Advertisement

Visual and Motor Mental Imagery After Brain Damage

  • Paolo Bartolomeo
  • Alexia Bourgeois
  • Clémence Bourlon
  • Raffaella Migliaccio
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter presents evidence from brain-damaged patients relevant to the debate concerning the neural underpinnings of visual and motor mental imagery capacities. For visual mental imagery, the domains of object shape and color, orthographic material, and spatial imagery (imaginal neglect) are examined. Concerning motor imagery, evidence is reviewed from patients with locked-in syndrome and vegetative state, Parkinson’s disease, vascular strokes, and limb amputations. Although both visual mental imagery and motor imagery have been postulated to draw on similar neural resources as the corresponding “actual” abilities (respectively, visual perception and motor acts), the available evidence from brain-damaged patients indicates that such a close correspondence only exists for motor imagery. Visual mental imagery, on the other hand, seems to rely on the activity of high-level visual processing. This possibility seems consistent with the proposed “active” character of imagery abilities, which would not necessarily require the functioning of sensory cortices devoted to the processing of external stimuli.

Keywords

Visual mental imagery Motor mental imagery Brain damage 

References

  1. Acerra NE, Moseley GL (2005) Dysynchiria: watching the mirror image of the unaffected limb elicits pain on the affected side. Neurology 65(5):751–753PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alkadhi H, Brugger P, Boendermaker SH, Crelier G, Curt A, Hepp-Reymond MC et al (2005) What disconnection tells about motor imagery: evidence from paraplegic patients. Cereb Cortex 15(2):131–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson B (1993) Spared awareness for the left side of internal visual images in patients with left-sided extrapersonal neglect. Neurology 43:213–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Annett J (1995) Motor imagery: perception or action? Neuropsychologia 33(11):1395–1417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Antonietti A, Bartolomeo P, Colombi A, Incorpora C, Oliveri S (2008) Rapporti tra capacità percettive e immaginative nell’anziano. Ricerche di Psicologia 1–2:105–120Google Scholar
  6. Bachoud-Lévi AC, Bartolomeo P (2003) Mechanisms of pure alexia: spatially-based impairment, letter identification deficit, or both? Neurocase 9(2):164–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ballard DH (1991) Animate vision. Artificial Intelligence 48:57–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bartolomeo P (2002) The relationship between visual perception and visual mental imagery: a reappraisal of the neuropsychological evidence. Cortex 38(3):357–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bartolomeo P (2007) Visual neglect. Curr Opin Neurol 20(4):381–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bartolomeo P (2008) The neural correlates of visual mental imagery: an ongoing debate. Cortex 44(2):107–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bartolomeo P, Bachoud-Levi AC, Azouvi P, Chokron S (2005) Time to imagine space: a chronometric exploration of representational neglect. Neuropsychologia 43(9):1249–1257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bartolomeo P, Bachoud-Lévi AC, Chokron S, Degos JD (2002) Visually- and motor-based knowledge of letters: evidence from a pure alexic patient. Neuropsychologia 40(8):1363–1371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bartolomeo P, Bachoud-Lévi AC, de Gelder B, Denes G, Dalla Barba G, Brugières P et al (1998a) Multiple-domain dissociation between impaired visual perception and preserved mental imagery in a patient with bilateral extrastriate lesions. Neuropsychologia 36(3):239–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bartolomeo P, Bachoud-Lévi AC, Degos JD, Boller F (1998b) Disruption of residual reading capacity in a pure alexic patient after a mirror-image right hemispheric lesion. Neurology 50(1):286–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bartolomeo P, Bachoud-Lévi AC, Denes G (1997) Preserved imagery for colours in a patient with cerebral achromatopsia. Cortex 33(2):369–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bartolomeo P, Chokron S (2001) Levels of impairment in unilateral neglect. In: Boller F, Grafman J (eds) Handbook of Neuropsychology, vol 4, 2nd edn. Elsevier Science Publishers, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  17. Bartolomeo P, Chokron S (2002) Can we change our vantage point to explore imaginal neglect? (Commentary on Pylyshyn, Mental imagery: in search of a theory). Behav Brain Sci 25(2):184–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bartolomeo P, D’Erme P, Gainotti G (1994) The relationship between visuospatial and representational neglect. Neurology 44:1710–1714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bartolomeo P, Thiebaut de Schotten M, Doricchi F (2007) Left unilateral neglect as a disconnection syndrome. Cereb Cortex 45(14):3127–3148Google Scholar
  20. Bartolomeo P, Thiebaut de Schotten M, Chica AB (2012) Brain networks of visuospatial attention and their disruption in visual neglect. Front Human Neurosci 6:110Google Scholar
  21. Battaglia F, Quartarone A, Ghilardi MF, Dattola R, Bagnato S, Rizzo V et al (2006) Unilateral cerebellar stroke disrupts movement preparation and motor imagery. Clin Neurophysiol 117(5):1009–1016PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Beauvois MF, Saillant B (1985) Optic aphasia for colours and colour agnosia: a distinction between visual and visuo-verbal impairments in the processing of colours. Cogn Neuropsychol 2(1):1–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Beschin N, Cocchini G, Della Sala S, Logie R (1997) What the eyes perceive, the brain ignores: a case of pure unilateral representational neglect. Cortex 33:3–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bisiach E, Luzzatti C (1978) Unilateral neglect of representational space. Cortex 14:129–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bompas A, O’Regan JK (2006) Evidence for a role of action in colour perception. Perception 35(1):65–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bourlon C, Chokron S, Bachoud-Levi AC, Coubard O, Bergeras I, Moulignier A et al (2009) Presentation of an assessment battery for visual mental imagery and visual perception. Rev Neurol (Paris) 165(12):1045–1054PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bourlon C, Duret C, Pradat-Diehl P, Azouvi P, Loeper-Jeny C, Merat-Blanchard M et al (2011a) Vocal response times to real and imagined stimuli in spatial neglect: a group study and single-case report. Cortex 47(5):536–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bourlon C, Duret C, Pradat-Diehl P, Azouvi P, Loeper-Jeny C, Merat-Blanchard M et al (2011a) Vocal response times to real and imagined stimuli in spatial neglect: a group study and singlecase report. Cortex 47(5):536–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bourlon C, Oliviero B, Wattiez N, Pouget P, Bartolomeo P (2011b) Visual mental imagery: what the head’s eye tells the mind’s eye. Brain Res 1367:287–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bourlon C, Pradat-Diehl P, Duret C, Azouvi P, Bartolomeo P (2008) Seeing and imagining the “same” objects in unilateral neglect. Neuropsychologia 46(10):2602–2606PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Brandt SA, Stark LW (1997) Spontaneous eye movements during visual imagery reflect the content of the visual scene. J Cogn Neurosci 9(1):27–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Bridge H, Harrold S, Holmes EA, Stokes M, Kennard C (2012) Vivid visual mental imagery in the absence of the primary visual cortex. J Neurol 259(6):1062–1070PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Butter CM, Kosslyn SM, Mijovic-Prelec D, Riffle A (1997) Field-specific deficits in visual imagery following hemianopia due to unilateral occipital infarcts. Brain 120:217–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Calautti C, Leroy F, Guincestre JY, Marie RM, Baron JC (2001) Sequential activation brain mapping after subcortical stroke: changes in hemispheric balance and recovery. Neuroreport 12(18):3883–3886PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Charcot JM, Bernard D (1883) Un cas de suppression brusque et isolée de la vision mentale des signes et des objets (formes et couleurs). Le Progrès Médical 11:568–571Google Scholar
  36. Chatterjee A, Southwood MH (1995) Cortical blindness and visual imagery. Neurology 45:2189–2195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Chica AB, Bartolomeo P (2012) Attentional routes to conscious perception. Front Psychol 3:1Google Scholar
  38. Chokron S, Colliot P, Bartolomeo P (2004) The role of vision in spatial representation. Cortex 40(2):281–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cicinelli P, Marconi B, Zaccagnini M, Pasqualetti P, Filippi MM, Rossini PM (2006) Imagery-induced cortical excitability changes in stroke: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study. Cereb Cortex 16(2):247–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cincotta M, Tozzi F, Zaccara G, Borgheresi A, Lori S, Cosottini M et al (1999) Motor imagery in a locked-in patient: evidence from transcranial magnetic stimulation. Ital J Neurol Sci 20(1):37–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Conson M, Sacco S, Sara M, Pistoia F, Grossi D, Trojano L (2008) Selective motor imagery defect in patients with locked-in syndrome. Neuropsychologia 46(11):2622–2628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Coslett HB (1997) Neglect in vision and visual imagery: a double dissociation. Brain 120:1163–1171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cristinzio C, Bourlon C, Pradat-Diehl P, Trojano L, Grossi D, Chokron S et al (2009) Representational neglect in “invisible” drawing from memory. Cortex 45(3):313–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Damasio AR (1994) Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. Putnam Publishing, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Dehaene S, Pegado F, Braga LW, Ventura P, Nunes Filho G, Jobert A et al (2010) How learning to read changes the cortical networks for vision and language. Science 330(6009):1359–1364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Deiber MP, Ibanez V, Sadato N, Hallett M (1996) Cerebral structures participating in motor preparation in humans: a positron emission tomography study. J Neurophysiol 75(1):233–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Dejerine MJ (1892) Contribution à l’étude anatomo-pathologique et clinique des différentes variétés de cécité verbale [Contribution to the pathological and clinical investigation of different varieties of word blindness]. Mémoires de la Société de Biologie 4:61–90Google Scholar
  48. Desmurget M, Reilly KT, Richard N, Szathmari A, Mottolese C, Sirigu A (2009) Movement intention after parietal cortex stimulation in humans. Science 324(5928):811–813PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Di Ferdinando A, Parisi D, Bartolomeo P (2007) Modeling orienting behavior and its disorders with “ecological” neural networks. J Cogn Neurosci 19(6):1033–1049PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dulin D, Cavezian C, Serrière C, Bachoud-Levi A-C, Bartolomeo P, Chokron S (2011) Colour, face and visuo-spatial imagery abilities in low-vision individuals with visual field deficits. Q J Exp Psychol 64(10):1955–1970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Epelbaum S, Pinel P, Gaillard R, Delmaire C, Perrin M, Dupont S et al (2008) Pure alexia as a disconnection syndrome: new diffusion imaging evidence for an old concept. Cortex 44(8):962–974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ersland L, Rosen G, Lundervold A, Smievoll AI, Tillung T, Sundberg H et al (1996) Phantom limb imaginary fingertapping causes primary motor cortex activation: an fMRI study. Neuroreport 8(1):207–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Farah MJ (1984) The neurological basis of mental imagery: a componential analysis. Cognition 18:245–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Farah MJ (1988) Is visual imagery really visual? Overlooked evidence from neuropsychology. Psychological Rev 95(3):307–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Findlay JM, Gilchrist ID (2003) Active Vision: The Psychology of Looking and Seeing. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  56. Fourkas AD, Avenanti A, Urgesi C, Aglioti SM (2006) Corticospinal facilitation during first and third person imagery. Exp Brain Res 168(1–2):143–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gandevia SC, Wilson LR, Inglis JT, Burke D (1997) Mental rehearsal of motor tasks recruits alpha-motoneurones but fails to recruit human fusimotor neurones selectively. J Physiol 505(Pt 1):259–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gerardin E, Sirigu A, Lehericy S, Poline JB, Gaymard B, Marsault C et al (2000) Partially overlapping neural networks for real and imagined hand movements. Cereb Cortex 10(11):1093–1104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Goldenberg G (1993) The neural basis of mental imagery. Baillière’s Clin Neurol 2(2):265–286Google Scholar
  60. Gonzalez B, Rodriguez M, Ramirez C, Sabate M (2005) Disturbance of motor imagery after ­cerebellar stroke. Behav Neurosci 119(2):622–626PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Guariglia C, Padovani A, Pantano P, Pizzamiglio L (1993) Unilateral neglect restricted to visual imagery. Nature 364:235–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Halligan PW, Bartolomeo P (2012) Visual neglect. In Ramachandran V (ed) Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, 2nd edn. Academic Press, San Diego, CAGoogle Scholar
  63. Hubel DH, Wiesel TN (1959) Receptive fields of single neurones in the cat’s striate cortex. J Physiol 148:574–591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Jeannerod M (1994) The representing brain: neural correlates of motor intention and imagery. Behav Brain Sci 17:187–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Jeannerod M (2001) Neural simulation of action: a unifying mechanism for motor cognition. Neuroimage 14(1 Pt 2):S103–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kanwisher N (2000) Domain specificity in face perception. Nat Neurosci 3(8):759–763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kasess CH, Windischberger C, Cunnington R, Lanzenberger R, Pezawas L, Moser E (2008) The suppressive influence of SMA on M1 in motor imagery revealed by fMRI and dynamic causal modeling. Neuroimage 40(2):828–837PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kimberley TJ, Khandekar G, Skraba LL, Spencer JA, Van Gorp EA, Walker SR (2006) Neural substrates for motor imagery in severe hemiparesis. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 20(2):268–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kosslyn SM (1980) Image and Mind. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  70. Kosslyn SM, Thompson WL, Ganis G (2006) The Case for Mental Imagery. Oxford University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lacourse MG, Turner JA, Randolph-Orr E, Schandler SL, Cohen MJ (2004) Cerebral and cerebellar sensorimotor plasticity following motor imagery-based mental practice of a sequential movement. J Rehabil Res Dev 41(4):505–524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Laeng B, Teodorescu D-S (2002) Eye scanpaths during visual imagery reenact those of perception of the same visual scene. Cogn Sci 26:207–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Langner R, Kellermann T, Boers F, Sturm W, Willmes K, Eickhoff SB (2011) Modality-specific perceptual expectations selectively modulate baseline activity in auditory, somatosensory, and visual cortices. Cereb Cortex 21(12):2850–2862PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Li S, Kamper DG, Stevens JA, Rymer WZ (2004) The effect of motor imagery on spinal segmental excitability. J Neurosci 24(43):9674–9680PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lorey B, Bischoff M, Pilgramm S, Stark R, Munzert J, Zentgraf K (2009) The embodied nature of motor imagery: the influence of posture and perspective. Exp Brain Res 194(2):233–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lotze M, Flor H, Grodd W, Larbig W, Birbaumer N (2001) Phantom movements and pain: an fMRI study in upper limb amputees. Brain 124(Pt 11):2268–2277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Malouin F, Richards CL, Desrosiers J, Doyon J (2004) Bilateral slowing of mentally simulated actions after stroke. Neuroreport 15(8):1349–1353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Marr D (1982) Vision. W. H. Freeman and Company, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  79. Mechelli A, Price CJ, Friston KJ, Ishai A (2004) Where bottom-up meets top-down: neuronal interactions during perception and imagery. Cereb Cortex 14(11):1256–1265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Meister IG, Krings T, Foltys H, Boroojerdi B, Muller M, Topper R et al (2004) Playing piano in the mind—an fMRI study on music imagery and performance in pianists. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 19(3):219–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mesulam MM (1998) From sensation to cognition. Brain 121(Pt 6):1013–1052PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Miceli G, Fouch E, Capasso R, Shelton JR, Tomaiuolo F, Caramazza A (2001) The dissociation of color from form and function knowledge. Nat Neurosci 4(6):662–667PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Milner AD, Goodale MA (1995) The Visual Brain in Action. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  84. Mishkin M, Ungerleider LG, Macko KA (1983) Object vision and spatial vision: two cortical pathways. Trends Neurosci 6:414–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Moro V, Berlucchi G, Lerch J, Tomaiuolo F, Aglioti SM (2008) Selective deficit of mental visual imagery with intact primary visual cortex and visual perception. Cortex 44(2):109–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. O’Regan JK, Noë A (2001) A sensorimotor account of vision and visual consciousness. Behav Brain Sci 24(5):939–1011PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ortigue S, Viaud-Delmon I, Annoni JM, Landis T, Michel C, Blanke O et al (2001) Pure ­representational neglect after right thalamic lesion. Ann Neurol 50(3):401–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Owen AM, Coleman MR, Boly M, Davis MH, Laureys S, Pickard JD (2006) Detecting awareness in the vegetative state. Science 313(5792):1402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Parsons LM (1987a) Imagined spatial transformation of one’s body. J Exp Psychol Gen 116(2):172–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Parsons LM (1987b) Imagined spatial transformations of one’s hands and feet. Cogn Psychol 19(2):178–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Patterson JR, Grabois M (1986) Locked-in syndrome: a review of 139 cases. Stroke 17(4):758–764PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Policardi E, Perani D, Zago S, Grassi F, Fazio F, Ladavas E (1996) Failure to evoke visual images in a case of long-lasting cortical blindness. Neurocase 2(5):371–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Raffin E, Giraux P, Reilly KT (2012) The moving phantom: motor execution or motor imagery? Cortex 48(6):746–757PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rich AN, Williams MA, Puce A, Syngeniotis A, Howard MA, McGlone F et al (2006) Neural correlates of imagined and synaesthetic colours. Neuropsychologia 44(14):2918–2925PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rizzolatti G, Craighero L (2004) The mirror-neuron system. Annu Rev Neurosci 27:169–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rode G, Cotton F, Revol P, Jacquin-Courtois S, Rossetti Y, Bartolomeo P (2010) Representation and disconnection in imaginal neglect. Neuropsychologia 48(10):2903–2911PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rode G, Perenin MT (1994) Temporary remission of representational hemineglect through vestibular stimulation. Neuroreport 5:869–872PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Rode G, Revol P, Rossetti Y, Boisson D, Bartolomeo P (2007) Looking while imagining: the influence of visual input on representational neglect. Neurology 68(6):432–437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rode G, Rossetti Y, Perenin MT, Boisson D (2004) Geographic information has to be spatialized to be neglected: a representational neglect case. Cortex 40(2):391–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sabate M, Gonzalez B, Rodriguez M (2007) Adapting movement planning to motor impairments: the motor-scanning system. Neuropsychologia 45(2):378–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sabatini U, Boulanouar K, Fabre N, Martin F, Carel C, Colonnese C et al (2000) Cortical motor reorganization in akinetic patients with Parkinson’s disease: a functional MRI study. Brain 123(Pt 2):394–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sartre J-P (1936) L’imagination. Presses Universitaires de France, ParisGoogle Scholar
  103. Sartre J-P (1940) L’imaginaire. Gallimard, ParisGoogle Scholar
  104. Shepard RN, Metzler J (1971) Mental rotation of three-dimensional objects. Science 171(972):701–703PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sirigu A, Duhamel JR, Cohen L, Pillon B, Dubois B, Agid Y (1996) The mental representation of hand movements after parietal cortex damage. Science 273(5281):1564–1568PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Stephan KM, Fink GR, Passingham RE, Silbersweig D, Ceballos-Baumann AO, Frith CD et al (1995) Functional anatomy of the mental representation of upper extremity movements in healthy subjects. J Neurophysiol 73(1):373–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Stinear CM, Fleming MK, Barber PA, Byblow WD (2007) Lateralization of motor imagery following stroke. Clin Neurophysiol 118(8):1794–1801PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Thobois S, Dominey PF, Decety J, Pollak PP, Gregoire MC, Le Bars PD et al (2000) Motor imagery in normal subjects and in asymmetrical Parkinson’s disease: a PET study. Neurology 55(7):996–1002PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Thomas NJT (1999) Are theories of imagery theories of imagination? An active perception approach to conscious mental content. Cogn Sci 23(2):207–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wolbers T, Weiller C, Buchel C (2003) Contralateral coding of imagined body parts in the superior parietal lobe. Cereb Cortex 13(4):392–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Zago S, Corti S, Bersano A, Baron P, Conti G, Ballabio E et al (2010) A cortically blind patient with preserved visual imagery. Cogn Behav Neurol 23(1):44–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Zeman AZJ, Della Sala S, Torrens LA, Gountouna V-E, McGonigle DJ, Logie RH (2010) Loss of imagery phenomenology with intact visuo-spatial task performance: a case of “blind imagination”. Neuropsychologia 48(1):145–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paolo Bartolomeo
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Alexia Bourgeois
    • 1
  • Clémence Bourlon
    • 4
  • Raffaella Migliaccio
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Inserm-UPMC UMRS 975, Brain and Spine Institute, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-SalpêtrièreParisFrance
  2. 2.AP-HP, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Fédération de NeurologieParisFrance
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyCatholic UniversityMilanItaly
  4. 4.Service de Rééducation et de Réadaptation Fonctionnelle, Clinique Les Trois SoleilsBoissise le RoiFrance

Personalised recommendations