Distribution Systems, Substations, and Integration of Distributed Generation
This entry describes the major components of the electricity distribution system – the distribution network, substations, and associated electrical equipment and controls – and how incorporating automated distribution management systems, devices, and controls into the system can create a “smart grid” capable of handling the integration of large amounts of distributed (decentralized) generation of sustainable, renewable energy sources.
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- Demand response
Allows the management of customer consumption of electricity in response to supply conditions.
- Distributed generation
Electric energy that is distributed to the grid from many decentralized locations, such as from wind farms and solar panel installations.
- Distribution grid
The part of the grid dedicated to delivering electric energy directly to residential, commercial, and industrial electricity customers.
- Distribution management system
A smart grid automation technology that provides real time about the distribution network and allows utilities to remotely control devices in the grid.
- Distribution substation
Delivers electric energy to the distribution grid.
- Distribution system
The link from the distribution substation to the customer.
- Renewable energy
Energy from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, biofuels, and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished.
- Smart grid
A modernization of the electricity delivery system so it monitors, protects, and automatically optimizes the operation of its interconnected elements.
- 1.Smart Grids, European Union, http://www.smartgrids.eu/
- 2.United States Department of Energy, Office of Electric Transmission and Distribution (2003) Grid 2030: a national vision for electricity’s second 100 yearsGoogle Scholar
- 3.EPRI (2009) Report to NIST on the smart grid’s interoperability standards roadmapGoogle Scholar
Books and Reviews
- Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (1994) IEEE recommended practice for electric power distribution for industrial plants, IEEE Std 141-1993. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York. ISBN 978-1559373333Google Scholar
- Killian C, OG&E, Flynn B (2009) Justifying distribution automation at OG&E. In: 2009 DistribuTECH conference, San Diego, 3–5 Feb 2009Google Scholar
- Lathrop S, Flynn B, PacifiCorp (2006) Distribution automation pilot at PacifiCorp. In: Western Energy Institute, 2006 operations conference, Costa Mesa, 5–7 Apr 2006Google Scholar
- Lemke JW, Duke Energy, Flynn B (2009) Distributed generation, storage and the smart grid. In: Autovation 2009, The utilimetrics smart metering conference and exposition, Denver Colorado, 13–16 Sep 2009Google Scholar
- Stewart R, Flynn B, Pepco Holdings Incorporated (2007) Modeling DA improvements to reliability performance metrics. In: 2007 WPDAC, Spokane, Washington, DC, 3–5 Apr 2007Google Scholar
- Weaver T, AEP, Flynn B (2011) Achieving energy efficiency through distribution system improvements: integrated volt/VAR control (IVVC). In: 2011 DistribuTECH conference, San Diego, 3–5 Feb 2011Google Scholar
- Westinghouse Electric Corporation (1959) Electric utility engineering reference book, Distribution systems, vol 3. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, PittsburghGoogle Scholar