Distribution Systems, Substations, and Integration of Distributed Generation

  • John D. McDonald
  • Bartosz Wojszczyk
  • Byron Flynn
  • Ilia Voloh


This entry describes the major components of the electricity distribution system – the distribution network, substations, and associated electrical equipment and controls – and how incorporating automated distribution management systems, devices, and controls into the system can create a “smart grid” capable of handling the integration of large amounts of distributed (decentralized) generation of sustainable, renewable energy sources.


Distribute Generation Smart Grid Circuit Breaker Supply Line International Electrotechnical Commission 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Demand response

Allows the management of customer consumption of electricity in response to supply conditions.

Distributed generation

Electric energy that is distributed to the grid from many decentralized locations, such as from wind farms and solar panel installations.

Distribution grid

The part of the grid dedicated to delivering electric energy directly to residential, commercial, and industrial electricity customers.

Distribution management system

A smart grid automation technology that provides real time about the distribution network and allows utilities to remotely control devices in the grid.

Distribution substation

Delivers electric energy to the distribution grid.

Distribution system

The link from the distribution substation to the customer.

Renewable energy

Energy from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, biofuels, and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished.

Smart grid

A modernization of the electricity delivery system so it monitors, protects, and automatically optimizes the operation of its interconnected elements.


Primary Literature

  1. 1.
    Smart Grids, European Union,
  2. 2.
    United States Department of Energy, Office of Electric Transmission and Distribution (2003) Grid 2030: a national vision for electricity’s second 100 yearsGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    EPRI (2009) Report to NIST on the smart grid’s interoperability standards roadmapGoogle Scholar

Books and Reviews

  1. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (1994) IEEE recommended practice for electric power distribution for industrial plants, IEEE Std 141-1993. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York. ISBN 978-1559373333Google Scholar
  2. Killian C, OG&E, Flynn B (2009) Justifying distribution automation at OG&E. In: 2009 DistribuTECH conference, San Diego, 3–5 Feb 2009Google Scholar
  3. Lathrop S, Flynn B, PacifiCorp (2006) Distribution automation pilot at PacifiCorp. In: Western Energy Institute, 2006 operations conference, Costa Mesa, 5–7 Apr 2006Google Scholar
  4. Lemke JW, Duke Energy, Flynn B (2009) Distributed generation, storage and the smart grid. In: Autovation 2009, The utilimetrics smart metering conference and exposition, Denver Colorado, 13–16 Sep 2009Google Scholar
  5. Stewart R, Flynn B, Pepco Holdings Incorporated (2007) Modeling DA improvements to reliability performance metrics. In: 2007 WPDAC, Spokane, Washington, DC, 3–5 Apr 2007Google Scholar
  6. Weaver T, AEP, Flynn B (2011) Achieving energy efficiency through distribution system improvements: integrated volt/VAR control (IVVC). In: 2011 DistribuTECH conference, San Diego, 3–5 Feb 2011Google Scholar
  7. Westinghouse Electric Corporation (1959) Electric utility engineering reference book, Distribution systems, vol 3. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, PittsburghGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • John D. McDonald
    • 1
  • Bartosz Wojszczyk
    • 2
  • Byron Flynn
    • 2
  • Ilia Voloh
    • 2
  1. 1.GE Energy, Digital EnergyAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.GE Energy, Digital EnergyNorcrossUSA

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