Battery Components, Active Materials for
The active materials of a battery are the chemically active components of the two electrodes of a cell and the electrolyte between them.
KeywordsZinc TiO2 Nickel Graphite Sulfide
- Battery efficiency
Output energy/input energy for storage of electrically energy as chemical energy.
- Electrolyte window
Separation of electrolyte LUMO and HOMO energies of a liquid electrolyte and of conduction and valence bands of a solid electrolyte.
- Fermi energy
Electrochemical potential of a solid.
Highest occupied molecular orbital.
- Insertion compound
A host solid into which a working ion (guest) can be inserted/extracted reversibly over a solid-solution range.
Lowest unoccupied molecular orbital.
- Polarization, η = VOC − V(q, I)
Loss of battery voltage at a state of charge q due to resistance to ion transfer inside battery cell where an electronic current I is flowing outside of battery.
- Rate of charge/ discharge, nC
Time, (60/n) min, for complete discharge or charge of a battery or cell; it is also a measure of the current.
- Redox couple
Cation M(m+1)/Mm+ mixed-valent energy applicable to localized-electron configurations.
- SEI layer
Solid/electrolyte interface (passivation) layer at an electrode having its Fermi energy outside the electrolyte window.
A solid layer permeable to the working ion that separates anode from cathode to prevent electron transfer between them inside a battery cell.
- Spin state
Refers to spin of a redox couple, which may be reduced (low-spin state) from its free-ion value (high-spin state) by a ligand-field splitting of energies of atomic orbitals that is larger than the Hund intraatomic-exchange splitting of electron spins.
- State of charge
Amount of chemical energy in a battery or cell relative to the total energy available.
- Tap density
A measure of the volume density, which increases with compaction of the active electrode particles.
- Working ion
Ion carrying ionic current inside a battery cell.
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