Simulation in Neurosurgery and Neurosurgical Procedures

  • Ali Alaraj
  • Matthew K. Tobin
  • Daniel M. Birk
  • Fady T. Charbel


With recent advancement in medical technology, surgical training has evolved as well. The classical teaching is being challenged by legal and ethical concerns for patient safety, work hour restrictions, and the cost of operating room time. Surgical simulation and skill training offer an opportunity to teach, rehearse, and practice advanced techniques before attempting them on patients. Simulation training available in the neurosurgical field includes the simple straightforward principle of using real instruments and video equipment to manipulate simulated “tissue” in a box trainer, to more advanced computer-based virtual reality (VR) simulators. Early systems have demonstrated their effectiveness and discriminative ability. Newer systems enable the development of comprehensive curricula and full procedural simulations. Surgical organizations are calling for methods to ensure the maintenance of skills, advance surgical training, and credential surgeons as technically competent. The application of VR simulation in neurosurgery training has evolved over the last decade from data visualization, including stereoscopic evaluation, to more complex augmented reality models. With the revolution of computational analysis abilities, fully immersive VR models are currently available in neurosurgery training. Ventriculostomy catheter insertion and endoscopic and endovascular simulations are used in neurosurgical residency training centers across the world. Recent studies have shown the coloration of proficiency with those simulators and levels of experience in the real world.


Virtual reality Simulation Neurosurgery 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali Alaraj
    • 1
  • Matthew K. Tobin
    • 2
  • Daniel M. Birk
    • 1
  • Fady T. Charbel
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryUniversity of Illinois at Chicago and University of Illinois Hospital and Health Science SystemsChicagoUSA
  2. 2.College of MedicineUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA

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