Green Chemistry with Microwave Energy

Chapter

Abstract

Green chemistry utilizes a set of 12 principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture, and applications of chemical products [1]. This newer chemical approach protects the environment by inventing safer and eco-friendly chemical processes that prevent pollution “at source” rather than cleaning up “end-of-the-pipe” by-products and pollutants generated by traditional synthesis.

Keywords

Sulfide Ketone Nitrile Ruthenium Pyrrole 

Glossary

Green chemistry

Green chemistry is the broad discipline that encompasses the design of chemical processes and products that eliminate or reduce the generation and use of hazardous substances. It applies across the life cycle, including the design, manufacture, and use of a chemical product.

Microwaves

Microwaves (0.3–300 GHz) lie in the electromagnetic radiation spectrum between radiowave (Rf) and infrared (IR) frequencies with relatively large wavelengths and are a form of energy and not heat. This nonionizing radiation, incapable of breaking chemical bonds, is a form of energy that manifests itself as heat through interaction with the polar medium.

Sustainability

Literally meaning to “maintain,” “support,” or “endure” the concept of sustainability calls for policies and strategies that meet society’s present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Notes

Disclaimer

The views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The use of trade names does not imply endorsement by the US Government.

Bibliography

Primary Literature

  1. 1.
    Anastas PT, Warner JC (2000) Green chemistry: theory and practice. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Varma RS (1999) Solvent-free organic syntheses using supported reagents and microwave irradiation. Green Chem 1:43–55Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Varma RS (1999) Solvent-free syntheses of heterocycles using microwave irradiation. J Heterocyclic Chem 36:1565–1571Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Varma RS (2000) Clay and clay-supported reagents in organic synthesis. Tetrahedron 58:1235–1255Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Polshettiwar V, Varma RS (2008) Microwave-assisted organic synthesis and transformations using benign reaction media. Acc Chem Res 41:629–639Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Polshettiwar V, Varma RS (2008) Aqueous microwave chemistry: a clean and green synthetic tool for rapid drug discovery. Chem Soc Rev 37:1546–1557Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Li C-J, Chen L (2006) Organic chemistry in water. Chem Soc Rev 35:68–82Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Varma RS (2007) Clean chemical synthesis in water. Org Chem Highlight. http://www.organic-chemistry.org/Highlights/2007/01February.shtm
  9. 9.
    Strauss CR, Trainor RW (1995) Developments in microwave-assisted organic chemistry. Aust J Chem 48:1665–1692Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Anonymous (1924) Using chemical reagents on porous carriers. Akt –Ges Fur Chemiewerte Brit Pat 231: 901 [Chem Abst (1925) 19: 3571]Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Laszlo P (1987) Preparative chemistry using supported reagents. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Smith K (1992) Solid supports and catalyst in organic synthesis. Ellis Hardwood, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Clark JH (1994) Catalysis of organic reactions by supported inorganic reagents. VCH, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    McKillop A, Young KW (1979) Organic synthesis using supported reagents – Part I & Part II. Synthesis 401–422 and 481–500Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cornelis A, Laszlo P (1985) Clay-supported copper(II) and iron(III) nitrates: novel multi-purpose reagents for organic synthesis. Synthesis 100:909–918Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gedye R, Smith F, Westaway K, Humera A, Baldisera L, Laberge L, Rousell J (1986) The use of microwave ovens for rapid organic synthesis. Tetrahedron Lett 27:279–282Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Giguere RJ, Bray TL, Duncan SM, Majetich G (1986) Application of commercial microwave ovens to organic synthesis. Tetrahedron Lett 27:4945–4948Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Varma RS (2002) Advances in green chemistry: chemical syntheses using microwave irradiation. AstraZeneca Research Foundation India, Bangalore [85 Reaction schemes, ∼300 references]Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Varma RS (2002) Organic synthesis using microwaves and supported reagents. In: Loupy A (ed) Microwaves in organic synthesis, Chapter 6. Wiley-VCH, New York, pp 181–218Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pillai UR, Sahle-Demessie E, Varma RS (2002) Environmentally friendlier organic transformations on mineral supports under non-traditional conditions. J Mater Chem 12:3199–3207Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Varma RS (2001) Solvent-free accelerated organic syntheses using microwaves. Pure Appl Chem 73:193–198Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Perreux L, Loupy A (2001) A tentative rationalization of microwave effects in organic synthesis according to the reaction medium, and mechanistic considerations. Tetrahedron 57:9199–9223Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Loupy A, Petit A, Hamelin J, Texier-Boullet F, Jacquault P, Mathe D (1998) New solvent-free organic synthesis using focused microwaves. Synthesis 1998:1213–1234Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gutierrez E, Loupy A, Bram G, Ruiz-Hitzky E (1989) Inorganic solids in “dry media” an efficient way for developing microwave irradiation activated organic reactions. Tetrahedron Lett 30:945–948Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Greene TW, Wuts PGM (1991) Protective groups in organic synthesis, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Varma RS, Varma M, Chatterjee AK (1993) Microwave-assisted deacetylation on alumina: a simple deprotection method. J Chem Soc Perkin Trans −1 999–1000Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Varma RS, Chatterjee AK, Varma M (1993) Alumina-mediated deacetylation of benzaldehyde diacetates. A simple deprotection method. Tetrahedron Lett 34:3207–3210Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Varma RS, Chatterjee AK, Varma M (1993) Alumina-mediated microwave thermolysis: a new approach to deprotection of benzyl esters. Tetrahedron Lett 34:4603–4606Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Varma RS, Lamture JB, Varma M (1993) Alumina-mediated cleavage of t-butyldimethylsilyl ethers. Tetrahedron Lett 34:3029–3032Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Varma RS, Kumar D (1999) Microwave-accelerated solvent-free synthesis of thioketones, thiolactones, thioamides thionoesters and thioflavonoids. Org Lett 1:697–700Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Varma RS, Saini RK (1997) Solid state dethioacetalization using clayfen. Tetrahedron Lett 38:2623–2624Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Varma RS, Saini RK, Dahiya R (1997) Active manganese dioxide on silica: oxidation of alcohols under solvent-free conditions using microwaves. Tetrahedron Lett 38:7823–7824Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Namboodiri VV, Polshettiwar V, Varma RS (2007) Expeditious oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds using iron (III) nitrate. Tetrahedron Lett 48:8839–8842Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Varma RS, Dahiya R, Saini RK (1997) Iodobenzene diacetate on alumina: rapid oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds in solventless system using microwaves. Tetrahedron Lett 38:7029–7032Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Varma RS, Dahiya R, Kumar D (1998) Solvent-free oxidation of benzoins using oxone® on wet alumina under microwave irradiation. Molecules Online 2:82–85Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Varma RS, Saini RK, Meshram HM (1997) Selective oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides and sulfones by microwave thermolysis on wet silica-supported sodium periodate. Tetrahedron Lett 38:6525–6528Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Varma RS, Kumar D (1999) Solid state oxidation of 1,4-dihydropyridines to pyridines using phenyliodine(III) bis(trifluoroacetate) or elemental sulfur. J Chem Soc Perkin Trans −1 1755–1757Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Varma RS, Saini RK (1997) Microwave-assisted reduction of carbonyl compounds in solid state using sodium borohydride supported on alumina. Tetrahedron Lett 38:4337–4338Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Varma RS, Dahiya R (1998) Sodium borohydride on wet clay: solvent-free reductive amination of carbonyl compounds using microwaves. Tetrahedron 54:6293–6298Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Vass A, Dudas J, Toth J, Varma RS (2001) Solvent-free reduction of aromatic nitro compounds with alumina-supported hydrazine under microwave irradiation. Tetrahedron Lett 42:5347–5349Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Varma RS, Naicker KP (1998) Hydroxylamine on clay: a direct synthesis of nitriles from aromatic aldehydes using microwaves under solvent-free conditions. Molecules Online 2:94–96Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Welton T (2004) Ionic liquids in catalysis. Coord Chem Rev 248:2459–2477Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rogers RD, Seddon KN, Volkove S (2002) Green Industrial applications of ionic liquids. NOTO science, seriesGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Varma RS, Namboodiri, VV (2001) An expeditious solvent-free route to ionic liquids using microwaves. Chem. Commun 643–644Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Namboodiri VV, Varma RS (2002) An improved preparation of 1, 3-dialkylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquids using microwaves. Tetrahedron Lett 43:5381–5383Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Namboodiri VV, Varma RS (2002) Solvent-free sonochemical preparation of ionic liquids. Org Lett 4:3161–3163Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kim YJ, Varma RS (2005) Microwave-assisted preparation of imidazolium-based tetrachloroindate (III) and their application in the tetrahydropyranylation of alcohols. Tetrahedron Lett 46:1467–1469Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kim YJ, Varma RS (2005) Microwave-assisted preparation of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachlorogallate and its catalytic use in acetal formation under mild conditions. Tetrahedron Lett 46:7447–7449Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Swatloski RP, Spear SK, Holbrey JD, Rogers RD (2002) Dissolution of cellulose with ionic liquids. J Am Chem Soc 124:4974–4975Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Varma RS, Namboodiri VV (2002) Microwave-assisted preparation of dialkylimidazolium tetrachloroaluminates and their use as catalysts in the solvent-free tetrahydropyranylation of alcohols and phenols. Chem Commun 342–343Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kim YJ, Varma RS (2005) Tetrahaloindate(III)-based ionic liquids in the coupling reaction of carbon dioxide and epoxides to generate cyclic carbonates: H-bonding and mechanistic studies. J Org Chem 70:7882–7891Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Plechkova NV, Seddon KR (2008) Applications of ionic liquids in the chemical industry. Chem Soc Rev 37:123–150Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Herrero MA, Kremsner JM, Kappe CO (2008) Nonthermal microwave effects revisited – on the importance of internal temperature monitoring and agitation in microwave chemistry. J Org Chem 73:36–47Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Polshettiwar V, Varma RS (2007) Greener and sustainable approaches to the synthesis of pharmaceutically active heterocycles. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel 10:723–737Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Chen J, Spear SK, Huddleston JG, Rogers RD (2005) Polyethylene glycol and solutions of polyethylene glycol as green reaction media. Green Chem 7:64–82Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Leadbeater NE, Marco M (2003) Rapid and amenable Suzuki coupling reaction in water using microwave and conventional heating. J Org Chem 68:888–892Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Crozet MD, Castera-Ducros C, Vanelle P (2006) An efficient microwave-assisted Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of imidazo [1, 2-a] pyridines in aqueous medium. Tetrahedron Lett 47:7061–7065Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Zhu R, Qu F, Queleverb G, Peng L (2007) Direct synthesis of 5-aryltriazole acyclonucleosides via Suzuki coupling in aqueous solution. Tetrahedron Lett 48:2389–2393Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Dawood KM (2007) Microwave-assisted Suzuki–Miyaura and Heck–Mizoroki cross-coupling reactions of aryl chlorides and bromides in water using stable benzothiazole-based palladium (II) precatalysts. Tetrahedron 63:9642–9651Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Arvela RK, Leadbeater NE (2005) Microwave-promoted Heck coupling using ultralow metal catalyst concentrations. J Org Chem 70:1786–1790Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Arvela RK, Pasquini S, Larhed M (2007) Highly regioselective internal Heck arylation of hydroxyalkyl vinyl ethers by aryl halides in neat water. J Org Chem 72:6390–6396Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Appukkuttan P, Dehaen W, der Eycken EV (2003) Transition-metal-free Sonogashira-type coupling reactions in water. Eur J Org Chem 2003:4713–4716Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Alcida E, Najera C (2006) The first fluoride-free Hiyama reaction of vinylsiloxanes promoted by sodium hydroxide in water. Adv Synth Catal 348:2085–2091Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kaval N, Bisztray K, Dehaen W, Kappe CO, der Eycken EV (2003) Microwave-enhanced transition metal-catalyzed decoration of 2(1H)-pyrazinone scaffolds. Mol Divers 7:125–133Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Miyazawa A, Tanaka K, Sakakura T, Tashiro M, Tashiro H, Surya Prakash GK, Olah GA (2005) Microwave-assisted direct transformation of amines to ketones using water as an oxygen source. Chem Commun 2104–2106Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kumar V, Sharma A, Sharma A, Sinha AK (2007) Remarkable synergism in methylimidazole-promoted decarboxylation of substituted cinnamic acid derivatives in basic water medium under microwave irradiation: a clean synthesis of hydroxylated (E)-stilbenes. Tetrahedron 63:7640–7646Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Dallinger D, Kappe CO (2007) Microwave-assisted synthesis in water as solvent. Chem Rev 107:2563–2591Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Garuti L, Roberti M, Pizzirani D (2007) Nitrogen-containing heterocyclic quinones: a class of potential selective antitumor agents. Mini Rev Med Chem 7:481–489Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sperry JB, Wright DL Furans (2005) Thiophenes and related heterocycles in drug discovery. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel 8:723–740Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kappe CO (2002) High-speed combinatorial synthetics utilizing microwave irradiation. Curr Opin Chem Biol 6:314–320Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Polshettiwar V, Varma RS (2008) Greener and expeditious synthesis of bio-active heterocycles using microwave irradiation. Pure Appl Chem 80:777–790Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Roberts BA, Strauss CR (2005) Toward rapid, “green”, predictable microwave-assisted synthesis. Acc Chem Res 38:653–661Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kappe CO (2004) Controlled microwave heating in modern organic synthesis. Angew Chem Int Ed 43:6250–6284Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Ju Y, Varma RS (2004) Aqueous N-alkylation of amines using alkyl halides: direct generation of tertiary amines under microwave irradiation. Green Chem 6:219–221Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ju Y, Varma RS (2005) An efficient and simple aqueous N-heterocyclization of aniline derivatives: microwave-assisted synthesis of N-aryl azacycloalkanes. Org Lett 7:2409–2411Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ju Y, Varma RS (2005) Microwave-assisted cyclocondensation of hydrazine derivatives with alkyl dihalides or ditosylates in aqueous media: syntheses of pyrazole, pyrazolidine and phthalazine derivatives. Tetrahedron Lett 46:6011–6014Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ju Y, Varma RS (2006) Aqueous N-heterocyclization of primary amines and hydrazines with dihalides: microwave-assisted syntheses of N-azacycloalkanes, isoindole, pyrazole, pyrazolidine, and phthalazine derivatives. J Org Chem 71:135–141Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ju Y, Li C-J, Varma RS (2004) Microwave-assisted Cu (I) catalyzed solvent-free three component coupling of aldehyde, alkyne and amine. QSAR Comb Sci 23:891–894Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kim YJ, Varma RS (2004) Microwave-assisted preparation of cyclic ureas from diamines in the presence of ZnO. Tetrahedron Lett 45:7205–7208Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Varma RS, Kumar D (1999) Microwave-accelerated three-component condensation reaction on clay: solvent-free synthesis of imidazo [1, 2-a] annulated pyridines, pyrazines and pyrimidones. Tetrahedron Lett 40:7665–7669Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kappe CO, Kumar D, Varma RS (1999) Microwave-assisted high-speed parallel synthesis of 4-aryl-3, 4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones using a solventless Biginelli condensation protocol. Synthesis 10:1799–1803Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Polshettiwar V, Varma RS (2007) Biginelli reaction in aqueous medium: a greener and sustainable approach to substituted 3, 4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones. Tetrahedron Lett 48:7343–7346Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Varma RS, Dahiya R (1998) An expeditious and solvent-free synthesis of 2-amino-substituted isoflav-3-enes using microwave irradiation. J Org Chem 63:8038–8041Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Varma RS, Kumar D, Liesen PJ (1998) Solid state synthesis of 2-aroylbenzo[b]furans, 1,3-thiazoles and 3-aryl-5,6-dihydroimidazo [2,1-b][1,3] thiazoles from α-tosyloxyketones using microwave irradiation. J Chem Soc Perkin Trans −1 4093–4096Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Polshettiwar V, Varma RS (2007) Tandem bis-aldol reaction of ketones: a facile one pot synthesis of 1, 3-dioxanes in aqueous medium. J Org Chem 72:7420–7422Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Jeselnik M, Varma RS, Polanc S, Kocevar M (2001) Catalyst-free reactions under solvent-free conditions: microwave-assisted synthesis of heterocyclic hydrazones below the melting points of neat reactants. Chem Commun 1716–1717Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Polshettiwar V, Varma RS (2007) Polystyrene sulfonic acid catalyzed greener synthesis of hydrazones in aqueous medium using microwaves. Tetrahedron Lett 48:5649–5652Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Polshettiwar V, Varma RS (2008) Rapid access to bio-active heterocycles: one-pot solvent-free synthesis of 1, 3, 4-oxadiazoles and 1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles. Tetrahedron Lett 49:879–883Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Nadagouda MN, Varma RS (2007) Microwave-assisted shape-controlled bulk synthesis of noble nanocrystals and their catalytic properties. Cryst Growth Des 7:686–690Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Baruwati B, Varma RS (2009) High value products from waste: grape pomace extract – a three-in-one package for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles. ChemSusChem 2:1041–1044Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Baruwati B, Polshettiwar V, Varma RS (2009) Glutathione promoted expeditious green synthesis of silver nanoparticles in water using microwaves. Green Chem 11:926–930Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Nadagouda MN, Polshettiwar V, Varma RS (2009) Self-assembly of palladium nanoparticles: synthesis of nanobelts, nanoplates and nanotrees using vitamin B1 and their application in carbon-carbon coupling reactions. J Mater Chem 19:2026–2031Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Nadagouda MN, Varma RS (2006) Green and controlled synthesis of gold and platinum nanomaterials using vitamin B2: density-assisted self-assembly of nanospheres, wires and rods. Green Chem 8:516–518Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Nadagouda MN, Varma RS (2007) A greener synthesis of core (Fe, Cu)-shell (Au, Pt, Pd and Ag) nanocrystals using aqueous vitamin C. Cryst Growth Des 7:2582–2587Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Nadagouda MN, Varma RS (2008) Green synthesis of silver and palladium nanoparticles at room temperature using coffee and tea extract. Green Chem 10:859–862Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Nadagouda MN, Varma RS (2008) Microwave-assisted shape controlled bulk synthesis of Ag and Fe nanorods in poly (ethylene glycol) solutions. Cryst Growth Des 8:291–295Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Nadagouda MN, Varma RS (2007) Synthesis of thermally stable carboxymethyl cellulose/metal biodegradable nanocomposite films for potential biological applications. Biomacromolecules 8:2762–2767Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Nadagouda MN, Varma RS (2007) Microwave-assisted synthesis of cross-Linked poly (vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites comprising single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT), multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) and buckminsterfullerene (C-60). Macromol Rapid Commun 28:842–847Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Polshettiwar V, Nadagouda MN, Varma RS (2007) Synthesis and applications of micro-pine structured nano-catalyst. Chem Commun 6318–6320Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Polshettiwar V, Baruwati B, Varma RS (2009) Self-assembly of metal oxides into three-dimensional nanostructures: synthesis and application in catalysis. ACS Nano 3:728–736Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Mamedov AA, Belov A, Giersig M, Mamedova NN, Kotov NA (2001) Nanorainbows: graded semiconductor films from quantum dots. J Am Chem Soc 123:7738–7739Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Alivisatos P (1996) Semiconductor clusters, nanocrystals, and quantum dots. Science 271:933–937Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Klimov VI, Mikhailovsky AA, Xu S, Malko A, Hollingsworth JA, Leatherdale CA, Eisler H-J, Bawendi MG (2000) Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots. Science 290:314–317Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Sundar VC, Eisler H-J, Bawendi MG (2002) Room-temperature, tunable gain media from novel II-VI nanocrystal-titania composite matrices. Adv Mater 14:739–743Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Bruchez M, Moronne M, Gin P, Weiss S, Alivisatos AP (1998) Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels. Science 281:2013–2016Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Chan WCW, Nie S (1998) Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection. Science 281:2016–2018Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Michalet X, Pinaud FF, Bentolila LA, Tsay JM, Doose S, Li JJ, Sundaresan G, Wu AM, Gambhir SS, Weiss S (2005) Quantum dots for live cells, in vivo imaging, and diagnostics. Science 307:538–544Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Murray CB, Norris DJ, Bawendi MG (1993) Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E = sulfur, selenium, tellurium) semiconductor nanocrystallites. J Am Chem Soc 115:8706–8715Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Qian H, Qiu X, Li L, Ren J (2006) Microwave-assisted aqueous synthesis: a rapid approach to prepare highly luminescent ZnSe(S) alloyed quantum dots. J Phys Chem B 110:9034–9040Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Zhao Y, Hong J-M, Zhu J-J (2004) Microwave-assisted self-assembled ZnS nanoballs. J Cryst Growth 270:438–445Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Zhu J, Palchik O, Chen S, Gedanken A (2000) Microwave assisted preparation of CdSe, PbSe, and Cu2−xSe nanoparticles. J Phys Chem B 104:7344–7347Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Schumacher W, Nagy A, Waldman WJ, Dutta PK (2009) Direct synthesis of aqueous CdSe/ZnS-based quantum dots using microwave irradiation. J Phys Chem C 113:12132–12139Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Qian H, Li L, Ren J (2005) One-step and rapid synthesis of high quality alloyed quantum dots (CdSe–CdS) in aqueous phase by microwave irradiation with controllable temperature. Mater Res Bull 40:1726–1736Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Lu A-H, Salabas EL, Schuth F (2007) Magnetic nanoparticles: synthesis, protection, functionalization, and application. Angew Chem Int Ed 46:1222–1244Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Polshettiwar V, Varma RS (2009) Nanoparticle-supported and magnetically recoverable palladium (Pd) catalyst: a selective and sustainable oxidation protocol with high turnover number. Org Biomol Chem 7:37–40Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Polshettiwar V, Baruwati B, Varma RS (2009) Nanoparticle-supported and magnetically recoverable nickel catalyst: a robust and economic hydrogenation and transfer hydrogenation protocol. Green Chem 11:127–131Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Polshettiwar V, Nadagouda MN, Varma RS (2008) Synthesis and applications of micro-pine structured nano-catalyst. Chem. Commun 6318–6320Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Baruwati B, Guin D, Manorama SV (2007) Pd on surface-modified NiFe2O4 nanoparticles: a magnetically recoverable catalyst for Suzuki and Heck reactions. Org Lett 9:5377–5380Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Guin D, Baruwati B, Manorama SV (2007) Pd on amine-terminated ferrite nanoparticles: a complete magnetically recoverable facile catalyst for hydrogenation reactions. Org Lett 9:1419–1421Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Polshettiwar V, Varma RS (2010) Green chemistry by nano-catalysis. Green Chem 12:743–754Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Loupy A, Varma RS (2006) Microwave effects in organic synthesis: mechanistic and reaction medium considerations. Chim Oggi 24:36–40Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Strauss CR, Varma RS (2006) Microwaves in green and sustainable chemistry. Top Curr Chem 266:199–231Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Kappe CO, Dallinger D (2009) Controlled microwave heating in modern organic synthesis: highlights from the 2004–2008 literature. Mol Divers 13:71–193Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Polshettiwar V, Nadagouda MN, Varma RS (2009) Microwave-assisted chemistry: a rapid and sustainable route to synthesis of organics and nanomaterials. Aust J Chem 62:16–26Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Gabriel C, Gabriel S, Grant EH, Halstead BSJ, Mingos DMP (1998) Dielectric parameters relevant to microwave dielectric heating. Chem Soc Rev 27:213–224Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Poliokoff M, Licence P (2007) Sustainable technology: green chemistry. Nature 450:810–812Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Polshettiwar V, Varma RS (2008) Olefin ring closing metathesis and hydrosilylation reaction in aqueous medium by Grubbs second generation ruthenium catalyst. J Org Chem 73:7417–7419Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Hoz A, Diaz-Ortiz A, Moreno A (2005) Microwaves in organic synthesis. Thermal and non-thermal microwave effects. Chem Soc Rev 34:164–178Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Nilsson P, Larhed M, Hallberg A (2001) Highly regioselective, sequential, and multiple palladium- catalyzed arylations of vinyl ethers carrying a coordinating auxiliary: an example of a Heck triarylation process. J Am Chem Soc 123:8217–8225Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Kaiser NFK, Bremberg U, Larhed M, Moberg C, Hallberg A (2000) Fast, convenient, and efficient molybdenum-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation under noninert conditions: an example of microwave-promoted fast chemistry. Angew Chem Int Ed 39:3596–3598Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Bogdal D, Lukasiewicz M, Pielichowski J, Miciak A, Sz B (2003) Microwave-assisted oxidation of alcohols using Magtrieve™. Tetrahedron 59:649–653Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Razzak T, Kremser JM, Kappe CO (2008) Investigating the existence of nonthermal/specific microwave affects using silicon carbide heating elements as power modulators. J Org Chem 73:6321–6329Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Leadbeater NE, Torrenius HM (2002) A study of the ionic liquid mediated microwave heating of organic solvents. J Org Chem 67:3145–3148Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Cadierno V, Francos J, Gimeno J (2008) Selective ruthenium-catalyzed hydration of nitriles to amides in pure aqueous medium under neutral conditions. Chem Eur J 14:6601–6605Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Polshettiwar V, Varma RS (2009) Nanoparticle-supported and magnetically recoverable ruthenium hydroxide catalyst: effcient hydration of nitriles to amides in aqueous medium. Chem Eur J 15:1582–1586Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Brogan AP, Dickerson TJ, Janda KD (2006) Enamine-based aldol organocatalysis in water: are they really all wet? Angew Chem Int Ed 45:8100–8102Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Hayashi Y, Samanta S, Gotoh H, Ishikawa H (2008) Asymmetric Diels-Alder reactions of,-unsaturated aldehydes catalyzed by a diarylprolinol silyl ether salt in the presence of water. Angew Chem Int Ed 47:6634–6637Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Huang J, Zhang X, Armstrong DW (2007) Highly efficient asymmetric direct stoichiometric aldol reactions on/in water. Angew Chem Int Ed 46:9073–9077Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Blackmond DG, Armstrong A, Coombe V, Wells A (2007) Water in organocatalytic processes: debunking the myths. Angew Chem Int Ed 46:3798–3800Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Polshettiwar V, Baruwati B, Varma RS (2009) Magnetic nanoparticle-supported glutathione: a conceptually sustainable organocatalyst. Chem Commun 1837–1839Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Polshettiwar V, Varma RS (2010) Nano-organocatalyst: magnetically retrievable ferrite-anchored glutathione for microwave-assisted Paal-Knorr reaction, aza-Michael addition and pyrazole synthesis. Tetrahedron 66:1091–1097Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Luque R, Baruwati B, Varma RS (2010) Magnetically separable nanoferrite-anchored glutathione: aqueous homocoupling of arylboronic acids under microwave irradiation. Green Chem 12:1540–1543. doi:10.1039/C0GC00083CGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Polshettiwar V, Varma RS (2008) Ring-fused aminals: catalyst and solvent-free microwave-assisted α-amination of nitrogen heterocycles. Tetrahedron Lett 49:7165–7167Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Varma RS, Naicker KP, Liesen PJ (1998) Microwave-accelerated crossed Cannizzaro reaction using barium hydroxide under solvent-free conditions. Tetrahedron Lett 3:8437–8440Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Pillai UR, Sahle-Demessie E, Namboodiri VV, Varma RS (2002) An efficient and ecofriendly oxidation of alkenes using iron nitrate and molecular oxygen. Green Chem 4:495–497Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Kumar D, Chandra Sekhar KVG, Dhillon H, Rao VS, Varma RS (2004) An expeditious synthesis of 1-aryl-4-methyl-1, 2, 4-triazolo [4, 3-a] quinoxalines under solvent-free conditions using iodobenzene diacetate. Green Chem 6:156–157Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Kumar D, Sundaree MS, Patel G, Rao VS, Varma RS (2006) Solvent-free facile synthesis of novel α-tosyloxy β-keto sulfones using [hydroxy(tosyloxy)iodo] benzene. Tetrahedron Lett 47:8239–8241Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Kumar D, Sundaree MS, Rao VS, Varma RS (2006) A facile one-pot synthesis of β-keto sulfones from ketones under solvent-free conditions. Tetrahedron Lett 47:4197–4199Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Varma RS (2008) Chemical activation by mechanochemical mixing, microwave, and ultrasonic irradiation. Green Chem 10:1129–1130Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Polshettiwar V, Varma RS (2007) Tandem bis-aza-Michael addition reaction of amines in aqueous medium promoted by polystyrenesulfonic acid. Tetrahedron Lett 48:8735–8738Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Kumar D, Reddy VB, Mishra BG, Rana RK, Nadagouda MN, Varma RS (2007) Nanosized magnesium oxide as catalyst for the rapid and green synthesis of substituted 2-amino-2-chromenes. Tetrahedron 63:3093–3097Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Skouta R, Varma RS, Li CJ (2005) Efficient Trost’s γ-addition catalyzed by reusable polymer-supported triphenylphosphine in aqueous media. Green Chem 7:571–575Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Ju Y, Kumar D, Varma RS (2006) Revisiting nucleophilic substitution reactions: microwave-assisted synthesis of azides, thiocyanates, and sulfones in an aqueous medium. J Org Chem 71:6697–6700Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Namboodiri VV, Varma RS (2001) Microwave-accelerated Suzuki cross-coupling reaction in polyethylene glycol (PEG). Green Chem 3:146–148Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Kumar D, Patel G, Mishra BG, Varma RS (2008) Ecofriendly polyethylene glycol (PEG)-promoted Michael addition reactions of α, β-unsaturated compounds. Tetrahedron Lett 49:6974–6976Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Keh CCK, Namboodiri VV, Varma RS, Li C-J (2002) Direct formation of tetrahydropyranols via catalysis in ionic liquid. Tetrahedron Lett 43:4993–4996Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Li Z, Wei C, Varma RS, Li C-J (2004) Three-component coupling of aldehyde, alkyne, and amine catalyzed by silver in ionic liquid. Tetrahedron Lett 45:2443–2446Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Yang X-F, Wang M, Varma RS, Li C-J (2003) Aldol- and Mannich-type reactions via in situ olefin migration in ionic liquid. Org Lett 5:657–660Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Yang X-F, Wang M, Varma RS, Li C-J (2004) Ruthenium-catalyzed tandem olefin migration aldol and Mannich-type reactions in ionic liquid. J Mol Catal A Chem 214:147–154Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Yoo K, Namboodiri VV, Varma RS, Smirniotis PG (2004) Ionic liquid-catalyzed alkylation of isobutane with 2-butene. J Catal 222:511–519Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Namboodiri VV, Varma RS, Sahle-Demessie E, Pillai UR (2002) Selective oxidation of styrene to acetophenone in the presence of ionic liquids. Green Chem 4:170–173Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Nadagouda MN, Hoag GE, Collins JB, Varma RS (2009) Green synthesis of Au nanostructures at room temperature using biodegradable plant surfactants. Cryst Growth Des 9:4979–4983Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Nadagouda MN, Castle A, Murdock RC, Hussain SM, Varma RS (2010) In vitro biocompatibility of nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (nZVI) synthesized using tea polyphenols. Green Chem 12:114–122Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Moulton MC, Braydich-Stolle LK, Nadagouda MN, Kunzelman S, Hussain SM, Varma RS (2010) Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility of “green” synthesized silver nanoparticles using tea polyphenols. Nanoscale 2:763–770Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Hoag GE, Collins JB, Holcomb JL, Hoag JR, Nadagouda MN, Varma RS (2009) Degradation of bromothymol blue by ‘greener’ nano-scale zerovalent iron synthesized using tea polyphenols. J Mater Chem 19:8671–8677Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Virkutyte J, Varma RS (2010) Fabrication and visible-light photocatalytic activity of novel Ag/TiO2−xNx photocatalyst. New J Chem 34:1094–1096Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Virkutyte J, Baruwati B, Varma RS (2010) Visible light induced photobleaching of methylene blue over melamine doped TiO2 nanocatalyst. Nanoscale 2(7):1109–1111Google Scholar

Books and Reviews

  1. Ahluwalia VK, Varma RS (2008) Alternative energy processes in chemical synthesis microwave, ultrasound and photo activation. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi. ISBN 978-81-7319-848-9Google Scholar
  2. Ahluwalia VK, Varma RS (2009) Green solvents for organic synthesis. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi. ISBN 978-81-7319-964-6Google Scholar
  3. Clark JH, Macquarrie D (2002) Handbook of green chemistry and technology. Blackwell Science, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  4. Kappe CO, Stadler A (2005) Microwaves in organic and medicinal chemistry. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, p 410Google Scholar
  5. Kappe CO, Dallinger D, Murphree SS (2009) Practical microwave synthesis for organic chemists – strategies, instruments, and protocols. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, p 296Google Scholar
  6. Matlack AS (2001) Introduction to green chemistry. Marcel Deckers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Nadagouda MN, Varma RS (2009) Risk reduction via greener synthesis of noble metal nanostructures and nanocomposites. In: Linkov I, Steevens J (eds) Nanomaterials: risks and benefits-proceedings of the NATO advanced workshop. Springer, Faro, pp 209–218Google Scholar
  8. Polshettiwar V, Varma RS (2009) Environmentally benign chemical synthesis via mechanochemical mixing and microwave irradiation. In: Ballini R (ed) Eco-friendly synthesis of fine chemicals, RSC green chemistry book series. RSC, Cambridge, England, pp 275–292Google Scholar
  9. Polshettiwar V, Varma RS (2009) Non-conventional energy sources for green synthesis in water (microwave, ultrasound, and photo). In: Li C-J, Anastas PT (eds) Handbook series, Handbook of green chemistry, Vol. 5: reactions in water. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. ISBN 978-3-527-31574-1Google Scholar
  10. Polshettiwar V, Varma RS (eds) (2010) Aqueous microwave chemistry: synthesis and applications, vol 7, RSC green chemistry series. Royal Society Chemistry, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  11. Strauss CR, Varma RS (2006) Microwaves in green and sustainable chemistry. In: Larhed M, Olofsson K (eds) Microwave methods in organic synthesis, vol 266, Series in topics in current chemistry. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 199–231Google Scholar
  12. Varma RS (2000) Environmentally benign organic transformations using microwave irradiation under solvent-free conditions. In: Anastas PT, Tundo P (eds) Green chemistry: challenging perspectives. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 221–244Google Scholar
  13. Varma RS (2000) Expeditious solvent-free organic syntheses using microwave irradiation. In: Anastas PT, Heine L, Williamson T (eds) Green chemical syntheses and processes, Chapter 23, vol 767, ACS symposium series. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 292–312Google Scholar
  14. Varma RS (2001) Microwave organic synthesis. In: Geller E (ed) McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology 2002. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 223–225Google Scholar
  15. Varma RS (2006) Microwave technology: chemical synthesis applications. In: Seidel A (ed) Kirk-Othmer on-line encyclopedia of chemical technology, vol 16, 5th edn. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 538–594Google Scholar
  16. Varma RS, Ju Y (2005) Microwaves in organic synthesis. In: Afonso CAM, Crespo JG (eds) Solventless reactions (SLR), Chapter 2.2. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 53–87Google Scholar
  17. Varma RS, Ju Y (2006) Organic synthesis using microwaves and supported reagents. In: Loupy A (ed) Microwaves in organic sSynthesis, Chapter 8, 2nd edn. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp 362–415Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sustainable Technology Division, National Risk Management Research LaboratoryU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyCincinnatiUSA

Personalised recommendations