Advertisement

Enhancing Plant Productivity Under Salt Stress: Relevance of Poly-omics

Chapter

Abstract

At present more than 20% of all the irrigated land in the world is estimated as affected by salinity and this trend is increasing with the rapid climate changes as well as the excess use of irrigation water. Salt stress is one of the most devastating abiotic stresses which severely affects the agricultural productivity in various ways. High concentration of salt in the soil or in the irrigation water can have a overwhelming effect on plant metabolism, disrupting cellular homeostasis and uncoupling major physiological and biochemical processes. Salinity cause both osmotic stress and ionic toxicity which hamper the plant productivity by inhibiting or altering the plant growth, dry matter partitioning, seed germination, photosynthesis and yield. Considering the devastating effect of salt stress on plants, one of the important tasks for plant biologists is to explore the approaches that are able to develop salt tolerance in crop plants. In fact, salt tolerance is a multigenic trait which is governed by various morphological and physiological factors. Thus omics approaches therefore, come in forefront to develop salt tolerance as a part of different strategies of conventional plant breeding. Transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, ionomics and micromics together have been a bloom in revealing plant stress responses and the mechanisms that underlie these responses. These techniques have been playing important part in discovering new genes, proteins and secondary plant metabolites those are responsible for plants adaptation to stress. In this review, we have focused on the causes and effects of salinity on crop plants and possible mechanisms of salt tolerance including the possible use of omics in conferring salt tolerance.

Keywords

Salinity Sodicity Plant responses Plant tolerance Omics Salt stress in plants 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We wish to thank Mr. Md. Mahabub Alam, Laboratory of Plant Stress Responses, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Japan for his vital assistance during the preparation of the manuscript. We also express our sincere thanks to Prof. Dr. Kamal Uddin Ahamed, Department of Agricultural Botany, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh for his continuous encouragement and constructive suggestion during the manuscript preparation. We apologize to all researchers for those parts of their work that were not cited in the manuscripts because of the page limitation.

References

  1. Abdulrahman FS, William GJ (1981) Temperature and salinity regulation of growth and gas exchange of Saliconia fruticosa L. Oecologia 48:346–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abrol IP, Yadav JSP, Massoud FI (1988) Salt-affected soils and their management, vol 39, FAO soils bulletin. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmad P (2010) Growth and antioxidant responses in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants subjected to combined effect of gibberellic acid and salinity. Arch Agron Soil Sci 56:575–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmad P, Prasad MNV (2012a) Environmental adaptations and stress tolerance in plants in the era of climate change. Springer, LLC, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahmad P, Prasad MNV (2012b) Abiotic stress responses in plants: metabolism, productivity and sustainability. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahmad P, Sharma S (2008) Salt stress and phyto-biochemical responses of plants. Plant Soil Environ 54:89–99Google Scholar
  7. Ahmad P, Umar S (2011) Oxidative stress: role of antioxidants in plants. Studium Press, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  8. Ahmad P, Sarwat M, Sharma S (2008) Reactive oxygen species, antioxidants and signaling in plants. J Plant Biol 51:167–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ahmad P, Jaleel CA, Salem MA, Nabi G, Sharma S (2010a) Roles of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in plants during abiotic stress. Crit Rev Biotechnol 30:161–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ahmad P, Jaleel CA, Sharma S (2010b) Antioxidative defence system, lipid peroxidation, proline metabolizing enzymes and biochemical activity in two genotypes of Morus alba L. subjected to NaCl stress. Russ J Plant Physiol 57:509–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ahmad P, Umar S, Sharma S (2010c) Mechanism of free radical scavenging and role of phytohormones during abiotic stress in plants. In: Ashraf M, Ozturk M, Ahmad MSA (eds) Plant adaptation and phytoremediation. Springer, Dordrecht/Heidelberg/London/New York, pp 99–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ahmad P, Nabi G, Jeleel CA, Umar S (2011) Free radical production, oxidative damage and antioxidant defense mechanisms in plants under abiotic stress. In: Ahmad P, Umar S (eds) Oxidative stress: role of antioxidants in plants. Studium Press, New Delhi, pp 19–53Google Scholar
  13. Ahmad P, Hakeem KR, Kumar A, Ashraf M, Akram NA (2012) Salt-induced changes in photosynthetic activity and oxidative defense system of three cultivars of mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Afr J Biotechnol 11:2694–2703Google Scholar
  14. Ahmed S (2009) Effect of soil salinity on the yield and yield components of mungbean. Pak J Bot 41:263–268Google Scholar
  15. Al-Harbi AR, Wahb-Allah MA, Abu-Muriefah SS (2008) Salinity and nitrogen level affects germination, emergence, and seedling growth of tomato. Int J Veg Sci 14:380–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ali Y, Aslam Z, Ashraf MY, Tahir GR (2004) Effect of salinity on chlorophyll concentration, leaf area, yield and yield components of rice genotypes grown under saline environment. Int J Environ Sci Technol 1:221–225Google Scholar
  17. Ali S, Zeng F, Cai S, Qiu B, Zhang G (2011) The interaction of salinity and chromium in the influence of barley growth and oxidative stress. Plant Soil Environ 57:153–159Google Scholar
  18. Allakhverdiev SI, Hayashi H, Nishiyama Y, Ivanov AG, Aliev JA, Klimov VV, Murata N, Carpemtier R (2003) Glycinebetaine protects the D1/D2/Cyt b 559 complex of photosystem II against photo-induced and heat-induced inactivation. J Plant Physiol 160:41–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Allan AC, Fluhr R (1997) Two distinct sources of elicited reactive oxygen species in tobacco epidermal cells. Plant Cell 9:1559–1572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Al-Mutawa MM (2003) Effect of salinity on germination and seedling growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes. Int J Agric Biol 5:226–229Google Scholar
  21. Alvarez S, Hicks LM, Pandey S (2011) ABA-dependent and -independent Gprotein signaling in Arabidopsis roots revealed through an iTRAQ proteomics approach. J Proteome Res 10:3107–3122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Amirjani MR (2011) Effect of salinity stress on growth, sugar content, pigments and enzyme activity of rice. Int J Bot 7:73–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Apel K, Hirt H (2004) Reactive oxygen species: metabolism, oxidative stress and signal transduction. Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:373–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Apse MP, Aharon GS, Snedden WA, Blumwald E (1998) Cloning and characterization of plant sodium/proton antiports. In: Proceedings of the 11th international workshop on plant membrane biology, Cambridge, p 84Google Scholar
  25. Ardic M, Sekmen AH, Tokur S, Ozdemir F, Turkan I (2009) Antioxidant responses of chickpea plants subjected to boron toxicity. Plant Biol 11:328–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Arenas-Huertero C, Pérez B, Rabanal F, Blanco-Melo D, De la Rosa C, Estrada Navarrete G, Sanchez F, Covarrubias AA, Reyes JL (2009) Conserved and novel miRNAs in the legume Phaseolus vulgaris in response to stress. Plant Mol Biol 70:385–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Asada K (1994) Production and action of active oxygen species in photosynthetic tissues. In: Foyer CH, Mullineaux PM (eds) Causes of photooxidative stress and amelioration of defense systems in plants. CRC Press, London, pp 77–104Google Scholar
  28. Asano T, Hakata M, Nakamura H, Aoki N, Komatsu S, Ichikawa H, Hirochika H, Ohsugi R (2010) Functional characterisation of OsCPK21, a calciumdependent protein kinase that confers salt tolerance in rice. Plant Mol Biol 75:179–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ashraf M, Foolad MR (2007) Roles of glycinebetaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environ Exp Bot 59:206–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Axtell MJ, Snyder JA, Bartel DP (2007) Common functions for diverse small RNAs of land plants. Plant Cell 19:1750–1769PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Azaizeh H, Steudle E (1991) Effects of salinity on water transport of excised maize (Zea mays L.) roots. Plant Physiol 99:1136–1145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Azooz MM, Youssef AM, Ahmad P (2011) Evaluation of salicylic acid (SA) application on growth, osmotic solutes and antioxidant enzyme activities on broad bean seedlings grown under diluted seawater. Int J Plant Physiol Biochem 3:253–264Google Scholar
  33. Barkla B, Apse MP, Manolson MF, Blumwald E (1994) The plant vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport. In: Blatt M, Leigh R, Sanders D (eds) Membrane transport in plants and fungi: molecular mechanisms and control. SEB, London, pp 141–153Google Scholar
  34. Baxter I, Brazelton JN, Yu D, Huang YS, Lahner B (2010) A coastal cline in sodium accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana is driven by natural variation of the sodium transporter AtHKT1;1. PLoS Genet 6(11):e1001193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Baxter I, Hermans C, Lahner B, Yakubova E, Tikhonova M, Verbruggen N, Chao DY, Salt DE (2012) Biodiversity of mineral nutrient and trace element accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana. PLoS One 7:e35121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Benmahioul B, Daguin F, Kaid-Harche M (2009) Effects of salt stress on germination and in vitro growth of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). C R Biol 332:752–758PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Bernstein L (1961) Osmotic adjustment of plants to saline media. I. Steady state. Am J Bot 48:909–918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Bernstein L, Hayward HE (1958) Physiology of salt tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 9:25–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Bhalla R, Narasimhan K, Swarup S (2005) Metabolomics and its role in understanding cellular responses in plants. Plant Cell Rep 24:562–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Bindschedler LV, Palmblad M, Cramer R (2008) Hydroponic isotope labelling of entire plants (HILEP) for quantitative plant proteomics; an oxidative stress case study. Phytochem 69:1962–1972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Bohnert HJ, Nelson DE, Jensen RG (1995) Adaptations to environmental stresses. Plant Cell 7:1099–1111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Bordi A (2010) The influence of salt stress on seed germination, growth and yield of canola cultivars. Not Bot Hort Agrobot Cluj 38:128–133Google Scholar
  43. Brinker M, Brosche M, Vinocur B, Abo-ogiala A, Fayyaz P, Janz D, Ottow EA, Cullmann AD, Saborowski J, Kangasjärvi J, Altman A, Polle A (2010) Linking the salt transcriptome with physiological responses of a salt-resistant Populus species as a strategy to identify genes important for stress acclimation. Plant Physiol 154:1697–1709PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Brosché M, Vinocur B, Alatalo ER, Lamminmäki A, Teichmann T, Ottow EA, Djilianov D, Afif D, Bogeat-Triboulot MB, Altman A (2005) Gene expression and metabolite profiling of Populus euphratica growing in the Negev desert. Genome Biol 6:R101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Buxton GV, Greenstock CL, Helman WP (1988) Critical review of rate constants for reactions of hydrated electrons, hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl radicals in aqueous solution. J Phys Chem Ref Data 17:512–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Carillo P, Grazia Annunziata M, Pontecorvo G, Fuggi A, Woodrow P (2011) Salinity stress and salt tolerance. In: Shanker AK, Venkateswarlu B (eds) Abiotic stress in plants – mechanisms and adaptations. InTech, Rijeka, pp 21–38Google Scholar
  47. Carpıcı EB, Celık N, Bayram G (2009) Effects of salt stress on germination of some maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars. Afr J Biotechnol 8:4918–4922Google Scholar
  48. Caruso GC, Cavaliere C, Guarino R, Gubbiotti PF, Lagana A (2008) Identification of changes in Triticum durum L. Leaf proteome in response to salt stress by two-dimenstional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem 391:381–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Cha-Um S, Kirdmanee C (2010) Effect of glycinebetaine on proline, water use, and photosynthetic efficiencies, and growth of rice seedlings under salt stress. Turk J Agric For 34:517–527Google Scholar
  50. Chaves MM, Flexas J, Pinheiro C (2009) Photosynthesis under drought and salt stress: regulation mechanisms from whole plant to cell. Ann Bot 103:551–560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Chazen O, Hartung W, Neumann PM (1995) The different effects of PEG 6000 and NaCl on leaf development are associated with differential inhibition of root water transport. Plant Cell Environ 18:727–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Cheeseman JM (1988) Mechanism of salinity tolerance in plants. Plant Physiol 87:547–550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Chen Q, Yang L, Ahmad P, Wan X, Hu X (2011) Proteomic profiling and redox status alteration of recalcitrant tea (Camellia sinensis) seed in response to desiccation. Planta 233:593–609Google Scholar
  54. Chen THH, Murata N (2008) Glycinebetaine: an effective protectant against abiotic stress in plants. Trends Plant Sci 13:499–505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Chen SL, Polle A (2010) Salinity tolerance of Populus. Plant Biol 12:317–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Chen J, Li WX, Xie D, Peng JR, Ding SW (2004) Viral virulence protein suppresses RNA silencing-mediated defense but upregulates the role of microrna in host gene expression. Plant Cell 16:1302–1313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Chen Z, Cuin TA, Zhou M, Twomey A, Naidu BP, Shabala S (2007) Compatible solute accumulation and stress-mitigating effects in barley genotypes contrasting in their salt tolerance. J Exp Bot 58:4245–4255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Chitteti BR, Peng ZH (2007) Proteome and phosphor proteome differential expression under salinity stress in rice (Oryza sative) roots. J Proteome Res 6:1718–1727PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Chutipaijit S, Cha-um S, Sompornpailin K (2011) High contents of proline and anthocyanin increase protective response to salinity in Oryza sativa L. spp. indica. Aust J Crop Sci 5:1191–1198Google Scholar
  60. Cramer GR, Ergul A, Grimplet J et al (2007) Water and salinity stress in grapevines: early and late changes in transcript and metabolite profiles. Funct Integr Genomics 7:111–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Crawford RMM (1989) Studies in plant survival. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford/London/Edinburgh/Boston/Palo Alto/MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  62. Cuartero J, Fernandez-Munoz R (1999) Tomato and salinity. Sci Hortic 78:83–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Cullu MA (2003) Estimation of the effect of soil salinity on crop yield using remote sensing and geographic information system. Turk J Agric For 27:23–28Google Scholar
  64. Cushman JC, Meyer G, Michalowski CB, Schmitt JM, Bohnert HJ (1989) Salt stress leads to differential expression of two isogenes of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase during crassulacean acid metabolism induction in the common ice plant. Plant Cell 1(7):715–725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Dajic Z (1996) Ekoloska studija halofitske zajednice Puccinellietum limosae (Rapcs.) Wend. (Ecological study of halophytic community Puccinellietum limosae (Rapcs.) Wend.). Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, FRYGoogle Scholar
  66. Dajic Z (2006) Salt stress. In: Madhava Rao KV, Raghavendra AS, Janardhan Reddy K (eds) Physiology and molecular biology of salt tolerance in plant. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 41–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Dajic Z, Stajkovic M, Jakovljevic M (1997) An ecophysiological study of Suaeda maritime (Chenopodiaceae) in Serbia. Bocconea 5:11–516Google Scholar
  68. Darley CP, van Wuyt Swinkel D, van der Woude K, Mager P, de Goer B (1998) ANA1 a Na+/H+ antiport from Arabidopsis? In: Proceedings of the international workshop on plant membrane biology. Cambridge, p 8Google Scholar
  69. Davenport R, James R, Zakrisson-Plogander A, Tester M, Munns R (2005) Control of sodium transport in durum wheat. Plant Physiol 137:807–818PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. de Souza ER, dos Santos Freire MBG, da Cunha KPV, do Nascimento CWA, Ruiz HA, Teixeira Lins CM (2012) Biomass, anatomical changes and osmotic potential in Atriplex nummularia Lindl. cultivated in sodic saline soil under water stress. Environ Exp Bot 82:20–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Debnath M, Pandey M, Bisen PS (2011) An omics approach to understand the plant abiotic stress. OMICS J Integ Biol 15:739–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Delfine S, Alvino A, Villani MC, Loreto F (1999) Restrictions to carbon dioxide conductance and photosynthesis in spinach leaves recovering from salt stress. Plant Physiol 119:1101–1106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Dell’Aquila A, Spada D (1993) The effect of salinity stress upon protein synthesis of germinating wheat embryos. Ann Bot 72:97–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ding D, Zhang L, Wang H, Liu Z, Zhang Z, Zheng Y (2009) Differential expression of miRNAs in response to salt stress in maize roots. Ann Bot 103:29–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Dionisio-Sese ML, Tobita S (1998) Antioxidant responses of rice seedlings to salinity stress. Plant Sci 135:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Dracup MNH, Greenway H (1985) A procedure for isolating vacuoles from leaves of the halophyte Suaeda maritima. Plant Cell Environ 8:149–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Dupont F (1992) Salt-induced changes in ion transport: regulation of primary pumps and secondary transporters. In: Cooke D, Clarkson D (eds) Transport and receptor proteins of plant membranes. Plenum, New York, pp 91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Elstner EF (1987) Metabolism of activated oxygen species. In: Davies DD (ed) The biochemistry of plants, vol II, Biochemistry of metabolism. Academic, San Diego, pp 252–353Google Scholar
  79. Essa TA (2002) Effect of salinity stress on growth and nutrient composition of three soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) cultivars. J Agron Crop Sci 88:86–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Evers D, Legay S, Lamoureux D, Hausman JF, Hoffmann L, Renaut J (2012) Towards a synthetic view of potato cold and salt stress response by transcriptomic and proteomic analyses. Plant Mol Biol 78:503–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Evlagon D, Ravina I, Neumann PM (1990) Interactive effects of salinity and calcium on osmotic adjustment, hydraulic conductivity and growth in primary roots of maize seedlings. Isr J Bot 39:239–247Google Scholar
  82. Ezlit YD, Smith RJ, Raine SR (2010) A review of salinity and sodicity in irrigation, vol 01/10, Irrigation matters series. CRC for Irrigation Futures, ToowoombaGoogle Scholar
  83. FAO (2000) Global network on integrated soil management for sustain-able use of salt-affected soils. Rome. http://www.fao.org/ag/agl/agll/spush
  84. Flexas J, Bota J, Loreto F, Cornic G, Sharkey TD (2004) Diffusive and metabolic limitations to photosynthesis under drought and salinity in C-3 plants. Plant Biol 6:269–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Flexas J, Ribas-Carbo M, Diaz-Espejo A, Galmes J, Medrano H (2008) Mesophyll conductance to CO2: current knowledge and future prospects. Plant Cell Environ 31:602–621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Flowers TJ, Dalmond D (1992) Protein synthesis in halophytes: the influence of potassium, sodium and magnesium in vitro. Plant Soil 146:153–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Flowers TJ, Hajibagheri MA (2001) Salinity tolerance in Hordeum vulgare: ion concentrations in root cells of cultivars differing in salt tolerance. Plant Soil 231:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Flowers TJ, Troke PF, Yeo AR (1977) The mechanisms of salt tolerance in halophytes. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 28:89–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Flowers TJ, Hajibagheri MA, Clipson NJW (1986) Halophytes. Q Rev Biol 61:313–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Fortmeier R, Schubert S (1995) Salt tolerance of maize (Zea mays L.): the role of sodium exclusion. Plant Cell Environ 18:1041–1047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Foyer CH, Noctor G (2003) Redox sensing and signalling associated with reactive oxygen in chloroplasts, peroxisomes and mitochondria. Physiol Plant 119:355–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Foyer CH, Noctor G (2005) Redox homeostasis and antioxidant signaling a metabolic interface between stress perception and physiological responses. Plant Cell 17:1866–1875PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Francois LE, Donovan T, Maas EV (1984) Salinity effects on seed yield, growth, and germination of grain sorghum. Agron J 76:741–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Freitas H, Breckle SW (1992) Importance of bladder hairs for the salt tolerance of field grown Atriplex species from a Portuguese salt marsh. Flora 187:283–297Google Scholar
  95. Gadallah MAA (1999) Effect of proline and glycinebetaine on Vicia faba responses to salt stress. Biol Plant 42:249–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Gagneul D, Ainouche A, Duhaze C, Lugan R, Lahrer FR, Bouchereau A (2007) A reassessment of the function of the so-called compatible solutes in the halophytic Plumbginaceae Limonium latifolium. Plant Physiol 144:1598–1611PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Garg N, Manchanda G (2008a) Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on salt-induces nodule senescence in Cajanus cajan (Pigeonpea). J Plant Growth Regul 27:115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Garg N, Manchanda G (2008b) Salinity and its effects on the functional biology of legumes. Acta Physiol Plant 30:595–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Gavaghan CL, Li JV, Hadfield ST, Hole S, Nicholson JK, Wilson ID, Howe PWA, Stanley PD, Holmes E (2011) Application of NMR-based metabolomics to the investigation of salt stress in maize (Zea mays). Phytochem Anal 22:214–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ghannoum O (2009) C-4 photosynthesis and water stress. Ann Bot 103:635–644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Gill SS, Tuteja N (2010) Polyamines and abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Plant Signal Behav 51:26–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Glenn E, Miyamoto M, Moore D, Brown JJ, Thompson TL, Brown P (1997) Water requirements for cultivating Salicornia bigelovii Torr. with seawater on sand in a coastal desert environment. J Arid Environ 36:711–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Gong QQ, Li PH, Ma SS, Indu Rupassara S, Bohnert HJ (2005) Salinity stress adaptation competence in the extremophile Thellungiella halophila in comparison with its relative Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J 44:826–839PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Gorham J (1987) Photosynthesis, transpiration and salt fluxes through leaves of Leptocloa fuska L. Kunth. Plant Cell Environ 10:191–196Google Scholar
  105. Gorham J, Randall PJ, Delhaize E, Richards RA, Munns R (1993) Genetics and physiology of enhanced K/Na discrimination. Genetic aspects of plant mineral nutrition. Dev Plant Soil Sci 50:151–158Google Scholar
  106. Greenway H, Munns R (1980) Mechanisms of salt tolerance in non halophytes. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 31:149–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Gu R, Fonseca S, Puskás LG, Hackler L Jr, Zvara A, Dudits D, Pais MS (2004) Transcript identification and profiling during salt stress and recovery of Populus euphratica. Tree Physiol 24:265–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Gueta-Dahan Y, Yaniv Z, Zilinskas BA, Ben-Hayyim G (1997) Salt and oxidative stress: similar and specific responses and their relation to salt tolerance in citrus. Planta 204:460–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Guleria P, Goswami D, Mahajan M, Kumar V, Bhardwaj J, Yadav SK (2012) MicroRNAs and their role in plants during abiotic stresses. In: Environmental adaptations and stress tolerance in plants in the era of climate change. Springer, New York, pp 265–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Guo Y, Wang X-B, He W, Zhou G, Guo B-F, Zhang L, Liu Z-X, Luo Z, Wang L, Qiu L (2011) Soybean omics and biotechnology in China. Plant Omics J 4:318–328Google Scholar
  111. Guy C, Kaplan F, Kopka J, Selbig J, Hincha DK (2008) Metabolomics of temperature stress. Physiol Plant132:220–235Google Scholar
  112. Hajibagheri MA, Hall JL, Flowers TJ (1984a) Stereological analysis of leaf cell of the halophyte Suaeda maritima (L.) Dum. J Exp Bot 35:1547–1557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Hajibagheri MA, Harvey DMR, Flowers TJ (1984b) Photosynthetic oxygen evolution in relation to ion contents in the chloroplast of Suaeda maritima. Plant Sci Lett 34:353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC (1985) Free radicals in biology and medicine. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  115. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC (1989) Protection against oxidants in biological systems: the super oxide theory of oxygen toxicity. In: Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM (eds) Free radicals in biology and medicine. Clarendon, Oxford, pp 86–123Google Scholar
  116. Halliwell B, Gutteridge MC (1990) Role of free radicals and catalytic metal ions in human disease: an overview. Methods Enzymol 186:1–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Harivandi MA, Butler JD, Wu L (1992) Salinity and turfgrass culture. In: Waddington DV, Carrow RN, Shearman RC (eds) Turfgrass. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI, pp 207–229Google Scholar
  118. Hasanuzzaman M, Fujita M (2011) Selenium pretreatment upregulates the antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification system and confers enhanced tolerance to drought stress in rapeseed seedlings. Biol Trace Elem Res 143:1758–1776 10.1007/s12011-011-8998-9
  119. Hasanuzzaman M, Fujita M, Islam MN, Ahamed KU, Nahar K (2009) Performance of four irrigated rice varieties under different levels of salinity stress. Int J Integr Biol 6:85–90Google Scholar
  120. Hasanuzzaman M, Hossain MA, Fujita M (2011a) Selenium-induced up-regulation of the antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification system reduces salinity-induced damage in rapeseed seedlings. Biol Trace Elem Res 143:1704–1721 10.1007/s12011-011-8958-4
  121. Hasanuzzaman M, Hossain MA, Fujita M (2011b) Nitric oxide modulates antioxidant defense and the methylglyoxal detoxification system and reduces salinity-induced damage of wheat seedlings. Plant Biotechnol Rep 5:353–365Google Scholar
  122. Hasanuzzaman M, Hossain MA, da Silva JAT, Fujita M (2012a) Plant responses and tolerance to abiotic oxidative stress: antioxidant defenses is a key factors. In: Bandi V, Shanker AK, Shanker C, Mandapaka M (eds) Crop stress and its management: perspectives and strategies. Springer, Berlin, pp 261–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Hasanuzzaman M, Hossain MA, Fujita M (2012b) Exogenous selenium pretreatment protects rapeseed seedlings from cadmium-induced oxidative stress by upregulating the antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification systems. Biol Trace Elem Res 149:248–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Hasanuzzaman M, Nahar K, Alam MM, Fujita M (2012c) Exogenous nitric oxide alleviates high temperature induced oxidative stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings by modulating the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system. Aust J Crop Sci 6:1314–1323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Hasanuzzaman M, Nahar K, Fujita M (2013) Plant response to salt stress and role of exogenous protectants to mitigate salt-induced damages. In: Ahmad P, Azooz MM, Prasad MNV (eds) Ecophysiology and responses of plants under salt stress. Springer, New York. pp 25–87Google Scholar
  126. Hasegawa PM, Bressan RA, Zhu JK, Bohnert HJ (2000) Plant cellular and molecular responses to high salinity. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 51:463–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Hatzimanikatis V, Choe LH, Lee KH (1999) Proteomics: theoretical and experimental considerations. Biotechnol Prog 15:312–318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Hayward HE, Wadleigh CH (1949) Plant growth on saline and alkali soils. Adv Agron 1:1–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Hefny M, Abdel-Kader DZ (2009) Antioxidant enzyme system as selection criteria for salt tolerance in forage sorghum genotypes (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). In: Ashraf M, Ozturk M, Athar HR (eds) Salinity and water stress. Springer, Amsterdam, pp 25–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Hellebust JA (1976) Osmoregulation. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 27:485–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Hong-bo S, Li-ye C, Ming-an S, Abdul Jaleel C, Hong-mei M (2008) Higher plant antioxidants and redox signaling under environmental stresses. C R Biol 331:433–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Huang J, Redman RE (1995) Response of growth, morphology and anatomy to salinity and calcium supply in cultivated and wild barley. Can J Bot 73:1859–1866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Huang J, Lu X, Yan H, Chen S, Zhang W, Huang R, Zheng Y (2012) Transcriptome characterization and sequencing-based identification of salt-responsive genes in Millettia pinnata, a semi-mangrove plant. DNA Res19:1–13Google Scholar
  134. Hura T, Grzesiak S, Hura K, Grzesiak M, Rzepka A (2006) Differences in the physiological state between triticale and maize plants during drought stress and followed rehydration expressed by the leaf gas exchange and spectrofluorimetric methods. Acta Physiol Plant 28:433–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Hussein MM, Balbaa LK, Gaballah MS (2007) Salicylic acid and salinity effects on growth of maize plants. Res J Agric Biol Sci 3(4):321–328Google Scholar
  136. ILRI (1989) Effectiveness and social/environmental impacts of irrigation projects: a review, In: Annual report 1988 of the international institute for land reclamation and improvement (ILRI), Wageningen, pp 18–34Google Scholar
  137. Jabeen M, Ibrar M, Azim F, Hussain F, Ilahi I (2003) The effect of sodium chloride salinity on germination and productivity of mung bean (Vigna mungo Linn.). J Sci Technol Univ Peshawar 27:1–5Google Scholar
  138. Jaleel CA, Gopi R, Sankar B, Manivannan P, Kishorekumar A, Sridharan R, Panneerselvam R (2007) Studies on germination, seedling vigour, lipid peroxidation and proline metabolism in Catharanthus roseus seedlings under salt stress. S Afr J Bot 73:190–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. James RA, Blake C, Byrt CS, Munns R (2011) Major genes for Na+ exclusion, Nax1 and Nax2 (wheat HKT1;4 and HKT1;5), decrease Na+ accumulation in bread wheat leaves under saline and waterlogged conditions. J Exp Bot. doi:10.1093/jxb/err003Google Scholar
  140. Jaspers P, Kangasjärvi J (2010) Reactive oxygen species in abiotic stress signaling. Physiol Plant 138:405–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Jiang Y, Yang B, Harris NS, Deyholos MK (2007) Comparative proteomics analysis of NaCl stress responsive proteins in Arabidopsis roots. J Exp Bot 58:3591–3607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Johnson MK, Johnson EJ, MacElroy RD, Speer HL, Bruff BS (1968) Effects of salts on the halophilic alga Dunaliella viridis. J Bacteriol 95:1461–1468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Jossier M, Bouly JP, Meimoun P, Arjmand A, Lessard P, Hawley S, Grahame Hardie D, Thomas M (2009) SnRK1 (SNF1-related kinase 1) has a central role in sugar and ABA signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J 59:316–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Kacperska A (2004) Sensor types in signal transduction pathways in plant cells responding to abiotic stressors: do they depend on stress intensity? Physiol Plant 122:159–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Kantar M, Unver T, Budak H (2010) Regulation of barley miRNAs upon dehydration stress correlated with target gene expression. Funct Integr Genomics 10:493–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Katare DP, Nabi G, Azooz MM, Aeri V, Ahmad P (2012) Biochemical modifications and enhancement of psoralen content in salt-stressed seedlings of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. J Funct Environ Bot 2:65–74Google Scholar
  147. Katerji N, van Hoorn ZW, Hamdy A, Karam F, Mastrorilli M (1994) Effect of salinity on emergence and on water stress and early seedling growth of sunflower and maize. Agric Water Manag 26:81–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Katerji N, van Hoorn JW, Hamdy A, Mastrorilli M (1998) Response of tomatoes, a crop of determinate growth to soil salinity. Agic Water Manag 38:59–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Katerji N, Van Hoorn JW, Hamdy A, Mastrorelli M (2001a) Salt tolerance of crops according to three classifications methods and examination of some hypothesis about salt tolerance. Agric Water Manag 47:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Katerji N, Van Hoorn JW, Hamdy A, Mastrorilli M, Oweis T, Erskine W (2001b) Response of two varieties of lentil to soil salinity. Agric Water Manag 47:179–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Kaufmann K, Smaczniak C, de Vries S, Angenent GC, Karlova R (2011) Proteomics insights into plant signaling and development. Proteomics 11:744–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Kaveh H, Nemati H, Farsi M, Jartoodeh SV (2011) How salinity affect germination and emergence of tomato lines. J Biol Environ Sci 5:159–163Google Scholar
  153. Kemble AR, MacPherson HT (1954) Liberation of amino acids in perennial ray grass during wilting. Biochem J 58:46–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Khodarahmpour Z, Ifar M, Motamedi M (2012) Effects of NaCl salinity on maize (Zea mays L.) at germination and early seedling stage. Afr J Biotechnol 11:298–304Google Scholar
  155. Kidner CA, Martienssen RA (2005) The developmental role of microRNA in plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol 8:38–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Kim JK, Bamba T, Harada K, Fukusaki E, Kobayashi A (2007) Time-course metabolic profiling in Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures after salt stress treatment. J Exp Bot 58:415–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Kondo T, Yoshida K, Nakagawa A, Kawai T, Tamura H, Goto T (1992) Commelinin, a highly associated metalloanthocyanin present in the blue flower petals of Commelina communis. Nature 358:515–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Koryo HW (1997) Ulstrastructural and physiological changes in root cells of sorghum plants (Shorghum bicolor S. Sudanensis cv. Sweet Sioux) induced by NaCl. J Exp Bot 308:693–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Koyro HW, Eisa SS (2008) Effect of salinity on composition, viability and germination of seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Plant Soil 302:79–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Kramer D (1980) Transfer cells in the epidermis of roots. In: Spanswick RM, Lucas WJ, Dainty J (eds) Plant membrane transport: current conceptual issues. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 393–394Google Scholar
  161. Krasensky J, Jonak C (2012) Drought, salt, and temperature stress-induced metabolic rearrangements and regulatory networks. J Exp Bot. doi:10.1093/jxb/err460Google Scholar
  162. Kuramoto RT, Brest DE (1979) Physiological responses to salinity by four salt marsh plants. Bot Gaz 140:295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Kurth E, Cramer GR, Läuchli A, Epstein E (1986) Effects of NaCl and CaCl2 on cell enlargement and cell production in cotton roots. Plant Physiol 82:1102–1106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Lahner B, Gong J, Mahmoudian M, Smith EL, Abid KB, Rogers EE, Guerinot ML, Harper JF, Ward JM, McIntyre L et al (2003) Genomic scale profiling of nutrient and trace elements in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nat Biotechnol 21:1215–1221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Larcher W (1980) Physiological plant ecology, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Levitt J (1980) Responses of plants to environmental stresses, vol II. Academic, New York, pp 35–50Google Scholar
  167. Lin SL, Chang D, Ying SY (2005) Asymmetry of intronic pre-miRNA structures in functional RISC assembly. Gene 356:32–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Lu Z, Neumann PM (1999) Water stress inhibits hydraulic conductance and leaf growth in rice seedlings but not transport of water via mercury sensitive water channels in the root. Plant Physiol 120:143–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Maas EV (1990) Crop salt tolerance. In: Tanji KK (ed) Agricultural salinity assessment and management, vol 71, ASCE manuals and reports on engineering practice. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, pp 262–304Google Scholar
  170. Maas EV, Hoffman GJ (1977) Crop salt tolerance–current assessment. J Irrig Drain Div 103:115–134Google Scholar
  171. Mahajan S, Tuteja N (2005) Cold, salinity and drought stresses: an overview. Arch Biochem Biophys 444:139–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Mäkelä P, Kärkkäinen J, Somersalo S (2000) Effect of glycine betaine on chloroplast ultrastructure, chlorophyll and protein content, and RuBPCO activity in tomato grown under drought or salinity. Biol Plant 43:471–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Marcum KB, Murdoch CL (1992) Salt tolerance of the coastal salt marsh grass, Sporobulus virginicus (L.) Kunth. New Phytol 120:281–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Maria MC, Costa JM, Saibo NJM (2011) Recent advances in photosynthesis under drought and salinity. Adv Bot Res 57:50–83Google Scholar
  175. Maxwell K, Johnson GN (2000) Chlorophyll fluorescence-a practical guide. J Exp Bot 51:659–668PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Mazzucotelli E, Mastrangelo AM, Crosatti C, Guerra D, Stanca AM, Cattivelli L (2008) Abiotic stress response in plants: when post-transcriptionaland post-translational regulations control transcription. Plant Sci 174:420–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. McKenzie D, Orange PLM (2003) Salinity and sodicity – what’s the difference. The Australian Cottongrower 24:28Google Scholar
  178. Miller G, Shulaev V, Mittler R (2008) Reactive oxygen signaling and abiotic stress. Physiol Plant 133:481–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Miller G, Suzuki N, Ciftci-Yilmaz S, Mittler R (2010) Reactive oxygen species homeostasis and signaling during drought and salinity stresses. Plant Cell Environ 33:453–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Mittler M (2002) Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance. Trends Plant Sci 7:405–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Mittler R, Vanderauwera S, Gollery M, Breusegem FV (2004) Reactive oxygen gene network of plants. Trends Plant Sci 9:490–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Mittova V, Guy M, Tal M, Volokita M (2004) Salinity upregulates the antioxidative system in root mitochondria and peroxisomes of the wild salt-tolerant tomato species Lycopersicon pennellii. J Exp Bot 55:1105–1113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Mochida K, Shinozaki K (2011) Advances in omics and bioinformatics tools for systems analyses of plant functions. Plant Cell Physiol 52:2017–2038PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Mohr H, Schopfer P (1995) Metabolism of water and inorganic ions. In: Mohr H, Schopfer P (eds) Plant physiology. Springer, Berlin, p 265Google Scholar
  185. Moradi F, Ismail AM (2007) Responses of photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and ROS-scavenging systems to salt stress during seedling and reproductive stages in rice. Ann Bot 99:1161–1173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Munns R (2002) Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant Cell Environ 25:239–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Munns R (2005) Genes and salt tolerance: bringing them together. New Phytol 167:645–663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Munns R (2011) Plant adaptations to salt and water stress: differences and commonalities. Adv Bot Res 57. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-387692-8.00001-1, Elsevier LtdGoogle Scholar
  189. Munns R, Rawson HM (1999) Effect of salinity on salt accumulation and reproductive development in the apical meristem of wheat and barley. Aust J Plant Physiol 26:459–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Munns R, Sharp RE (1993) Involvement of abscisic acid in controlling plant growth in soils of low water potential. Aust J Plant Physiol 20:425–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Munns R, Termaat A (1986) Whole-plant responses to salinity. Aust J Plant Physiol 13:143–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:651–681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Munns R, James RA, Lauchli A (2006) Approaches to increasing the salt tolerance of wheat and other cereals. J Exp Bot 57:1025–1043PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Nahar K, Hasanuzzaman M (2009) Germination, growth, nodulation and yield performance of three mungbean varieties under different levels of salinity stress. Green Farming 2:825–829Google Scholar
  195. Nam MH, Huh SM, Kim KM, Park WJ, Seo JB, Cho K, Kim DY, Kim BG, Yoon IS (2012) Comparative proteomic analysis of early salt stress-responsive proteins in roots of SnRK2 transgenic rice. Proteome Sci 10:25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Nanjo Y, Nouri MZ, Komatsu S (2011) Quantitative proteomics analyses of crop seedlings subjected to stress conditions; a commentary. Phytochemistry 72:1263–1272Google Scholar
  197. Netondo GW, Onyango JC, Beck E (2004) Sorghum and salinity: II. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of sorghum under salt stress. Crop Sci 44:806–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Neumann PM, Azaizeh H, Leon D (1994) Hardening of root cell walls: a growth inhibitory response to saliny stress. Plant Cell Environ 17:303–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Neumann PM (2011) Recent advances in understanding the regulation of whole-plant growth inhibition by salinity, drought and colloid stress. In: Kader JC, Delseny M (eds) Adv Bot Res 57:33–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Niinemets U, Cescatti A, Rodeghiero M, Tosens T (2005) Leaf internal diffusion conductance limits photosynthesis more strongly in older leaves of Mediterranean evergreen broad-leaved species. Plant Cell Environ 28:1552–1566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Niinemets U, Diaz-Espejo A, Flexas J, Galmes J, Warren CR (2009) Role of mesophyll diffusion conductance in constraining potential photosynthetic productivity in the field. J Exp Bot 60:2249–2270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Niu X, Bressan RA, Hasegawa PM, Pardo JM (1995) Ion homeostasis in NaCl stress environments. Plant Physiol 109:735–742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Nounjan N, Nghia PT, Theerakulpisut P (2012) Exogenous proline and trehalose promote recovery of rice seedlings from salt-stress and differentially modulate antioxidant enzymes and expression of related genes. J Plant Physiol 169:596–604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Ouyang SQ, Liu YF, Liu P, Lei G, He SJ, Ma B, Zhang WK, Zhang JS, Chen SY (2010) Receptor-like kinase OsSIK1 improves drought and salt stress tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa) plants. Plant J 62:316–329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Pardo JM (2010) Biotechnology of water and salinity stress tolerance. Curr Opin Biotechnol 21:185–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Parida AK, Das AB (2005) Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plants: a review. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 60:324–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Parida AK, Das AB, Mohanty P (2004) Investigations on the antioxidative defense responses to NaCl stress in a mangrove, Bruguiera parviflora: differential regulations of isoforms of some antioxidative enzymes. Plant Growth Regul 42:213–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Parker R, Flowers TJ, Moore AL, Harpham VJ (2006) An accurate and reproducible method for proteome profiling of the effects of salt stress in the rice leaf lamina. J Exp Bot 57:1109–1118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Pastori GM, Foyer CH (2002) Common components, networks, and pathways of cross-tolerance to stress. The central role of “Redox” and abscisic acid-mediated controls. Plant Physiol 129:460–468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Paul S, Kundu A, Pal A (2011) Identification and validation of conserved microRNAs along with their differential expression in roots of Vigna unguiculata grown under salt stress. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 105:233–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Pessarakli M, Szabolcs I (2010) Soil salinity and sodicity as particular plant/crop stress factors. In: Pessarakli M (ed) Handbook of plant and crop stress, 3rd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 3–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Poljakoff-Mayber A, Somers GF, Werker E, Gallagher JL (1994) Seeds of Koteletzkya virginica (Malvaceae): their structure, germination and salt tolerance. Am J Bot 81:54–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Popp M (1995) Salt resistance in herbaceous halophytes and mangroves. Prog Bot 56:415–429Google Scholar
  214. Posmyk MM, Kontek R, Janas KM (2009) Antioxidant enzymes activity and phenolic compounds content in red cabbage seedlings exposed to copper stress. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 72:596–602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Price AH, Handry GAF (1991) Iron-catalysed oxygen radical formation and its possible contribution to drought damage in nine native grasses and three cereals. Plant Cell Environ 14:477–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Rahnama A, Poustini K, Munns R, James RA (2010) Stomatal conductance as a screen for osmotic stress tolerance in durum wheat growing in saline soil. Funct Plant Biol 37:255–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Rasheed R (2009) Salinity and extreme temperature effects on sprouting buds of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.): some histological and biochemical studies. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, FaisalabadGoogle Scholar
  218. Rausch T, Kirsch M, Low R, Lehr A, Viereck R, Zhigang A (1996) Salt stress responses of higher plants: the role of proton pumps and Na+/H+-antiporters. J Plant Physiol 148:425–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Rea PA, Yongcheol K, Sarafian V, Poole RJ, Davies JM, Sanders D (1992) Vacuolar H+ −translocating pyrophosphatases: a new category of ion translocase. TIBS 17:348–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Remorini D, Melgar JC, Guidi L, Degl’lnnocenti E, Castelli S, Traversi ML, Massai R, Tattini M (2009) Interaction effects of root-zone salinity and solar irradiance on the physiology and biochemistry of Olea europaea. Environ Exp Bot 65:210–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Rengasamy P (2006) World salinization with emphasis on Australia. J Exp Bot 57:1017–1023PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Rhoades JD, Kandiah A, Mashali AM (1992) The use of saline waters for crop production, vol 48, FAO irrigation and drainage paper. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  223. Rogers ME, Noble CL, Halloran GM, Nicolas ME (1995) The effect of NaCl on the germination and early seedling growth of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) populations selected for high and low salinity tolerance. Seed Sci Technol 23:277–287Google Scholar
  224. Romero-Aranda R, Soria T, Cuartero S (2001) Tomato plant-water uptake and plant-water relationships under saline growth conditions. Plant Sci 160:265–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Ruffino AMC, Rosa M, Hilal M, González JA, Prado FE (2009) The role of cotyledon metabolism in the establishment of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seedlings growing under salinity. Plant Soil 326:213–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Salekdeh GH, Siopongco J, Wade LJ, Ghareyazie B, Bennet J (2002) Proteomic analysis of rice leaves during drought stress and recovery. Proteomics 2:1131–1145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Salt DE, Baxter I, Lahner B (2008) Ionomics and the study of the plant ionome. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:709–733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Sanchez DH, Lippold F, Redestig H, Hannah M, Erban A, Krämer U, Kopka J, Udvardi MK (2008a) Integrative functional genomics of salt acclimatization in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Plant J 53:973–987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Sanchez DH, Redestig H, Krämer U, Udvardi MK, Kopka J (2008b) Metabolome–ionome–biomass interactions: what can we learn about salt stress by multiparallel phenotyping? Plant Signal Behav 3:598–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Sanchez D, Pieckenstain FL, Escaray F, Erban A, Kraemer U, Udvardi MK, Kopka J (2011a) Comparative ionomics and metabolomics in extremophile and glycophytic Lotus species under salt stress challenge the metabolic pre-adaptation hypothesis. Plant Cell Environ 34: 605–617PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Sanchez DH, Pieckenstain FL, Szymanski J, Erban A, Bromke M (2011b) Comparative functional genomics of salt stress in related model and cultivated plants identifies and overcomes limitations to translational genomics. PLoS One 6(2):e17094PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Savirnata NM, Jukunen-Titto R, Oksanen E, Karjalainen RO (2010) Leaf phenolic compounds in red clover (Trfolium Pratense L.) induced by exposure to moderately elevated ozone. Environ Pollut 158:440–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Sawada Y, Akiyama K, Sakata A, Kuwahara A, Otsuki H, Sakurai T, Saito K, Hirai MY (2009) Widely targeted metabolomics based on large-scale MS/MS data for elucidating metabolite accumulation patterns in plants. Plant Cell Physiol 50:37–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Schafer H, Wink MM (2009) Edicinally important secondary metabolites in recombinant microorganisms or plants: progress in alkaloid biosynthesis. Biotechnol J 4:1684–1703PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Scholberg JMS, Locascio SJ (1999) Growth response of snap bean and tomato as affected by salinity and irrigation method. HortScience 34:259–264Google Scholar
  236. Sedghi M, Seyed Sharifi R, Pirzad AR, Amanpour-Balaneji B (2012) Phytohormonal regulation of antioxidant systems in petals of drought stressed pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.). J Agric Sci Technol 14:869–878Google Scholar
  237. Serrano R, Mulet JM, Rios G, Marquez JA, de Larriona IF, Leube MP, Mendizabal I, Pascual-Ahuir A, Proft M, Ros R, Montesinos C (1999) A glimpse of the mechanism of ion homeostasis during salt stress. J Exp Bot 50:1023–1036Google Scholar
  238. Shalata A, Neumann PM (2001) Exogenous ascorbic acid (vitamin C) increases resistance to salt stress and reduces lipid peroxidation. J Exp Bot 52:2207–2211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Shalata A, Mittova V, Volokita M, Guy M, Tal M (2001) Response of the cultivated tomato and its wild salt-tolerant relative Lycopersicon pennellii to salt-dependent oxidative stress: the root antioxidative system. Physiol Plant 112:487–494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Shannon MC (1984) Breeding, selection, and the genetics of salt tolerance. In: Staples RC, Toenniessen GH (eds) Salinity tolerance in plants: strategies for crop improvement. Wiley, New York, pp 231–254Google Scholar
  241. Sidari M, Mallamaci C, Muscolo A (2008) Drought, salinity and heat differently affect seed germination of Pinus pinea. J For Res 13:326–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Singh RK, Flowers TJ (2010) Physiology and molecular biology of the effects of salinity on rice. In: Handbook of plant and crop stress. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 899–939. doi: 101201/b10329-44Google Scholar
  243. Singh RK, Mishra B, Chauhan MS, Yeo AR, Flowers SA, Flowers TJ (2002a) Solution culture for screening rice varieties for sodicity tolerance. J Agric Sci Camb 139:327–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Singh RK, Singh NK, Mishra B (2002b) Identification of genes for physiological mechanisms for salinity tolerance and pyramiding through marker assisted selection. Paper presented during “Rice functional genomics workshop” held at National Research Centre on plant biotechnology, IARI, New Delhi, 20–21 May 2002. Abstract Proceeding page 27Google Scholar
  245. Sinha A, Gupta SR (1982) Effect of osmotic tension and salt stress on germination of three grass species. Plant Soil 69:13–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Sohan D, Jason R, Zajcek J (1999) Plant-water relations of NaCl and calcium-treated sunflower plants. Environ Exp Bot 42:105–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Song C, Fang J, Li X, Liu H, Chao CT (2009) Identification and characterization of 27 conserved microRNAs in citrus. Planta 230:671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Sreevidya VS, Srinivasa RC, Rao C, Sullia SB, Ladha JK, Reddy PM (2006) Metabolic engineering of rice with soyabean isoflavone synthase for promoting nodulation gene expression in rhizobia. J Exp Bot 57:1957–1969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Szabolcs I (1974) Salt affected soils in Europe. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, p 63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Szpunar J (2004) Metallomics: a new frontier in analytical chemistry. Anal Bioanal Chem 378:54–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Tanji KK, Wallender WW (2011) Nature and extent of agricultural salinity and sodicity. In: Wallender WW, Tanji KK (eds) Agricultural salinity assessment and management, 2nd edn. American Society of Civil Engineers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  252. Tanou G, Molassiotis A, Diamantidis G (2009) Induction of reactive oxygen species and necrotic death-like destruction in strawberry leaves by salinity. Environ Exp Bot 65:270–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Tavakkoli E, Fatehi F, Rengasamy P, McDonald GK (2012) A comparison of hydroponic and soil-based screening methods to identify salt tolerance in the field in barley. J Exp Bot. doi:10.1093/jxb/ers085Google Scholar
  254. Tester M, Davenport R (2003) Na+ tolerance and Na+ transport in plants. Ann Bot 91:503–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Thelen JJ, Peck SC (2007) Quantitative proteomics in plants: choices in abundance. Plant Cell 19:3339–33346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Turhan H, Ayaz C (2004) Effect of salinity on seedling emergence and growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars. Int J Agric Biol 6:149–152Google Scholar
  257. Tuteja N, Gill SS, Tiburcio AF, Tuteja R (2012) The micromics revolution: microRNA-mediated approaches to develop stress-resistant crops. In: López C, Pérez-Quintero AL (eds) Improving crop resistance to abiotic stress volume 1 and volume 2. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/9783527632930.ch25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Ulfat M, Athar H, Ashraf M, Akram NA, Jamil A (2007) Appraisal of physiological and biochemical selection criteria for evaluation of salt tolerance in canola (Brassica napus L.). Pak J Bot 39:1593–1608Google Scholar
  259. Ungar IA (1991) Ecophysiology of vascular halophytes. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  260. USDA-ARS (2005) George E. Brown Jr salinity laboratory, Riverside. http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=8908
  261. Vaidyanathan H, Sivakumar P, Chakrabarty R, Thomas G (2003) Scavenging of reactive oxygen species in NaCl-stressed rice (Oryza sativa L.)—differential response in salt-tolerant and sensitive varieties. Plant Sci 165:1411–1418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. van de Graaff R, Patterson RA (2001) Explaining the mysteries of salinity, sodicity, SAR and ESP in on-site practice. In: Patterson RA, Jones MJ (eds) Proceedings of on-site ’01 conference: advancing on-site wastewater systems. Lanfax Laboratories, Armidale, pp 361–368Google Scholar
  263. van Hoorn JW, Katerji N, Hamdy A, Mastrorilli M (2001) Effect of salinity on yield and nitrogen uptake of four grain legumes and on biological nitrogen contribution from the soil. Agric Water Manage 51:87–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Vinocur B, Altman A (2005) Recent advances in engineering plant tolerance to abiotic stress: achievements and limitations. Curr Opin Biotechnol 16:123–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Voigt EL, Almeida TD, Chagas RM, Ponte LFA, Viégas RA, Silveira JAG (2009) Source–sink regulation of cotyledonary reserve mobilization during cashew (Anacardium occidentale) seedling establishment under NaCl salinity. J Plant Physiol 166(1):80–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Wahid A, Javed IUH, Ali I, Baig A, Rasul E (1998) Short term incubation of sorghum caryopses in sodium chloride levels: changes in some pre and post germination physiological parameters. Plant Sci 139:223–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Wahid A, Farooq M, Basra SMA, Rasul E, Siddique KHM (2010) Germination of seeds and propagules under salt stress. In: Handbook of plant and crop stress. CRC Press, Boca Raton. doi: 10.1201/b10329-16Google Scholar
  268. Wahid A, Farooq M, Basra SMA, Rasul E, Siddique KHM (2011) Germination of seeds and propagules under salt stress. In: Pessarakli M (ed) Handbook of plant and crop stress, 3rd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 321–337Google Scholar
  269. Waisel Y (1972) Biology of halophytes. Academic, New York/LondonGoogle Scholar
  270. Waisel Y, Breckle SW (1987) Differences in responses of various radish roots to salinity. Plant Soil 104:191–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Wang MC, Peng ZY, Li CL, Li F, Liu C, Xia GM (2008) Proteomic analysis on a high salt tolerance introgression strain of Triticum aestivum/Thinopyrum ponticum. Proteomics 8: 1470–1489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Wei B, Cai T, Zhang R, Li A, Huo N, Li S, Gu QY, Vogel J, Jia J, Qi Y, Mao L (2009) Novel microRNAs uncovered by deep sequencing of small RNA transcriptomes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv. Funct Integr Genomics 9:499–511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Widodo JJ, Patterson JH, Newbigin E, Tester M, Bacic A, Roessner U (2009) Metabolic responses to salt stress of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars, Sahara and Clipper, which differ in salinity tolerance. J Exp Bot 60:4089–4103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Wild A (2003) Soils, land and food: managing the land during the twenty-first century. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Wyn Jones RG, Pollard A (1983) Proteins, enzymes and inorganic ions. In: Laüchli A, Pirson A (eds) Encyclopedia of plant physiology, new series, vol 15B. Springer, Berlin, pp 528–562Google Scholar
  276. Xu S, Hu B, He Z, Ma F, Feng J, Shen W, Yan J (2011) Enhancement of salinity tolerance during rice seed germination by presoaking with hemoglobin. Int J Mol Sci 12:2488–2501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Yadav S, Irfan M, Ahmad A, Hayat S (2011) Causes of salinity and plant manifestations to salt stress: a review. J Environ Biol 32:667–685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Yan SZ, Tang WS, Sun W (2005) Proteomic analysis of salt stress responsive proteins in rice roots. Proteomics 5:235–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Yang L, Bai X, Yang Y, Ahmad P, Yang Y, Hu X (2011) Deciphering the protective role of nitric oxide against salt stress at the physiological and proteomic levels in maize. J Proteom Res 10:4349–4364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Yang L, Ma C, Wang L, Chen S, Li H (2012) Salt stress induced proteome and transcriptome changes in sugar beet monosomic addition line M14. J Plant Physiol 169:839–850PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Yao D, Zhang X, Zhao X, Liu C, Wang C, Zhang Z, Zhang C, Wei Q, Wang Q, Yan H, Li F, Su Z (2011) Transcriptome analysis reveals salt-stress-regulated biological processes and key pathways in roots of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Genomics 98:47–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Yeo AR (1983) Salinity resistance: physiologies and prices. Physiol Plant 58:214–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Yeo AR, Flowers SA, Rao G, Welfare K, Senanayake N, Flowers TJ (1999) Silicon reduces sodium uptake in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in saline conditions and this is accounted for a reduction in the transpirational bypass flow. Plant Cell Environ 22:559–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Yokthongwattana C, Mahong B, Roytrakul S, Phaonaklop N, Narangajavana J, Yokthongwattana K (2012) Proteomic analysis of salinity-stressed Chlamydomonas reinhardtii revealed differential suppression and induction of a large number of important housekeeping proteins. Planta 235:649–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Yoshikawa M, Peragine A, Park MY, Poethig RS (2005) A pathway for the biogenesis of trans-acting siRNAs in Arabidopsis. Genes Dev 19:2164–2175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Yupsanis T, Moustakas M, Domiandou K (1994) Protein phosphorylation-dephosphorylation in alfalfa seeds germinating under salt stress. J Plant Physiol 143:234–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Zapata PJ, Serrano M, Pretel MT, Amoros A, Botella MA (2004) Polyamines and ethylene changes during germination of different plant species under salinity. Plant Sci 167:781–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Zhang X, Walker RR, Stevens RM, Prior LD (2002) Yield-salinity relationships of different grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) scion-rootstock combinations. Aust J GrapeWine Res 8:150–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Zhang H, Han B, Wang T, Chen S, Li H, Zhang Y, Dai S (2012) Mechanisms of plant salt response: Insights from proteomics. J Proteome Res 11:49–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Zheng C, Jiang D, Liu F (2009) Exogenous nitric oxide improves seed germination in wheat against mitochondrial oxidative damage induced by high salinity. Environ Exp Bot 67:222–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Zheng M, Wang Y, Liu K, Shu H, Zhou Z (2012) Protein expression changes during cotton fiber elongation in response to low temperature stress. J Plant Physiol 169:399–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Zhong H, Läuchli A (1993) Spatial and temporal aspects of growth in the primary root of cotton seedlings: effect of NaCl and CaCl2. J Exp Bot 44:763–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Zhu JK (2001) Plant salt tolerance. Trends Plant Sci 6:66–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Zhu JK (2002) Salt and drought stress signal transduction in plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 53:247–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Zhu J, Meinzer FC (1999) Efficiency of C-4 photosynthesis in Atriplex lentiformis under salinity stress. Aust J Plant Physiol 26:79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Zhu JK, Liu J, Xiong L (1998) Genetic analysis of salt tolerance in arabidopsis. Evidence for a critical role of potassium nutrition. Plant Cell 10:1181–1191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Zuther E, Koehl K, Kopka J (2007) Comparative metabolome analysis of the salt response in breeding cultivars of rice. In: Jenks MA, Hasegawa PM, Jain SM (eds) Advances in molecular breeding toward drought and salt tolerant crops. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York, pp 285–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agronomy, Faculty of AgricultureSher-e-Bangla Agricultural UniversityDhakaBangladesh
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural Botany, Faculty of AgricultureSher-e-Bangla Agricultural UniversityDhakaBangladesh
  3. 3.Laboratory of Plant Stress Responses, Department of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of AgricultureKagawa UniversityKagawaJapan
  4. 4.Department of Botany, A.S. CollegeUniversity of KashmirSrinagarIndia
  5. 5.National Institute for Plant Genome ResearchNew DelhiIndia
  6. 6.Department of BotanyJamia HamdardNew DelhiIndia
  7. 7.Department of Plant SciencesUniversity of HyderabadHydrabadIndia
  8. 8.Department of BotanyEge UniversityBornovaTurkey

Personalised recommendations