Ice Cream pp 289-312 | Cite as

Packaging, Hardening, and Shipping

  • H. Douglas Goff
  • Richard W. Hartel


Following dynamic freezing in the scraped-surface freezer and the addition of particulate flavoring materials, frozen dairy dessert products need to be immediately packaged and hardened. Packaging provides the desired form, size, and appearance for convenient handling, efficient hardening, consumer appeal, consumer information, convenience, and economy. Packaging considerations and packaging equipment is discussed in detail in this chapter. During hardening, the freezing processes that were initiated in the scraped-surface freezer continue such that most of the remaining unfrozen water is converted to ice. No further ice nucleation occurs, but rapid hardening is required to ensure that the ice crystals in the finished product remain as small as possible by minimizing ice recrystallization that could occur when the ice cream is still quite soft during the early stages of hardening. This chapter also discusses hardening operations in detail. Finally, storage and shipping considerations and operations are also reviewed.


Life Cycle Assessment Draw Temperature Fill Weight Freeze Dessert Filling Machine 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Douglas Goff
    • 1
  • Richard W. Hartel
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Food ScienceUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada
  2. 2.Department of Food ScienceUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

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