Battery Components, Active Materials for



The active materials of a battery are the chemically active components of the two electrodes of a cell and the electrolyte between them.


High Occupied Molecular Orbital Lower Unoccupied Molecular Orbital Solid Electrolyte Liquid Electrolyte Voltage Profile 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Battery efficiency

Output energy/input energy for storage of electrically energy as chemical energy.

Electrolyte window

Separation of electrolyte LUMO and HOMO energies of a liquid electrolyte and of conduction and valence bands of a solid electrolyte.

Fermi energy

Electrochemical potential of a solid.


Highest occupied molecular orbital.

Insertion compound

A host solid into which a working ion (guest) can be inserted/extracted reversibly over a solid-solution range.


Lowest unoccupied molecular orbital.

Polarization, η = VOCV(q, I)

Loss of battery voltage at a state of charge q due to resistance to ion transfer inside battery cell where an electronic current I is flowing outside of battery.

Rate of charge/ discharge, nC

Time, (60/n) min, for complete discharge or charge of a battery or cell; it is also a measure of the current.

Redox couple

Cation M(m+1)/Mm+ mixed-valent energy applicable to localized-electron configurations.

SEI layer

Solid/electrolyte interface (passivation) layer at an electrode having its Fermi energy outside the electrolyte window.


A solid layer permeable to the working ion that separates anode from cathode to prevent electron transfer between them inside a battery cell.

Spin state

Refers to spin of a redox couple, which may be reduced (low-spin state) from its free-ion value (high-spin state) by a ligand-field splitting of energies of atomic orbitals that is larger than the Hund intraatomic-exchange splitting of electron spins.

State of charge

Amount of chemical energy in a battery or cell relative to the total energy available.

Tap density

A measure of the volume density, which increases with compaction of the active electrode particles.

Working ion

Ion carrying ionic current inside a battery cell.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Texas Materials Institute, Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of TexasAustinUSA

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