo MR (1991) Design requirement for capping. Tech Note DRP-5-03, US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.
  542. Parker FL 1(1948) Foraminifera of the continental shelf from the Gulf of Maine to Maryland. Bull Museum Comp Zool, Harvard College, 100(2):214–240Google Scholar
  543. Parker FL (1952) Foraminiferal distribution in the Long Island Sound-Buzzards Bay area. Bull Museum Comp Zool, Harvard College 106(10):428–473Google Scholar
  544. Parker CA, O’Reilly JE (1991) Oxygen depletion in Long Island Sound: a historical perspective. Estuaries 14:248–264Google Scholar
  545. Parrino V, Kraus DW, Doeller JE (2000) ATP production from the oxidation of sulfide in gill mitochondria of the ribbed mussel Geukensia demissa. J Exp Biol 203:2209–2218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  546. Paterson AW, Whitfield AK (2000) Do shallow water habitats function as refugia for juvenile fishes? Est Coast Shelf Sci 51:359–364Google Scholar
  547. Pavela JS, Ross JL, Chittenden ME Jr (1983) Sharp reductions in abundances of fishes and benthic macroinvertebrates in the Gulf of Mexico off Texas associated with hypoxia. Northeast Gulf Sci 6:167–173Google Scholar
  548. Pawlowski J, Holzmann M (2008) Diversity and geographic distribution of benthic foraminifera: a molecular perspective. Biodivers Conserv 17:317–328Google Scholar
  549. Pearce J, Balcom N (2005) The 1999 Long Island Sound lobster mortality event: findings of the comprehensive research initiative. J Shellfish Res 24(3):691–698Google Scholar
  550. Pearson TH, Rosenberg R (1978) Macrobenthic succession in relation to organic enrichment and pollution of the marine environment. Oceanogr Mar Biol Ann Rev 16:229–311Google Scholar
  551. Pedersen A, Kraemer G, Yarish C (2008) Seaweed of the littoral zone at Cove Island in Long Island Sound: annual variation and impact of environmental factors. J Appl Phycol 20(5):869–882Google Scholar
  552. Pederson J, Bullock R, Carlton J, Dijkstra J et al (2005) Marine invaders in the northeast. Rapid assessment survey of non-native and native marine species of float dock communities, Aug 2003. MIT Sea Grant College Program Publ No 05-3, Cambridge, MA, 40 ppGoogle Scholar
  553. Pellegrino P, Hubbard W (1983) Baseline shellfish data for the assessment of potential environmental impacts associated with energy activities in Connecticut’s coastal zone, vols I and II. Report to the State of Connecticut, Dept of Agriculture, Aquaculture Div, Hartford, CT, 177 ppGoogle Scholar
  554. Pereira R, Yarish C (2010) The role of Porphyra in sustainable culture systems: physiology and applications. In: Israel A, Einav R (eds) Role of seaweeds in a globally changing environment. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 339–354Google Scholar
  555. Perez-Dominguez R, Holt SA, Holt GJ (2006) Environmental variability in seagrass meadows: effects of nursery environment cycles on growth and survival in larval red drum Sciaenops ocellatus. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 321:41–53Google Scholar
  556. Perry SF, Jonz MG, Gilmour KM (2009) Oxygen sensing and the hypoxic ventilatory response. Fish Physiol 27:193–253Google Scholar
  557. Petersen JK, Petersen GI (1990) Tolerance, behavior, and oxygen consumption in the sand goby, Pomatochistus minutis (Pallas), exposed to hypoxia. J Fish Biol 37:921–933Google Scholar
  558. Peterson WT (1986) The effect of seasonal variations in stratification on plankton dynamics in Long Island Sound. In: Bowman MJ, Yentsch CM, Peterson WT (eds) Tidal mixing and plankton dynamics. Lecture notes on coastal and estuarine studies, vol 17. Springer, New York, pp 297–320Google Scholar
  559. Peterson CH (1991) Intertidal zonation of marine invertebrates in sand and mud. Am Sci 79:237–249Google Scholar
  560. Peterson WT, Bellantoni DC (1987) Relationships between water column stratification, phytoplankton cell size and copepod fecundity in Long Island Sound and off central Chile. S Afr J Mar Sci 5:411–421Google Scholar
  561. Peterson WT, Dam HG (1996) Pigment ingestion and egg production rates of the calanoid copepod Temora longicornis: implications for gut pigment loss and omnivorous feeding. J Plankton Res 18:855–861Google Scholar
  562. Pickerell C, Vaudrey J (2010) The NY/CT Long Island Sound Eelgrass Restoration Project. Proposal funded by The National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, Sound Futures Fund. Project no. 24369, 17 ppGoogle Scholar
  563. Pickerell CH, Schott S, Petersen K (2007) Eelgrass establishment at a high energy site: a case study along Long Island’s north shore. Estuarine Research Fed, 4–8 Nov 2007, Providence, RIGoogle Scholar
  564. Pickerell C, Brousseau L, Vaudrey J, Yarish C, Fonseca M (2011) Development and application of a Long Island Sound GIS-based eelgrass habitat suitability index model. Proposal funded by New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission and the Long Island Sound StudyGoogle Scholar
  565. Pihl L, Baden S, Diaz RJ (1991) Effects of periodic hypoxia on distribution of demersal fish and crustaceans. Mar Biol 108:349–360Google Scholar
  566. Pihl L, Baden S, Diaz RJ, Schaffner LC (1992) Hypoxia induces structural changes in the diet of bottom-feeding fish and crustacean. Mar Biol 112:349–361Google Scholar
  567. Pillet L, de Vargas C, Pawlowski J (2011) Molecular identification of sequestered diatom chloroplasts and kleptoplastidy in foraminifera. Protist 162:394–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  568. Platon E, Sen Gupta BK, Rabalais NN, Turner RE (2005) Effect of seasonal hypoxia on the benthic foraminiferal community of the Louisiana inner continental shelf: the 20th century record. Mar Micropaleont 54:263–283Google Scholar
  569. Plumb JA, Grizzle JM, Defigueriedo J (1976) Necrosis and bacterial infection in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) following hypoxia. J Wild Dis 12:247Google Scholar
  570. Poindexter-Rollings ME (1990) Methodology for analysis of subaqueous sediment mounds. US Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. Tech Report D-90-2, 110 ppGoogle Scholar
  571. Pomeroy LR, D’Elia CF, Schaffner LC (2006) Limits to top-down control of phytoplankton by oysters in Chesapeake Bay. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 325:301–309Google Scholar
  572. Poppe LJ, Lewis RS, Knebel HJ, Haase EA, Parolski KF, DiGiacomo-Cohen ML (2001) Side-scan sonar images, surficial geologic interpretations, and bathymetry of the Long Island Sound sea floor in New Haven Harbor and New Haven dumping ground, Connecticut. US Geological Survey Geological Investigations Series Map I-2736Google Scholar
  573. Poucher SL, Coirio L (1997) Test reports: effects of low dissolved oxygen on saltwater animals. Memorandum to DC Miller, US Environmental Protection Agency, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, RIGoogle Scholar
  574. Powers J, Lopez G, Cerrato R, Dove A (2004) Effects of thermal stress on Long Island Sound lobster, H. americanus. Proceedings of the Long Island Sound Lobster Research initiative working meeting, 3–4 May 2004. University of Connecticut, Avery Point, Groton, CTGoogle Scholar
  575. Provan J, Booth D, Todd NP, Beatty GE, Maggs CA (2008) Tracking biological invasions in space and time: elucidating the invasive history of the green alga Codium fragile using old DNA. Divers Distrib 14(2):343–354Google Scholar
  576. Rabalais NN, Turner RE (eds) (2001) Coastal hypoxia: consequences for living resources and ecosystems, vol 58. American Geophysics Union, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  577. Rabalais NN, Diaz RJ, Levin LA, Turner RE, Gilbert D, Zhang J (2010) Dynamics and distribution of natural and human-caused hypoxia. Biogeosciences 7:585–619Google Scholar
  578. Rafinesque CS (1817) Synopsis of four new genera and ten new species of Crustacea, found in the United States. Am Monthly Mag 2:40–43Google Scholar
  579. Rafinesque CS (1819) Descriptions of species of sponges observed on the shores of Long Island. Am J Sci 1(11):149–151Google Scholar
  580. Raillard O, Menesguen A (1994) An ecosystem box model for estimating the carrying-capacity of a macrotidal shellfish system. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 115:117–130Google Scholar
  581. Ram ASP, Nair S, Chandramohan D (2003) Seasonal shift in net ecosystem production in a tropical estuary. Limnol Oceanogr 48:1601–1607Google Scholar
  582. Rasmussen E (1977) The wasting disease of eelgrass (Zostera marina) and its effect on environmental factors and fauna. In: McRoy CP, Helfferich C (eds) Seagrass ecosystems. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 1–51Google Scholar
  583. Rasmussen H, JØrgensen BB (1992) Microelectrode studies of seasonal oxygen-uptake in a coastal sediment-role of molecular diffusion. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 81:289–303Google Scholar
  584. Rawson PD, Lindell S, Guo X, Sunila I (2010) Cross-breeding for improved growth and disease resistance in the eastern oyster. Northeastern Regional Aquaculture Center, Publication No 206-2010, 6 ppGoogle Scholar
  585. Reid RN, Frame AB, Draxler AF (1979) Environmental baselines in Long Island Sound, 1972-1973. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Technical Report SSRF-738, 31 ppGoogle Scholar
  586. Rhoads DC (1994) Analysis of the contribution of dredged material to sediment and contaminant fluxes in Long Island Sound. DAMOS Contribution 88, US Army Corps of Engineers, New England District, Concord, MA, 45 ppGoogle Scholar
  587. Rhoads DC, Germano JD (1982) Characterization of organism-sediment relations using sediment profile imaging: an efficient method of remote ecological monitoring of the seafloor (REMOTS) System. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 8:115–128Google Scholar
  588. Rhoads DC, Germano JD (1986) Interpreting long-term changes in benthic community structure: a new protocol. Hydrobiologia 142:291–308Google Scholar
  589. Rhoads DC, McCall PL, Yingst JY (1978) Disturbance and production on the estuarine seafloor. Am Sci 66:577–586Google Scholar
  590. Rhoads DC, Boyer LF, Welsh BL, Hampson GR (1984) Seasonal dynamics of detritus in the benthic turbidity zone (BTZ): implications for bottom-rack molluscan mariculture. Bull Mar Sci 36:36–549Google Scholar
  591. Richards JG (2011) Physiological, behavioral and biochemical adaptations of intertidal fishes to hypoxia. J Exp Biol 214:191–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  592. Riedel B, Zuschin M, Haselmair A, Stachowitsch M (2008) Oxygen depletion under glass: behavioural responses of benthic macrofauna to induced anoxia in the Northern Adriatic. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 367:17–27Google Scholar
  593. Richards JG, Farrell AP, Brauner CJ (2009) In: Hypoxia, Richards JG, Farrell AP, Brauner CJ (eds) Fish physiology, vol 27. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  594. Riley GA (1941) Plankton studies, III. Long Island Sound. Bull Bingham Oceanogr Coll 7:1–93Google Scholar
  595. Riley GA (1956a) Oceanography of Long Island Sound, 1952–1954. IX. Production and utilization of organic matter. Bull Bingham Oceanogr Coll 15:324–344Google Scholar
  596. Riley GA (1956b) Production and utilization of organic matter. In: Oceanography of long island sound vol 15. Bull. Bingham Oceanographic Collection. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale Univ. pp 324–343Google Scholar
  597. Riley GA, Conover SAM (1956) Oceanography of Long Island Sound, 1952-1954. III. Chemical oceanography. Bull Bingham Oceanogr Coll 15:47–61Google Scholar
  598. Riley GA, Conover SM (1967) Phytoplankton of Long Island Sound 1954-1955. Bull Bingham Oceanog Coll 19:5–33Google Scholar
  599. Ripley JL, Foran CM (2007) Influence of estuarine hypoxia on feeding and sound production by two sympatric pipefish species. Mar Environ Res 63:350–367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  600. Ritter C, Montagna PA (1999) Seasonal hypoxia and models of benthic response in a Texas bay. Estuaries 22:7–20Google Scholar
  601. Robinette HR (1983) Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico)—bay anchovy and striped anchovy. US Fish and Wildlife Div Biol Serv FWS/OBS-82/11.14. pp 15Google Scholar
  602. Robohm R, Draxler A, Sherrell R, Wieczorek D, Kapareiko D, Pitchford S (2005) Effects of environmental stressors on disease susceptibility in American lobsters: a controlled laboratory study. J Shellfish Res 24(3):773–779Google Scholar
  603. Rombough PJ (1988) Respiratory gas exchange, aerobic metabolism, and effects of hypoxia during early life. In: Hoar WS, Randall DJ (eds) Fish physiology, vol XI: The Physiology of Developing Fish. Part A. Eggs and Larvae. Academic Press, New York, pp 59–161Google Scholar
  604. Romero J, Lee K-S, Pérez M, Mateo MA, Alcoverro T (2006) Nutrient dynamics in seagrass ecosystems. In: Larkum AWD, Orth RJ, Duarte CM (eds) Seagrasses: biology, ecology and conservation. Springer, New York, pp 227–254Google Scholar
  605. Ross P (1902) A history of Long Island from earlier settlement to the present time, vol 1. The Lewis Publishing Company, New York 1080 ppGoogle Scholar
  606. Roussel JM (2007) Carry-over effects in brown trout (Salmo truttta): hypoxia on embryos impairs predator avoidance by alevins in experimental channels. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 64:79–786Google Scholar
  607. Rozsa R (1994) Long term decline of Zostera marina in Long Island Sound and Fishers Island Sound. Office of Long Island Sound Programs, CT Dept of Environmental Protection, p 10 (Little Narr Bay page).
  608. Rozsa R, Metzler KJ, Fell P (2001) Ecology of the lower Connecticut River: plants, animals and their habitats. In: Dreyer G, Caplis M (eds) The living resources and habitats of the Lower Connecticut River. The Connecticut College Arboretum, pp 29–47Google Scholar
  609. Rudnick DT, Oviatt CA (1986) Seasonal lags between organic carbon deposition and mineralization in marine sediments. J Mar Res 44:815–837Google Scholar
  610. Ryland JS, Hayward PJ (1991) Marine flora and fauna of the northeastern United States. Erect Bryozoa. NOAA Tech Report NMFS 99, 48 ppGoogle Scholar
  611. Ryland JS, Bishop JDD, De Blauwe H, El Nagar A, Minchin D, Wood CA, Yunnie ALE (2011) Alien species of Bugula along the Atlantic coasts of Europe. Aquat Invasions 6:17–31Google Scholar
  612. Saffert H, Thomas E (1997) Living foraminifera and total populations in salt marsh peat cores: Kelsey Marsh (Clinton, CT) and the Great Marshes (Barnstable, MA). Mar Micropaleontol 33:175–202Google Scholar
  613. Salisbury J, Green M, Hunt C, Campbell J (2008) Coastal acidification by rivers: a new threat to shellfish? EOS, Trans Am Geophys Union 89:513Google Scholar
  614. Saltonstall K (2002) Cryptic invasion by a non-native genotype of the common reed, Phragmites australis, into North America. Proc Nat Acad Sci U S A 99:2445–2449Google Scholar
  615. Sanders HL (1956) Oceanography of Long Island Sound, 1952-1954. X. Biology of marine bottom communities. Bull Bingham Oceanogr Coll 15:345–414Google Scholar
  616. Sanders HL (1969) Marine benthic diversity and the stability-time hypothesis. In: Woodwell GM, Smith HH (eds) Diversity and stability in ecological systems, Brookhaven symposium in biology, No 22. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, pp 71–81Google Scholar
  617. Sanger D, Arendt M, Chen Y, Wenner E, Holland A, Edwards D, Caffrey J (2002) A synthesis of water quality data: National Estuarine Research Reserve System-wide monitoring program (1995–2000). South Carolina Department of Nat Resources, Marine Resources Div, p 135Google Scholar
  618. Say T (1817) An account of the crustacea of the United States. J Acad Nat Sci Phil 1:57–63Google Scholar
  619. Schimmel S, Benyi S, Strobel C (1999) An assessment of the ecological condition of Long Island Sound, 1990–1993. Env Monitor Assess 56:27–49Google Scholar
  620. Schneider CW (2010) Report of a new invasive alga in the Atlantic United States: “Heterosiphonia” japonica in Rhode Island. J Phycol 46:653–657Google Scholar
  621. Schneider CW, Suyemoto M, Yarish C (1979) An annotated checklist of Connecticut seaweeds. Connecticut geological and natural history survey, Connecticut Dept of Environmental Protection 24 ppGoogle Scholar
  622. Schoenfeld J, Alve E, Geslin E, Jorissen F, Korsun S, Spezzaferri S (2012) The FOBIMO (FOraminferal Bio-Monitoring) initiatve: towards a standardized protocol for soft-bottom benthic foraminiferal monitoring studies. Mar Micropaleonology 94–95:1–13Google Scholar
  623. Schoepf JD (1788) Beschriebung einiger nordamerikanishen fische vorzuglick aus den neu yorkischen seewasser. Schriften der Berliner Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde, Berlin 8:138–194Google Scholar
  624. Schwartz FJ, Hogarth WT, Weinstein MP (1981) Freshwater fishes of the Cape fear estuary, North Carolina, and their distribution in relation to environmental factors. Brimleyana 7:17–37Google Scholar
  625. Scott DB, Medioli FS (1978) Vertical zonations of marsh foraminifera as acute indicators for sea level studies. Nature 272:528–531Google Scholar
  626. Scott DB, Medioli FS (1980) Quantitative studies of marsh foraminiferal distributions in Nova Scotia: implications for sea level studies. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Pub No 17Google Scholar
  627. Scott DB, Medioli FS, Schafer CT (2001) Monitoring in coastal environments using foraminifera and thecamoebian indicators. Cambridge University Press, New York 177 ppGoogle Scholar
  628. Schurmann H, Steffensen JF (1992) Lethal oxygen levels at different temperatures and the preferred temperature during hypoxia of the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. J Fish Biol 41(6):927–34Google Scholar
  629. Schurmann H, Steffensen JF (1997) Effects of temperature, hypoxia and activity on the metabolism of juvenile Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. J Fish Biol 50:1166–1180Google Scholar
  630. Secor DH, Gunderson TE (1998) Effects of hypoxia and temperature on survival, growth, and respiration of juvenile Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus. Fish Bull 96:603–613Google Scholar
  631. Secor DH, Niklitschek EJ (2001) Hypoxia and sturgeon: report to the Chesapeake Bay program dissolved oxygen criteria team. University of Maryland Center for Environmental Studies, Chesapeake Biol Lab. Technical Report Series No TS-314-01-CBLGoogle Scholar
  632. Sen Gupta BK, Platon E (2006) Tracking past sedimentary records of oxygen depletion in coastal waters: use of the Ammonia-Elphidium foraminiferal index. J Coast Res Special Issue 39:1351–1355Google Scholar
  633. Sen Gupta BK, Turner RE, Rabalais NN (1996) Seasonal oxygen depletion in continental-shelf waters of Louisiana: historical record of benthic foraminifers. Geology 24:227–230Google Scholar
  634. Shang E, Yu R, Wu R (2006) Hypoxia affects sex differentiation and development, leading to a male-dominated population in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Environ Sci Tech 40:3118–3122Google Scholar
  635. Sherr EB, Sherr BF, Fallon RD, Newell SY (1986) Small aloricate ciliates as a major component of the marine heterotrophic nanoplankton. Limnol Oceanogr 31:177–183Google Scholar
  636. Shiah F-K, Ducklow HW (1994) Temperature regulation of heterotrophic bacterioplankton abundance, production, and specific growth rate in Chesapeake Bay. Limnol Oceanogr 39:1243–1258Google Scholar
  637. Shiah F-K, Gong G-C, Chen T-Y, Chen C-C (2000) Temperature dependence of bacterial specific growth rates on the continental shelf of the East China Sea and its potential application in estimating bacterial production. Aquat Microb Ecol 22:55–162Google Scholar
  638. Shimps EL, Rice JA, Osbourne JA (2005) Hypoxia tolerance in two estuarydependent fish. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 325:146–162Google Scholar
  639. Shimshock N, Sennefelder G, Dueker M, Thurberg F (1992) Patterns of metal accumulation in Laminaria longicruris from Long Island Sound. Arch Envir Contam Toxicol 22:305–312Google Scholar
  640. Short FT, Burdick DM (1996) Quantifying eelgrass habitat loss in relation to housing development and nitrogen loading in Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts. Estuaries 19:730–739Google Scholar
  641. Short FT, Neckles HA (1999) The effects of global climate change on seagrasses. Aquat Bot 63:169–196Google Scholar
  642. Short FT, Muehlstein LK, Porter D (1987) Eelgrass wasting disease: causes and recurrence of a marine epidemic. Biol Bull 173:557–565Google Scholar
  643. Short FT, Davis RC, Kopp BS, Short CA, Burdick DM (2002) Site selection model for optimal transplantation of eelgrass Zostera marina in the northeastern US. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 227:253–267Google Scholar
  644. Shumway DL, Warren CW, Douderoff P (1964) Influence of oxygen concentration and water movement on the growth of steelhead trout and coho salmon embryos. Trans. Am Fish Soc 93:342–356Google Scholar
  645. Shumway SE (1983) Factors affecting oxygen consumption in the coot clam Mulinia lateralis (Say). Ophelia 22(2):143–171Google Scholar
  646. Shumway SE, Scott TM, Shick JM (1993) The effects of anoxia and hydrogen sulphide on survival, activity and metabolic rate in the coot clam, Mulinia lateralis (Say). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 71(2):135–146Google Scholar
  647. Shupack B (1934) Some foraminifera from western Long Island and New York Harbor. Amer Museum Novitates 737:1–12Google Scholar
  648. Silva AJ, Brandes HG, Uchytil CJ, Fredette TJ, Carey DA (1994) Geotechnical analysis of capped dredged material mounds. Dredging’94, Proceedings of the 2nd international conference, sponsored by Waterways Committee of the Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Div, ASCE. Buena Vista, FL, pp 410–419Google Scholar
  649. Smetacek V (1984) The food supply to the benthos. In: Fashem MRJ (ed) Flows of energy and material in marine ecosystems. NATO conference series, vol IV. Plenum Press, New York, pp 517–547Google Scholar
  650. Smith K, Able K (2003) Dissolved oxygen dynamics in salt marsh pools and its potential impacts on fish assemblages. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 258:223–232Google Scholar
  651. Smith E, Howell P (1987) The effects of trawling on American lobsters, Homarus americanus, in Long Island Sound. Fish Bull 85(4):737–744Google Scholar
  652. Smith LM, Whitehouse S, Oviatt CA (2010) Impacts of climate change on Narragansett Bay. Northeast Nat 17:77–90Google Scholar
  653. Sniesko SF (1973) The effect of environmental stress on outbreaks of infectious disease in fish. Fish Biol 6:197–208Google Scholar
  654. Sogard SM (1994) Use of suboptimal foraging habitats by fishes: consequences to growth and survival. In: Stouder DJ, Fresh KL, Feller RJ (eds) Theory and application of fish feeding ecology. University of South Carolina press, Columbia, pp 103–132Google Scholar
  655. Sollid J, De Angekis P, Gunderson K, Nilsson GE (2003) Hypoxia induces adaptive and reversible morphological changes in crucian carp gills. J Exp Biol 206:3667–3673PubMedGoogle Scholar
  656. Somero GN, Childress JJ, Anderson AE (1989) Transport, metabolism and detoxification of hydrogen sulfide in animals from sulfide-rich marine environments. Critical Rev Aquat Sci 1:591–614Google Scholar
  657. Sorte CJB, Williams SL, Carlton JT (2010) Marine range shifts and species introductions: comparative spread rates and community impacts. Global Ecol Biogeogr 19:303–316Google Scholar
  658. Sousa WP (1979) Disturbance in marine intertidal boulder fields: the nonequilibrium maintenance of species diversity. Ecology 60:1225–1239Google Scholar
  659. Spendelow JA, Nichols JD, Nisbet ICT, Hayes H, Cormons GD (1995) Estimating annual survival and movement rates of adults within a metapopulation of Roseate Terns. Ecology 76:2415–2428Google Scholar
  660. Stachowicz JJ, Whitlatch RB (2005) Multiple mutualists provide complementary benefits to their seaweed hosts. Ecology 86:2418–2427Google Scholar
  661. Stachowicz JJ, Terwin JR, Whitlatch RB, Osman RW (2002) Linking climate change and biological invasions: ocean warming facilitates nonindigenous species invasions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:15497–15500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  662. Staehr PA, Borum J (2011) Seasonal acclimation in metabolism reduces light requirements of eelgrass (Zostera marina). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 407:139–146Google Scholar
  663. Stead RA, Thompson RJ (2003) The effect of the sinking spring diatom bloom on digestive processes of the cold-water protobranch Yoldia hyperborea. Limnol Oceanogr 48:157–167Google Scholar
  664. Stead RA, Thompson RJ (2006) The influence of an intermittent food supply on the feeding behaviour of Yoldia hyperborea (Bivalvia: Nuculanidae). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 332:37–48Google Scholar
  665. Stead RA, Thompson RJ, Jaramillo JR (2003) Absorption efficiency, ingestion rate, gut passage time and scope for growth in suspension- and deposit-feeding Yoldia hyperborea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 252:150–172Google Scholar
  666. Steenbergen J, Steenbergen S, Shapiro H (1978) Effects of temperature on phagocytosis in Homarus americanus. Aquaculture 14:23–30Google Scholar
  667. Steinback JMK (1999) The ocean beach of Fire Island National Seashore, New York: spatial and temporal trends and the effects of vehicular disturbance. Master’s dissertation, Marine Sciences Research Center, Stony Brook Univ, Stony Brook, NY, 252 ppGoogle Scholar
  668. Steneck RS, Carlton JT (2001) Human alterations of marine communities. In: Bertness MD, Gaines SD, Hay ME (eds) Marine community ecology. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, p 550Google Scholar
  669. Steward JS, Green WC (2007) Setting load limits for nutrients and suspended solids based upon seagrass depth-limit targets. Est Coasts 30:657–670Google Scholar
  670. Stierhoff KL, Targett TE, Grecay PA (2003) Hypoxia tolerance of the mummichog: the role of access to the water surface. J Fish Biol 63:580–592Google Scholar
  671. Stierhoff KL, Targett TF, Miller KL (2006) Ecological responses of juvenile summer and winter flounder to hypoxia: experimental and modeling analyses of effects on estuarine nursery quality. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 315:255–266Google Scholar
  672. Stierhoff KL, Targett TE, Power JH (2009a) Hypoxia-induced growth limitation of juvenile fishes in an estuarine nursery: assessment of small-scale temporal dynamics using RNA:DNA. Can J Fish Aquatic Sci 66:1033–1047Google Scholar
  673. Stierhoff KL, Targett TE, Miller K (2009b) Ecophysiological responses of juvenile summer and winter flounder to hypoxia: experimental and modeling analyses of effects on estuarine nursery quality. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 325:255–266Google Scholar
  674. Stierhoff KL, Tyler RM, Targett TE (2009c) Hypoxia tolerance of juvenile weakfish (Cynoscion regalis): laboratory assessment of growth and behavioral avoidance responses. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 381:S173–S179Google Scholar
  675. Stramma L, Johnson GC, Sprintall J, Mohrholz V (2008) Expanding oxygen-minimum zones in the tropic oceans. Science 320:655–658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  676. Sun MY, Aller RC, Lee C (1994) Spatial and temporal distributions of sedimentary chloropigments as indicators of benthic processes in Long Island Sound. J Mar Res 52:149–176Google Scholar
  677. Talbot CW, Able KW (1984) Composition and distribution of larval fishes in New Jersey high marshes. Estuaries 7(4A):434–433Google Scholar
  678. Talmage SC, Gobler CJ (2009) The effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations on the metamorphosis, size, and survival of larval hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria), bay scallops (Argopecten irradians), and Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). Limnol Oceanogr 54:2072–2080Google Scholar
  679. Talmage SC, Gobler CJ (2010) Effects of past, present, and future ocean carbon dioxide concentrations on the growth and survival of larval shellfish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:17246–17251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  680. Tango P, Butler W, Lacouture R, Eskin R, Goshorn D, Michael B, Magnien R, Beatty W, Brohawn K, Wittman R, Hall S (2002) An unprecedented bloom of Dinophysis acuminata in Chesapeake Bay. In: Steidinger KA, Landsberg JH, Tomas CR, Vargo GA (eds) Xth international conference on harmful algae. St Pete Beach, FL, p 358Google Scholar
  681. Taylor GT (1982) The role of pelagic protozoa in nutrient cycling: a review. Ann Inst Oceanogr (Suppl), Paris 58:227–241Google Scholar
  682. Taylor JC, Miller JM (2001) Physiological performance of juvenile southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma (Jordan and Gilbert, 1884), in chronic and episodic hypoxia. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 258:195–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  683. Taylor GT, Scranton MI, Iabichella M, Ho T-Y, Thunell RC, Muller-Karger F, Varela R (2001) Chemoautotrophy in the redox transition zone of the Cariaco Basin: a significant midwater source of organic carbon production. Limnol Oceanogr 46:148–163Google Scholar
  684. Taylor GT, Way J, Scranton MI (2003a) Transport and planktonic cycling of organic carbon in the highly urbanized Hudson River estuary. Limnol Oceanogr 48:1779–1795Google Scholar
  685. Taylor GT, Way J, Yu Y, Scranton MI (2003b) Patterns of hydrolytic ectoenzyme activity among bacterioplankton communities in the lower Hudson River and Western Long Island Sound estuaries. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 263:1–15Google Scholar
  686. Taylor GT, Thunell RC, Varela R, Benitez-Nelson C, Scranton MI (2009) Hydrolytic ectoenzyme activity associated with suspended and sinking organic particles above and within the anoxic Cariaco Basin. Deep-Sea Res I 56:1266–1283Google Scholar
  687. Thomas E (2007) Cenozoic mass extinctions in the deep sea; what disturbs the largest habitat on Earth? In: Monechi S, Coccioni R, Rampino M (eds) Large ecosystem perturbations: causes and consequences. Geol Soc Am Special Paper 424:1–24Google Scholar
  688. Thomas P, Rahman MS (2012) Extensive reproductive disruption, ovarian musculinization and aromatase suppression in Atlantic croaker in the northern Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone. Proc R Soc B 279:28–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  689. Thomas E, Varekamp JC (1991) Paleo-environmental analyses of marsh sequences (Clinton, CT): evidence for punctuated rise in relative sea level during the latest Holocene. J Coast Res 11:125–158Google Scholar
  690. Thomas, E., Lugolobi, F., Abramson, I., and Varekamp, J. C., 2001. Reconstructing Long Island Sound Environmental Changes and Their Influence on the Biota. EOS Suppl., Trans. AGU , F 773Google Scholar
  691. Thomas E, Varekamp JC (2011) Benthic foraminifera in Long Island Sound. NEERS spring meeting, 5–7 May 2011, Port Jefferson, Long Island, NYGoogle Scholar
  692. Thomas E, Gapotchenko T, Varekamp JC, Mecray EL, Buchholtz ten Brink MR (2000) Benthic foraminifera and environmental changes in Long Island Sound. J Coast Res 16:641–655Google Scholar
  693. Thomas E, Abramson I, Varekamp JC, Buchholtz ten Brink MR (2004) Eutrophication of Long Island Sound as traced by benthic foraminifera. Proceedings of the 6th Biennial LIS research conference, pp 87–91Google Scholar
  694. Thomas H, Bozec Y, Elkalay K, de Baar HJW (2004b) Enhanced open ocean storage of CO2 from shelf sea pumping. Science 304:1005–1008PubMedGoogle Scholar
  695. Thomas P, Rahman S, Kummer J, Lawson S (2006) Reproductive endocrine dysfunction in Atlantic croaker exposed to hypoxia. Soc Environ Mar Env Res 62:S249–S252Google Scholar
  696. Thomas P, Rahman S, Khan I, Kummer J (2007) Widespread endocrine disruption and reproductive impairment in an estuarine fish population exposed to seasonal hypoxia. Proc Biol Sci 274:2693–2701PubMedGoogle Scholar
  697. Thomas E, Varekamp JC, Cooper S, Sangiorgi F, Donders T (2009) Proxies for eutrophication in Long Island Sound. ‘Coasts and estuaries in a changing world,’ CERF 2009, Portland, OR (1–5 Nov 2009)Google Scholar
  698. Thomas E, Varekamp JC, Cooper S, Sangiorgi F, Donders T (2010) Microfossil proxies for anthropogenic environmental changes in Long Island Sound. Abstract 76-6, GSA Programs and Abstracts 42(1):175–176Google Scholar
  699. Thompson RJ (1984) The reproductive cycle and physiological ecology of the mussel Mytilus edulis in a subarctic, non-estuarine environment. Mar Biol 79:277–288Google Scholar
  700. Thompson WG, Thomas E, Varekamp JC (2000) 1500 years of sea level rise in Long Island Sound. Proceedings of the 4th Biennial LIS Research Conf, pp 139–148Google Scholar
  701. Tielens AGM, Rotte C, van Hellemond JJ, Martin W (2002) Mitochondria as we don’t know them. Trends Biochem Sci 27(11):564–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  702. Timmerman C, Chapman L (2004) Patterns of hypoxia in a coastal salt marsh: implications for ecophysiology of resident fishes. Fla Sci 67:80–91Google Scholar
  703. Tiner R, Bergquist H, Halavik T, MacLachlan A (2007) 2006 eelgrass survey for eastern Long Island Sound, Connecticut and New York. US Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands Inventory Program, Northeast Region, Hadley MA, 24 pp + appendicesGoogle Scholar
  704. Tiner R, McGuckin K, Fields N, Fuhrman N, Halavik T, MacLachlan A (2010) 2009 Eelgrass survey for Eastern Long Island Sound, Connecticut and New York. US Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands Inventory Program, Northeast Region, Hadley, MA, 15 pp + appendixGoogle Scholar
  705. Torgersen T, DeAngelo E, O’Donnell J (1997) Calculations of horizontal mixing rates using 222Rn and the controls on hypoxia in western Long Island Sound. Estuaries 20:328–345Google Scholar
  706. Tsutsumi H (1990) Population persistence of Capitella sp. (Polychaeta; Capitellidae) on a mud flat subject to environmental disturbance by organic enrichment. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 63:147–156Google Scholar
  707. Tsutsumi H, Wainright S, Montani S, Saga M, Ichihara S, Kogure K (2001) Exploitation of a chemosynthetic food resource by the polychaete Capitella sp. I. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 216:119–127Google Scholar
  708. Tyler RM, Targett TE (2007) Juvenile weakfish (Cynoscion regalis) distribution in relation to diel-cycling dissolved oxygen in an estuarine tributary. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 333:257–269Google Scholar
  709. Ukeles R, Sweeney BM (1969) Influence of dinoflagellate trichocysts and other factors on the feeding of Crassostrea virginica larvae on Monochrysis lutheri. Limnol Oceanogr 14:403–410Google Scholar
  710. USASAC (US Atlantic Salmon Assessment Committee) (2011) Annual report of the US Atlantic salmon assessment committee-2010 activities. Report no 23, Portland, ME.
  711. USEPA (2000) Ambient aquatic life water quality criteria for dissolved oxygen (saltwater): Cape Cod to Hatteras. EPA-822-R-00012. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  712. USEAP (2003) Biological evaluation for the issuance of ambient water quality criteria for dissolved oxygen, water clarity and chlorophyll a for Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries. US Environmental Protection Agency, Region III, Chesapeake Bay Program OfficeGoogle Scholar
  713. USFWS (2011) US Fish and Wildlife Service Connecticut River coordinator’s office report.
  714. Vadas RL (1977) Preferential feeding: an optimization strategy in sea urchins. Ecol Monogr 47:337–371Google Scholar
  715. Vadas RL (1985) Herbivory. In: Littler MN, Littler DS (eds) Handbook of phycological methods: ecological field methods: Macroalgae. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 531–572Google Scholar
  716. Valente RM (2004) The role of seafloor characterization and benthic habitat mapping in dredged material management: a review. J Mar Env Eng 7:185–215Google Scholar
  717. Valente RM, Carey DA, Read LB, Esten ME (2012) Monitoring survey at the Central Long Island Sound disposal site, October 2009. DAMOS Contribution No 184, US Army Corps of Engineers, New England District, Concord, MA, 90 ppGoogle Scholar
  718. Valente RM, Rhoads DC, Germano JD, Cabelli VJ (1992) Mapping of benthic enrichment patterns in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Estuaries 15(1):1–17Google Scholar
  719. Valiela I, Cole ML (2002) Comparative evidence that salt marshes and mangroves may protect seagrass meadows from land-derived nitrogen loads. Ecosystems 5:92–102Google Scholar
  720. Van Name WG (1912) Simple ascidians of the coasts of New England and neighboring British provinces. Proc Boston Soc Nat Hist 34:439–619Google Scholar
  721. Van Name WG (1945) The North and South America ascidians. Bull Am Museum Nat Hist 84:1–476Google Scholar
  722. Van Patten MS (2006) Seaweeds of Long Island Sound. Foreword by Charles Yarish, Connecticut Sea Grant 104 ppGoogle Scholar
  723. Van Patten MS, Yarish C, O’Muirchairtaigh I (1993) Effects of temperature on reproduction in the Atlantic kelp, Laminaria longicruris, in the North Atlantic Ocean. In: Van Patten M (ed) Irish-American technical exchange on the aquaculture of abalone, sea urchins, lobsters and kelp. Connecticut Sea Grant College Program and Martin Ryan Institute, pp 50–51Google Scholar
  724. Vaquer-Sunyer R, Duarte CM (2008) Thresholds of hypoxia for marine biodiversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:15452–15457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  725. Vaquer-Sunyer R, Duarte CM (2010) Sulfide exposure accelerates hypoxia-driven mortality. Limnol Oceanogr 55(3):1074–1082Google Scholar
  726. Vaquer-Sunyer R, Duarte CM (2011) Temperature effects on oxygen thresholds for hypoxia in marine benthic organisms. Global Change Biol 17:1788–1797Google Scholar
  727. Varekamp JC, Thomas E (1998) Sea level rise and climate change over the last 1000 years. EOS 79:69–75Google Scholar
  728. Varekamp JC, Thomas E, Van de Plassche O (1992) Relative sea-level rise and climate change over the last 1500 years (Clinton, CT, USA). Terra Nova 4:293–304Google Scholar
  729. Varekamp,.J. C., Thomas, E., and Groner, M., 2005. The late Pleistocene – Holocene History of Long island Sound, Seventh Biennual LIS Research Conference Proceedings, 2004, p. 27–32Google Scholar
  730. Varekamp JC, Thomas E, Lugolobi F, Buchholtz ten Brink MR (2004) The paleo-environmental history of Long Island Sound as traced by organic carbon, biogenic silica and stable isotope/trace element studies in sediment cores. Proceedings of the 6th Biennial LIS Research Conference, pp 109–113Google Scholar
  731. Varekamp JC, Altabet M, Thomas E, Ten Brink M, Andersen N, Mecray E (2009) Hypoxia in Long Island Sound-Since when and why. ‘Coasts and Estuaries in a Changing World,’ CERF 2009, Portland, OR (1–5 Nov 2009)Google Scholar
  732. Varekamp JC, Thomas E, Altabet M, Cooper S, Brinkhuis H, Sangiorgi F, Donders T, Buchholtz ten Brink M (2010) Environmental change in Long Island Sound in the recent past: eutrophication and climate change. Final report, LISRF grant No CWF 334-R (FRS #525156), 54 pp.
  733. Vaudrey JMP (2008a) Establishing restoration objectives for eelgrass in Long Island Sound, Part I: Review of the seagrass literature relevant to Long Island Sound. Final grant report to the Connecticut Dept of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Water Protection and Land Reuse and the US Environmental Protection Agency, Groton, CT, 58 ppGoogle Scholar
  734. Vaudrey JMP (2008b) Establishing restoration objectives for eelgrass in Long Island Sound, Part II: Case studies. Final grant report to the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Water Protection and Land Reuse and the US Environmental Protection Agency, Groton, CTGoogle Scholar
  735. Vaudrey JMP, Kremer JN, Branco BF, Short FT (2010) Eelgrass recovery after nutrient enrichment reversal. Aquat Bot 93:237–243Google Scholar
  736. Verity PG, Wassman P, Frischer ME, Howard-Jones MH, Allen AE (2002) Grazing of phytoplankton by microzooplankton in the Barents Sea during early summer. J Mar Syst 38:109–123Google Scholar
  737. Verrill AE (1898) Descriptions of new American actinians, with critical notes on other species, I. Am J Sci (4)6:493–498Google Scholar
  738. Verrill AE, Smith SI, Harger O (1873) Catalogue of the marine invertebrate animals of the southern coast of New England, and adjacent waters. Report of the US Fish Commission 1871–1872:537–747Google Scholar
  739. Vigil HL (1991) The fate of dissolved oxygen in Long Island Sound bottom waters. Master’s dissertation, State University of New York, Stony BrookGoogle Scholar
  740. Völkel S, Grieshaber MK (1994) Oxygen-dependent sulfide detoxification in the lugworm Arenicola marina. Mar Biol 118:137–147Google Scholar
  741. Voyer RA, Hennecky RJ (1972) Effects of dissolved oxygen on the two life stages of the mummichog. Prog Fish Culturist 34:222–225Google Scholar
  742. Wada M, Wu SS, Tsutsumi H, Kita-Tsukamoto K, Hyung-Ki D, Nomura H, Ohwada, K, Kogure K (2006) Effects of sodium sulfide on burrowing activity of Capitella sp. I and bacterial respiratory activity in seawater soft-agar microcosms. Plankton Benthos Res 1(2):117–122Google Scholar
  743. Waldbusser GG, Voigt EP, Bergschneider H, Green MA, Newell RIE (2011) Biocalcification in the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) in relation to long-term trends in Chesapeake Bay pH. Estuaries Coasts 34:221–231Google Scholar
  744. Walker DI, Lukatelich RJ, Bastyan G, McComb AJ (1989) Effect of boat moorings on seagrass beds near Perth, Western Australia. Aquat Bot 36:69–77Google Scholar
  745. Walker A, Bush P, Wilson T, Chang E, Miller T, Horst M (2005) Metabolic effects of acute exposure to methoprene in the American lobster, Homarus americanus. J Shellfish Res 24(3):787–794Google Scholar
  746. Wall CC, Peterson BJ, Gobler CJ (2008) Facilitation of seagrass Zostera marina productivity by suspension-feeding bivalves. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 357:165–174Google Scholar
  747. Walters GR, Plumb JA (1980) Environmental stress and bacterial infection in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. J Fish Biol 17:177Google Scholar
  748. Wannamaker CM, Rice JZ (2000) Effects of hypoxia on movements and behavior of selected estuarine organisms from the southeastern United States. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 249:145–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  749. Warkentine BE, Rachlin JW (2010) The first record of Palaemon macrodactylus (Oriental shrimp) from the eastern coast of North America. Northeast Nat 17:91–102Google Scholar
  750. Warnock N, Elphick CS, Rubega MA (2001) Biology of marine birds: Shorebirds. In: Burger J, Schreiber BA (eds) Biology of marine birds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 581–615Google Scholar
  751. Warren RS, Niering WA (1993) Vegetation change on a northeast tidal marsh-interaction of sea-level rise and marsh accretion. Ecology 74:96–103Google Scholar
  752. Warren RS, Fell PE, Rozsa R, Brawley AH, Orsted AC, Olson ET, Swamy V, Niering WA (2002) Salt marsh restoration in Connecticut: 20 years of science and management. Restor Ecol 10:497–513Google Scholar
  753. Waycott M, Duarte CM, Carruthers TJB, Orth RJ, Dennison WC, Olyarnik S, Calladine A, Fourqurean JW, Heck KL Jr, Hughes AR, Kendrick GA, Kenworthy WJ, Short FT, Williams SL (2009) Accelerating loss of seagrasses across the globe threatens coastal ecosystems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:12377–12381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  754. Wazniak CE, Hall MR, Carruthers TJB, Sturgis B, Dennison WC, Orth RJ (2007) Linking water quality to living resources in a mid-Atlantic lagoon system, USA. Ecol Appl 17:S64–S79Google Scholar
  755. Weber RE (1988) Intraspecific adaptation of hemoglobin function in fish to oxygen availability. In: Addink ADF, Spronk N (eds) Exogenous and endogenous influences on metabolic and neural control. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 87–102Google Scholar
  756. Weber RE, Jensen FB (1988) Functional adaptations in hemoglobins from ectothermic vertebrates. Ann Rev Physiol 50:161–179Google Scholar
  757. Weber JM, Kramer DL (1983) Effects of hypoxia on surface access on growth, mortality, and behavior of juvenile guppies, Poecilia reticulate. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 40:1583–1588Google Scholar
  758. Weinstein MP (1979) Shallow marsh habitats as primary nurseries for fishes and shellfish, Cape Fear River, North Carolina. Fish Bull 77:339–357Google Scholar
  759. Weisberg SB, Wilson HT, Himchak P, Baum T, Allen R (1996) Temporal trends in abundance of fish in the tidal Delaware River. Estuaries 19:723–729Google Scholar
  760. Weiss HM (1995) Marine animals of southern New England and New York. State Geological and Natural History Survey of ConnecticutGoogle Scholar
  761. Welschmeyer NA, Lorenzen CT (1985) Chlorophyll budgets: Zooplankton grazing and phytoplankton growth in a temperate fjord and the central Pacific gyres. Limnol Oceanogr 30:1–21Google Scholar
  762. Welsh BL (1995) Hypoxia in Long Island Sound: one researcher’s perspective. Long Island Sound Research Conference: Is the Sound Getting Better or Worse? New York Sea Grant Institute, Stony Brook, NYGoogle Scholar
  763. Welsh BL, Eller FC (1991) Mechanisms controlling summertime oxygen depletion in Western Long Island Sound. Estuaries 14:265–278Google Scholar
  764. Weltzien F, Doeving KB, Carr WES (1999) Avoidance reaction of yolk-sac larvae of the inland silverside Menidia beryllina (Atherinidae) to hypoxia. J Exp Biol 202(20):2869–2876Google Scholar
  765. Whitlatch RB (1982) The ecology of New England tidal flats: a community profile. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Biol Services Program, Washington, DC, FWS/OBS-81/01, 125 ppGoogle Scholar
  766. Whitlatch RB, Osman RW (2000) Geographical distributions and organism-habitat associations of shallow-water introduced marine fauna in New England. In: Pederson J (ed) Marine bioinvasions. Proceedings of the 1st national conference, 4–27 Jan 1999, MIT Sea Grant College Program, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, pp 61–65Google Scholar
  767. Wikfors GH (2005) A review and new analysis of trophic interactions between Prorocentrum minimum and clams, scallops, and oysters. Harmful Algae 4:585–592Google Scholar
  768. Wikfors GH, Smolowitz RM (1993) Detrimental effects of a Prorocentrum isolate upon hard clams and bay scallops in laboratory feeding studies. In: Smayda TJ, Shimizu Y (eds) Toxic phytoplankton blooms in the sea. Elsevier, New York, pp 447–452Google Scholar
  769. Wilber DH, Clarke DG, Rees SI (2007) Responses of benthic macroinvertebrates to thin-layer disposal of dredged material in Mississippi Sound, USA. Mar Poll Bull 54:42–52Google Scholar
  770. Williams PJ leB (1981) Incorporation of microheterotrophic processes into the classical paradigm of the planktonic food web. Kieler Meeresforsch 5:1–28Google Scholar
  771. Wilson RE, Crowley H, Brownawell B, Swanson RL (2005) Simulation of transient pesticide concentrations in Long Island Sound for late summer 1999 with a high resolution coastal circulation model. J Shellfish Res 24(3):865–875Google Scholar
  772. Wilson RE, Swanson RL, Crowley HA (2008) Perspectives on long-term variations in hypoxic conditions in western Long Island Sound. J Geophys Res 113:C12011. doi: 10.1029/2007JC004693
  773. Witek JC (1990) An outline of the aboriginal archaeology of Shelter Island, New York. Bull Archaeol Soc Connecticut 53:39–58Google Scholar
  774. Witte U, Aberle N, Sand M, Wenzhöfer F (2003) Rapid response of a deep-sea benthic community to POM enrichment: an in situ experimental study. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 251:27–36Google Scholar
  775. Wolfe DA, Monahan R, Stacey PE, Farrow DRG, Robertson A (1991) Environmental quality of Long Island Sound: assessment and management issues. Estuaries 14:224–236Google Scholar
  776. Wu RSS (2002) Hypoxia: from molecular responses to ecosystem responses. Mar Poll Bull 45:35–45Google Scholar
  777. Wu RSS (2009) Effects of hypoxia on fish reproduction and development, Chapter 3. In: Richards J, Farell A, Brauner C (eds) Fish physiology: Hypoxia. Elsevier, San Diego, 517 ppGoogle Scholar
  778. Wu RSS, Zhou BS, Randall DJ, Woo NYS, Lam PKS (2003) Aquatic hypoxia is an endocrine disruptor and impairs fish reproduction. Environ Sci Technol 37:1137–1141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  779. Yarish C, Baillie PW (1989) Ecological study of an impounded estuary, Holly Pond, Stamford, CT. Submitted to the Stamford Environmental Protection Board, Stamford, CT and the Coastal Area Management Program, Hartford, CT, 117 pp + appendicesGoogle Scholar
  780. Yarish C, Edwards P (1982) Field and cultural studies on the seasonal and horizontal distribution of estuarine red algae of New Jersey. Phycologia 21:112–124Google Scholar
  781. Yarish C, Edwards P, Casey S (1980) The effects of salinity, and calcium and potassium variations on the growth of two estuarine red algae. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 47(3):235–249Google Scholar
  782. Yarish C, Breeman AM, van den Hoek C (1984) Temperature, light and photoperiod responses of some Northeast American and west European endemic rhodophytes in relation to their geographic distribution. Helgoländer Meeresunters 38:273–304Google Scholar
  783. Yarish C, Breeman AM, van den Hoek C (1986) Survival strategies and temperature responses of seaweeds belonging to different biogeographic distribution groups. Botanica Mar 24:215–230Google Scholar
  784. Yarish C, Kirkman H, Lüning K (1987) Lethal exposure times and preconditioning to upper temperature limits of some temperate North Atlantic red algae. Helgoländer Meeresunters 41:323–327Google Scholar
  785. Yarish C, Brinkhuis BH, Egan B, Garcia-Esquivel Z (1990) Morphological and physiological bases for Laminaria selection protocols in Long Island Sound. In: Yarish C, Penniman CA, van Patten M (eds) Economically important marine plants of the Atlantic: their biology and cultivation. Connecticut Sea Grant College, Groton, pp 53–94Google Scholar
  786. Yarish C, Wilkes R, Chopin T, Fei XG, Mathieson AC, Klein AS, Friel D, Neefus CD, Mitman GG, Levine I (1998) Domesticating indigenous Porphyra (nori) species for commercial cultivation in Northeast America. World Aquacul 29(4):26–29Google Scholar
  787. Yarish C, Chopin T, Wilkes R, Mathieson AC, Fei XG, Lu S (1999) Domestication of nori for Northeast America: The Asian experience. Bull Aquacul Assoc Can 99(1):11–17Google Scholar
  788. Yarish C, Linden RE, Capriulo G, Koch EW, Beer S, Rehnberg J, Troy R, Morales EA, Trainor FR, DiGiacomo-Cohen M, Lewis R (2006) Environmental monitoring, seagrass mapping and biotechnology as means of fisheries habitat enhancement along the Connecticut coast. Univ of Connecticut, Stamford, p 105Google Scholar
  789. Yarish C, Whitlatch RB, Kraemer G, Lin S (2010) Multi-component evaluation to minimize the spread of aquatic invasive seaweeds, harmful algal bloom microalgae, and invertebrates via the live bait vector in Long Island Sound. Report to US Environmental Protection Agency.
  790. Yarish C, Whitlatch RB, Kraemer GP, Lin S (2010) Final report to Connecticut Sea Grant on Project R/LR-17, Spread and impacts of the non-indigenous rhodophycean alga, Grateloupia turuturu, on Long Island Sound, 29 ppGoogle Scholar
  791. Yasumoto T, Oshima Y, Sugawara W (1980) Identification of Dinophysis-Fortii as the causative organism of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. Bull Japanese Soc Sci Fish 46:1405–1411Google Scholar
  792. York JK, Costas BA, McManus GB (2011) Microzooplankton grazing in green water-Results from two contrasting estuaries. Estuaries Coasts 34:373–385. doi: 10.1007/s12237-010-9336-8 Google Scholar
  793. Zajac RN (1996) Ecologic mapping and management-based analyses of benthic habitats and communities in Long Island Sound. Chapters I, II and III. Final report, Long Island Sound Research Fund Grant CWF-221-R, Connecticut Dept of Environmental Protection, Office of Long Island Sound Programs, Hartford, CTGoogle Scholar
  794. Zajac RN (1998a) Spatial and temporal characteristics of selected benthic communities in Long Island Sound and management implications. Final report, Long Island Sound Research Fund Grant CWF317-R, Connecticut Dept of Environmental Protection, Office of Long Island Sound Programs, Hartford, CTGoogle Scholar
  795. Zajac RN (1998b) A review of research on benthic communities conducted in Long Island Sound and assessment of structure and dynamics. In: Poppe LJ, Polloni C (eds) Long Island Sound Environmental Studies, US Geological Survey, Open-File Report 98-502.
  796. Zajac RN (1999) Understanding the seafloor landscape in relation to assessing and managing impacts on coastal environments. In: Gray JS, Ambrose W Jr, Szaniawska A (eds) Biogeochemical cycling and sediment ecology. Kluwer Publishing, Dordrecht, pp 211–227Google Scholar
  797. Zajac RN (2001) Organism-sediment relations at multiple spatial scales: implications for community structure and successional dynamics. In: Aller JY, Woodin SA, Aller RC (eds) Organism-sediment interactions. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, pp 119–139Google Scholar
  798. Zajac RN, Whitlatch RB (1982) Responses of estuarine infauna to disturbance. II. Spatial and temporal variation in succession. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 10:15–27Google Scholar
  799. Zajac RN, Lewis RS, Poppe LJ, Twichell DC, Vozarik J, DiGiacomo-Cohen ML (2000a) Relationships among sea-floor structure and benthic communities in Long Island Sound at regional and benthoscape scales. J Coast Res 16:627–640Google Scholar
  800. Zajac RN, Lewis RS, Poppe LJ, Twichell DC, Vozarik J, DiGiacomo-Cohen ML, (2000b) Benthic community geographic information system (GIS) data layers for Long Island Sound, Chapter 10. In: Paskevich VF, Poppe LJ (eds) Georeferenced mapping and bottom photography in Long Island Sound. US Geological Survey Open File-Report 00-304, CD-ROM.
  801. Zajac RN, Lewis RS, Poppe LJ, Twichell DC, Vozarik J, DiGiacomo-Cohen ML (2003) Responses of infaunal populations to benthoscape structure and the potential importance of transition zones. Limnol Oceanogr 48:829–842Google Scholar
  802. Zajac RN, Seals B, Simpson D (2008) Food webs in Long Island Sound: review, synthesis and potential applications. Final report-EPA Grant No. LI-97101401 submitted to the US Environmental Protection Agency, Long Island Sound Study, 87 pp (Available at the EPA LISS website)Google Scholar
  803. Zimmerman RC, Smith RD, Alberte RS (1987) Is growth of eelgrass nitrogen limited? A numerical simulation of the effects of light and nitrogen on the growth dynamics of Zostera marina. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 41:167–176Google Scholar
  804. Zulkosky A, Ruggieri J, Terracciano S, Brownawell B, McElroy A (2005) Acute toxicity of resmethrin, malathion and methoprene to larval and juvenile American lobsters (Homarus americanus) and analysis of pesticide levels in surface waters after Scourge™, Anvil™, and Altosid™ application. J Shellfish Res 24(3):795–804Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Glenn Lopez
    • 1
    Email author
  • Drew Carey
    • 11
  • James T. Carlton
    • 12
  • Robert Cerrato
    • 1
  • Hans Dam
    • 4
  • Rob DiGiovanni
    • 9
  • Chris Elphick
    • 3
  • Michael Frisk
    • 1
  • Christopher Gobler
    • 1
  • Lyndie Hice
    • 1
  • Penny Howell
    • 13
  • Adrian Jordaan
    • 18
  • Senjie Lin
    • 4
  • Sheng Liu
    • 4
  • Darcy Lonsdale
    • 1
  • Maryann McEnroe
    • 10
  • Kim McKown
    • 15
  • George McManus
    • 4
  • Rick Orson
    • 17
  • Bradley Peterson
    • 1
  • Chris Pickerell
    • 5
  • Ron Rozsa
    • 16
  • Sandra E. Shumway
    • 4
  • Amy Siuda
    • 6
  • Kelly Streich
    • 19
  • Stephanie Talmage
    • 1
  • Gordon Taylor
    • 1
  • Ellen Thomas
    • 7
  • Margaret Van Patten
    • 2
  • Jamie Vaudrey
    • 4
  • Charles Yarish
    • 3
  • Gary Wikfors
    • 14
  • Roman Zajac
    • 8
  1. 1.School of Marine and Atmospheric SciencesStony Brook UniversityStony BrookUSA
  2. 2.Connecticut Sea GrantUniversity of ConnecticutGrotonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of ConnecticutGrotonUSA
  4. 4.Department of Marine SciencesUniversity of ConnecticutGrotonUSA
  5. 5.Cornell Cooperative Extension of Suffolk CountyRiverheadUSA
  6. 6.Sea Education AssociationFalmouthUSA
  7. 7.Department of Geology and GeophysicsYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  8. 8.Department of Biology and Environmental ScienceUniversity of New HavenNew HavenUSA
  9. 9.Riverhead Foundation for Marine Research and PreservationRiverheadUSA
  10. 10.School of Natural and Social SciencesPurchase CollegePurchaseUSA
  11. 11.Coastal VisionNewportUSA
  12. 12.Williams-Mystic Maritime Studies ProgramWilliams CollegeStoningtonUSA
  13. 13.Marine Fisheries DivisionConnecticut Department of Energy and Environmental ProtectionHartfordUSA
  14. 14.Northeast Fisheries Sciences CenterNOAAMilfordUSA
  15. 15.Bureau of Marine ResourcesNew York Department of Environmental ConservationEast SetauketUSA
  16. 16.Coastal Management ProgramConnecticut Department of Energy and Environment Protection RetiredHartfordUSA
  17. 17.Orson Ecological ConsultingBranfordUSA
  18. 18.University of Massachusetts-AmherstAmherstUSA
  19. 19.Bureau of Water Management Planning and StandardsConnecticut Department of Energy and Environmental ProtectionHarfordUSA

Personalised recommendations