Advertisement

Gastric Outlet Obstruction

Chapter

Abstract

Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) indicates obstruction of the distal stomach, pylorus, or proximal duodenum. The term is also used to encompass lesions in the second through fourth portion of the duodenum as the demarcation between gastric outlet obstruction and duodenal obstruction is inconsistent [1]. GOO can be the result of benign or malignant conditions. While classically GOO was ascribed to noncancerous pathology, a frequently cited review by Johnson et al. of 261 patients with GOO indicated that the epidemiology of GOO is changing [2]. They noted that between 1962 and 1975, malignancy accounted for 33 % of GOO cases at their hospital in the United Kingdom. Between 1976 and 1985 malignancy accounted for 50 % of cases. However, from 1987 to 1988 malignancy was responsible for 66 % of cases of GOO. Current thinking is that GOO in adults is secondary to malignancy unless proven otherwise.

Keywords

Gastric Emptying Balloon Dilation Peptic Ulcer Disease Gastric Outlet Obstruction Gastric Outlet Obstruction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Kim ID, Kang DH, Choi CW, et al. Prevention of covered enteral stent migration in patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction: a pilot study of anchoring with endoscopic clips. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2010;45(1):100–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Johnson CD, Ellis H. Gastric outlet obstruction now predicts malignancy. Br J Surg. 1990;77(9):1023–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mäkelä JT, Kiviniemi H, Laitinen S. Gastric outlet obstruction caused by peptic ulcer disease analysis of 99 patients. Hepatogastroenterology. 1996;43(9):547–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gibson JB, Behrman SW, Fabian TC, Britt LG. Gastric outlet obstruction resulting from peptic ulcer disease requiring surgical intervention is infrequently associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. J Am Coll Surg. 2000;191(1):32–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barksdale AR, Schwartz RW. The evolving management of gastric outlet obstruction from peptic ulcer disease. Curr Surg. 2002;59(4):404–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Millat B, Fingerhut A, Borie F. Surgical treatment of complicated duodenal ulcers: controlled trials. World J Surg. 2000;24(3):299–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Piñero Madrona A, Robles R, López J, et al. Evolution of the need for operation for peptic pyloric stenosis over a period of 24 years (1976–1999). Eur J Surg. 2001;167(10):758–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shabbir J, Durrani S, Ridgway PF, Mealy K. Proton pump inhibition is a feasible primary alternative to surgery and balloon dilatation in adult peptic pyloric stenosis (APS): report of six consecutive cases. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2006;88(2):174–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ferzoco S, Soybel D. Gastric outlet obstruction, peforation, and other complications of gastroduodenal ulcer. In: Wolfe M, editor. Therapy of digestive disorders. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2006. p. 357–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Berg D, Dempsey DT. Peptic ulcer disease: obstruction. In: Bland K, editor. General surgery principles and international practice. New York: Springer; 2009. p. 525–32.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Behrman SW. Management of complicated peptic ulcer disease. Arch Surg. 2005;140(2):201–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Richard K. Gastrointestinal dilation. In: Yamada T, Alpers D, Owyang C, editors. Textbook of gastroenterology. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1990. p. 2039–54.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Helmer K, Mercer D. Gastric physiology and acid-peptic disorders. In: Miller T, editor. Modern surgical care. 3rd ed. New York: Informa; 2006. p. 333–67.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Adler DG. Enteral stents for malignant gastric outlet obstruction: testing our mettle. Gastrointest Endosc. 2007;66(2):361–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mohammed AA, Benmousa A, Almeghaiseeb I, Alkarawi M. Gastric outlet obstruction. Hepatogastroenterology. 2007;54(80):2415–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ellis H. Pyloric stenosis complicating duodenal ulceration. World J Surg. 1987;11(3):315–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gaughan C, Dempsey DT. Management of duodenal ulcer. In: Cameron J, Cameron A, editors. Current surgical therapy. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011. p. 68–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mabogunje OA, Lawrie JH. Surgical management of duodenal ulcer in Zaria, Nigeria. J R Coll Surg Edinb. 1985;30(5):283–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cherian PT, Cherian S, Singh P. Long-term follow-up of patients with gastric outlet obstruction related to peptic ulcer disease treated with endoscopic balloon dilatation and drug therapy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2007;66(3):491–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kuwada SK, Alexander GL. Long-term outcome of endoscopic dilation of nonmalignant pyloric stenosis. Gastrointest Endosc. 1995;41(1):15–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lam YH, Lau JY, Fung TM, et al. Endoscopic balloon dilation for benign gastric outlet obstruction with or without Helicobacter pylori infection. Gastrointest Endosc. 2004;60(2):229–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Abdel-Salam WN, Katri KM, Bessa SS, El-Kayal E-SA. Laparoscopic-assisted truncal vagotomy and gastro-jejunostomy: trial of simplification. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2009;19(2):125–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pollard SG, Friend PJ, Dunn DC, Hunter JO. Highly selective vagotomy with duodenal dilatation in patients with duodenal ulceration and gastric outlet obstruction. Br J Surg. 1990;77(12):1365–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Goldstein H, Boyle JD. The saline load test–a bedside evaluation of gastric retention. Gastroenterology. 1965;49(4):375–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Griffith GH, Owen GM, Kirkman S, Shields R. Measurement of rate of gastric emptying using chromium-51. Lancet. 1966;1(7449):1244–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Maetani I, Ukita T, Tada T, et al. Gastric emptying in patients with palliative stenting for malignant gastric outlet obstruction. Hepatogastroenterology. 2008;55(81):298–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Matolo NM, Stadalnik RC. Assessment of gastric motility using meal labeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid. Am J Surg. 1983;146(6):823–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yusuf TE, Brugge WR. Endoscopic therapy of benign pyloric stenosis and gastric outlet obstruction. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2006;22(5):570–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Awan A, Johnston DE, Jamal MM. Gastric outlet obstruction with benign endoscopic biopsy should be further explored for malignancy. Gastrointest Endosc. 1988;48(5):497–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Newman N, Mufeed S, Makary M. Benign gastric ulcer. In: Cameron J, Cameron A, editors. Current surgical therapy. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011. p. 63–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Choudhary AM, Roberts I, Nagar A, Tabrez S, Gupta T. Helicobacter pylori-related gastric outlet obstruction: is there a role for medical treatment? J Clin Gastroenterol. 2001;32(3):272–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dempsey DT. Management of benign gastric outlet obstruction in the adult patient. Curr Surg. 2002;59(2):158–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kochhar R, Poornachandra KS, Dutta U, Agrawal A, Singh K. Early endoscopic balloon dilation in caustic-induced gastric injury. Gastrointest Endosc. 2010;71(4):737–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Boylan JJ, Gradzka MI. Long-term results of endoscopic balloon dilatation for gastric outlet obstruction. Dig Dis Sci. 1999;44(9):1883–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kovacs T, Jensen D. Complications of peptic ulcer disease. In: DiMarino A, Benjamin SB, editors. Gastrointestinal disease: an endoscopic approach. 2nd ed. Thorofare, NJ: Slack; 2002. p. 411–38.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Artifon ELA, Sakai P, Hondo FY, et al. An evaluation of gastric scintigraphy pre- and postpyloroduodenal peptic stenosis dilation. Surg Endosc. 2006;20(2):243–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Harrell AG, Sing RF, Novitsky YW, et al. A re-evaluation of vagotomy and gastrojejunostomy for benign gastric outlet obstruction. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2006;16(1):77–8. author reply 78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Broderick T, Matthews J. Ulcer complications. In: Zinner M, Ashley S, editors. Maingot’s abdominal operations. 11th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2007. p. 353–77.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Siu WT, Tang CN, Law BKB, et al. Vagotomy and gastrojejunostomy for benign gastric outlet obstruction. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2004;14(5):266–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Csendes A, Burgos AM, Smok G, et al. Latest results (12–21 years) of a prospective randomized study comparing Billroth II and Roux-en-Y anastomosis after a partial gastrectomy plus vagotomy in patients with duodenal ulcers. Ann Surg. 2009;249(2):189–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Csendes A, Maluenda F, Braghetto I, et al. Prospective randomized study comparing three surgical techniques for the treatment of gastric outlet obstruction secondary to duodenal ulcer. Am J Surg. 1993;166(1):45–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kim S-M, Song J, Oh SJ, et al. Comparison of laparoscopic truncal vagotomy with gastrojejunostomy and open surgery in peptic pyloric stenosis. Surg Endosc. 2009;23(6):1326–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wyman A, Stuart RC, Ng EK, Chung SC, Li AK. Laparoscopic truncal vagotomy and gastroenterostomy for pyloric stenosis. Am J Surg. 1996;171(6):600–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Saccomani GE, Percivale A, Stella M, Durante V, Pellicci R. Laparoscopic billroth II gastrectomy for completely stricturing duodenal ulcer: technical details. Scand J Surg. 2003;92(3):200–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rangarajan M, Subramanian CS, Chandralathan TA. Laparoscopy-assisted truncal vagotomy with antecolic posterior gastrojejunostomy for benign gastric outlet obstruction. Surg Endosc. 2006;20(1):61–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kelly K, Teotia S. Proximal gastric vagotomy. In: Fischer J, editor. Mastery of surgery. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007. p. 872–7.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mills GH, Jones RB. Explosion during surgery for gastric outlet obstruction. Anaesthesia. 1993;48(6):544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Søreide K, Sarr MG, Søreide JA. Pyloroplasty for benign gastric outlet obstruction–indications and techniques. Scand J Surg. 2006;95(1):11–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Maull KI, Price DC. Migratory gallstone causing duodenal obstruction. J Am Coll Surg. 2006;203(5):781.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rodriguez Romano D, Moreno Gonzalez E, Jiménez Romero C, et al. Duodenal obstruction by gallstones (Bouveret’s syndrome). Presentation of a new case and literature review. Hepatogastroenterology. 1997;44(17):1351–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Yamamoto T, Allan RN, Keighley MR. An audit of gastroduodenal Crohn disease: clinicopathologic features and management. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1999;34(10):1019–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Go MR, Muscarella 2nd P, Needleman BJ, Cook CH, Melvin WS. Endoscopic management of stomal stenosis after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Surg Endosc. 2004;18(1):56–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Vance PL, de Lange EE, Shaffer Jr HA, Schirmer B. Gastric outlet obstruction following surgery for morbid obesity: efficacy of fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation. Radiology. 2002;222(1):70–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Peifer KJ, Shiels AJ, Azar R, et al. Successful endoscopic management of gastrojejunal anastomotic strictures after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Gastrointest Endosc. 2007;66(2):248–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ahmad J, Martin J, Ikramuddin S, Schauer P, Slivka A. Endoscopic balloon dilation of gastroenteric anastomotic stricture after laparoscopic gastric bypass. Endoscopy. 2003;35(9):725–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rao YG, Pande GK, Sahni P, Chattopadhyay TK. Gastroduodenal tuberculosis management guidelines, based on a large experience and a review of the literature. Can J Surg. 2004;47(5):364–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Yau KK, Siu WT, Cheung HYS, Yang GPC, Li MK. Acute gastric volvulus: an unusual cause of gastric outlet obstruction. Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol. 2005;14(1):2–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Deitch JS, Heller JA, McGagh D, et al. Abdominal aortic aneurysm causing duodenal obstruction: two case reports and review of the literature. J Vasc Surg. 2004;40(3):543–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    O’Carroll R, Kennedy R. Gastric outlet obstruction. Can J Surg. 2007;50(6):E29–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kochhar R, Dutta U, Sethy PK, et al. Endoscopic balloon dilation in caustic-induced chronic gastric outlet obstruction. Gastrointest Endosc. 2009;69(4):800–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Savas J, Miller T, Mercer D. Derangements in gastrointestinal function secondary to previous surgery. In: Miller T, editor. Modern surgical care: physiologic foundations and clinical applications. 3rd ed. New York: Informa Healthcare; 2006.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Madriaga M, Soybel D. Motility disorders of the stomach and small bowel. In: Cameron J, Cameron A, editors. Current surgical therapy. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011. p. 117–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Shone DN, Nikoomanesh P, Smith-Meek MM, Bender JS. Malignancy is the most common cause of gastric outlet obstruction in the era of H2 blockers. Am J Gastroenterol. 1995;90(10):1769–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Khullar SK, DiSario JA. Gastric outlet obstruction. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 1996;6(3):585–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Misra SP, Dwivedi M, Misra V. Malignancy is the most common cause of gastric outlet obstruction even in a developing country. Endoscopy. 1998;30(5):484–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Al-Rashedy M, Dadibhai M, Shareif A, et al. Laparoscopic gastric bypass for gastric outlet obstruction is associated with smoother, faster recovery and shorter hospital stay compared with open surgery. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 2005;12(6):474–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Adler DG, Baron TH. Endoscopic palliation of malignant gastric outlet obstruction using self-expanding metal stents: experience in 36 patients. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97(1):72–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lillemoe KD, Cameron JL, Hardacre JM, et al. Is prophylactic gastrojejunostomy indicated for unresectable periampullary cancer? A prospective randomized trial. Ann Surg. 1999;230(3):322–8. discussion 328–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Choi Y-B. Laparoscopic gatrojejunostomy for palliation of gastric outlet obstruction in unresectable gastric cancer. Surg Endosc. 2002;16(11):1620–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Del Piano M, Ballarè M, Montino F, et al. Endoscopy or surgery for malignant GI outlet obstruction? Gastrointest Endosc. 2005;61(3):421–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Medina-Franco H, Abarca-Pérez L, España-Gómez N, et al. Morbidity-associated factors after gastrojejunostomy for malignant gastric outlet obstruction. Am Surg. 2007;73(9):871–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Bergamaschi R, Arnaud JP, Mårvik R, Myrvold HE. Laparoscopic antiperistaltic versus isoperistaltic gastrojejunostomy for palliation of gastric outlet obstruction in advanced cancer. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2002;12(6):393–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    House MG, Choti MA. Palliative therapy for pancreatic/biliary cancer. Surg Clin North Am. 2005;85(2):359–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Maetani I, Isayama H, Mizumoto Y. Palliation in patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction with a newly designed enteral stent: a multicenter study. Gastrointest Endosc. 2007;66(2):355–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hosono S, Ohtani H, Arimoto Y, Kanamiya Y. Endoscopic stenting versus surgical gastroenterostomy for palliation of malignant gastroduodenal obstruction: a meta-analysis. J Gastroenterol. 2007;42(4):283–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Siddiqui A, Spechler SJ, Huerta S. Surgical bypass versus endoscopic stenting for malignant gastroduodenal obstruction: a decision analysis. Dig Dis Sci. 2007;52(1):276–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Piesman M, Kozarek RA, Brandabur JJ, et al. Improved oral intake after palliative duodenal stenting for malignant obstruction: a prospective multicenter clinical trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104(10):2404–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Song H-Y, Shin JH, Yoon CJ, et al. A dual expandable nitinol stent: experience in 102 patients with malignant gastroduodenal strictures. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2004;15(12):1443–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Lowe AS, Beckett CG, Jowett S, et al. Self-expandable metal stent placement for the palliation of malignant gastroduodenal obstruction: experience in a large, single, UK centre. Clin Radiol. 2007;62(8):738–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Larssen L, Medhus AW, Hauge T. Treatment of malignant gastric outlet obstruction with stents: an evaluation of the reported variables for clinical outcome. BMC Gastroenterol. 2009;9:45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Watanabe A, Maehara Y, Okuyama T, et al. Gastric carcinoma with pyloric stenosis. Surgery. 1998;123(3):330–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Schmidt C, Gerdes H, Hawkins W, et al. A prospective observational study examining quality of life in patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction. Am J Surg. 2009;198(1):92–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Maetani I, Akatsuka S, Ikeda M, et al. Self-expandable metallic stent placement for palliation in gastric outlet obstructions caused by gastric cancer: a comparison with surgical gastrojejunostomy. J Gastroenterol. 2005;40(10):932–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gaidos JKJ, Draganov PV. Treatment of malignant gastric outlet obstruction with endoscopically placed self-expandable metal stents. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15(35):4365–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Baron TH, Harewood GC. Enteral self-expandable stents. Gastrointest Endosc. 2003;58(3):421–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kim CG, Choi IJ, Lee JY, et al. Covered versus uncovered self-expandable metallic stents for palliation of malignant pyloric obstruction in gastric cancer patients: a randomized, prospective study. Gastrointest Endosc. 2010;72(1):25–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Jeurnink SM, van Eijck CHJ, Steyerberg EW, Kuipers EJ, Siersema PD. Stent versus gastrojejunostomy for the palliation of gastric outlet obstruction: a systematic review. BMC Gastroenterol. 2007;7:18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Singer SB, Asch M. Metallic stents in the treatment of duodenal obstruction: technical issues and results. Can Assoc Radiol J. 2000;51(2):121–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Aviv RI, Shyamalan G, Khan FH, et al. Use of stents in the palliative treatment of malignant gastric outlet and duodenal obstruction. Clin Radiol. 2002;57(7):587–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Shaw JM, Bornman PC, Krige JEJ, Stupart DA, Panieri E. Self-expanding metal stents as an alternative to surgical bypass for malignant gastric outlet obstruction. Br J Surg. 2010;97(6):872–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Cho YK, Kim SW, Hur WH, et al. Clinical outcomes of self-expandable metal stent and prognostic factors for stent patency in gastric outlet obstruction caused by gastric cancer. Dig Dis Sci. 2010;55(3):668–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Dormann A, Meisner S, Verin N, Wenk Lang A. Self-expanding metal stents for gastroduodenal malignancies: systematic review of their clinical effectiveness. Endoscopy. 2004;36(6):543–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Stupart DA, Panieri E, Dent DM. Gastrojejunostomy for gastric outlet obstruction in patients with gastric carcinoma. S Afr J Surg. 2006;44(2):52–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    McFadden D, Schneider J. Gastric adenocarcinoma. In: Cameron J, Cameron A, editors. Current surgical therapy. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011. p. 80–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Watanapa P, Williamson RC. Surgical palliation for pancreatic cancer: developments during the past two decades. Br J Surg. 1992;79(1):8–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Guzman EA, Dagis A, Bening L, Pigazzi A. Laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy in patients with obstruction of the gastric outlet secondary to advanced malignancies. Am Surg. 2009;75(2):129–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Nagy A, Brosseuk D, Hemming A, Scudamore C, Mamazza J. Laparoscopic gastroenterostomy for duodenal obstruction. Am J Surg. 1995;169(5):539–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Ghanem AM, Hamade AM, Sheen AJ, et al. Laparoscopic gastric and biliary bypass: a single-center cohort prospective study. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2006;16(1):21–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Gentileschi P, Kini S, Gagner M. Palliative laparoscopic hepatico- and gastrojejunostomy for advanced pancreatic cancer. JSLS. 2002;6(4):331–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kazanjian KK, Reber HA, Hines OJ. Laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy for gastric outlet obstruction in pancreatic cancer. Am Surg. 2004;70(10):910–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Alam TA, Baines M, Parker MC. The management of gastric outlet obstruction secondary to inoperable cancer. Surg Endosc. 2003;17(2):320–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Lillemoe KD, Sauter PK, Pitt HA, Yeo CJ, Cameron JL. Current status of surgical palliation of periampullary carcinoma. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1993;176(1):1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Fiori E, Lamazza A, Volpino P, et al. Palliative management of malignant antro-pyloric strictures. Gastroenterostomy versus endoscopic stenting. A randomized prospective trial. Anticancer Res. 2004;24(1):269–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Johnsson E, Thune A, Liedman B. Palliation of malignant gastroduodenal obstruction with open surgical bypass or endoscopic stenting: clinical outcome and health economic evaluation. World J Surg. 2004;28(8):812–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Espinel J, Sanz O, Vivas S, et al. Malignant gastrointestinal obstruction: endoscopic stenting versus surgical palliation. Surg Endosc. 2006;20(7):1083–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Jeurnink SM, Steyerberg EW, van Hooft JE, et al. Surgical gastrojejunostomy or endoscopic stent placement for the palliation of malignant gastric outlet obstruction (SUSTENT study): a multicenter randomized trial. Gastrointest Endosc. 2010;71(3):490–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Ly J, O’Grady G, Mittal A, Plank L, Windsor JA. A systematic review of methods to palliate malignant gastric outlet obstruction. Surg Endosc. 2010;24(2):290–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Skandalakis L, Gray S, Skandalakis J. The history and surgical anatomy of the vagus nerve. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1986;162:83.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Diesen D, Haney J, Pappas J. Laparoscopic management of peptic ulcer disease. In: Pappas T, Pryor A, Harnisch M, editors. Atlas of laparoscopic surgery. 3rd ed. New York: Current Medicine; 2008. p. 65–79.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Brune IB, Feussner H, Neuhaus H, Classen M, Siewert JR. Laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy and endoscopic biliary stent placement for palliation of incurable gastric outlet obstruction with cholestasis. Surg Endosc. 1997;11(8):834–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA

Personalised recommendations