Cryosphere, Modeling of
The global cryosphere encompasses snow and ice in all its forms in the natural environment, including glaciers and ice sheets, sea ice, lake and river ice, permafrost, seasonal snow, and ice crystals in the atmosphere.
KeywordsGlobal Climate Model Geothermal Heat Flux Subglacial Sediment
Snow and ice removed from an ice mass via meltwater runoff, sublimation, wind scour, or glacial calving (mechanical fracturing and separation).
Increase in ice mass by basal growth in the case of floating ice, the compression of snow into ice, or freezing of water that has pooled on the ice or percolated into snow from rain, meltwater, or flooding of sea/lake/river water.
Snow and ice added to an ice mass via snowfall, frost deposition, rainfall that freezes on/in the ice mass, refrozen meltwater, wind-blown snow deposition, and avalanching.
A perennial terrestrial ice mass that shows evidence of motion/deformation under gravity.
- Grounding line
The transition zone between grounded and floating ice.
- Ice sheet
A large (i.e., continental-scale) dome of glacier ice that overwhelms the local bedrock topography, with the ice flow direction governed by the shape of the ice cap itself.
- Ice shelf
Glacier ice that has flowed into an ocean or lake and is floating, no longer supported by the bed.
A sheet of glacier ice in an alpine environment in which the ice is not thick enough to overwhelm the local bedrock topography, but is draped over and around it; glacier flow directions in an icefield are dictated by the bed topography.
- Lake/river ice
Floating ice on rivers or lakes, usually freshwater ice.
- Mass balance
The overall gain or loss of mass for a component of the cryosphere over a specified time interval, typically 1 year. This can be expressed as a rate of change of mass (kg year−1), ice volume (m3 year−1), or water-equivalent volume (m3 w.eq. year−1). It is also common to express this as the area-averaged rate of change or the specific mass balance rate, with units of kg m−2 year−1 or m w.eq. year−1.
Perennially frozen ground, technically defined as ground that is at or below 0°C for at least 2 years.
- Sea ice
Floating ice from frozen seawater.
Ice-crystal precipitation that accumulates on the surface.
- Soil ice
Ice in permafrost.
- 1.Lemke P, Ren J, Alley RB, Allison I, Carrasco J, Flato G, Fujii Y, Kaser G, Mote P, Thomas RH, Zhang T (2007) Observations: changes in snow, ice and frozen ground. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Avery K, Tignor M, Miller H (eds) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovenmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 337–384Google Scholar
- 2.Fetterer F, Knowles K, Meier W, Savoie M (2002) Sea ice index. National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, CO, USA. Digital Media, updated 2009Google Scholar
- 4.Sellers WD (1969) A global climate model based on the energy balance of the earth-atmosphere system. J Appl Meteorol 8:392–400Google Scholar
- 10.Glen JW (1958) The flow law of ice. A discussion of the assumptions made in glacier theory, their experimental foundations and consequences. Int Assoc Hydrol Sci Publ 47:171–183Google Scholar
- 11.Budd WF (1970) The longitudinal stress and strain-rate gradients in ice masses. J Glaciol 9:29–48Google Scholar
- 13.Jenssen D (1977) A three-dimensional polar ice sheet model. J Glaciol 18:373–389Google Scholar
- 14.Raymond CF (1983) Deformation in the vicinity of ice divides. J Glaciol 29:357–373Google Scholar
- 15.Thomas RA, MacAyeal DR (1982) Derived characteristics of the Ross ice shelf, Antarctica. J Glaciol 28(100):397–412Google Scholar
- 18.Huybrechts P (1990) A 3-D model for the Antarctic ice sheet: a sensitivity study on the glacial-interglacial contrast. Clim Dyn 5:79–82Google Scholar
- 19.Huybrechts P, Letréguilly A, Reeh N (1991) The Greenland ice sheet and greenhouse warming. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 89(4):399–412Google Scholar
- 24.Payne AJ, Huybrechts P, Abe-Ouchi A, Calov R, Fastook JL, Greve R, Marshall SJ, Marsiat I, Ritz C, Tarasov L, Thomassen MPA (2000) Results from the EISMINT model intercomparison: the effects of thermomechanical coupling. J Glaciol 46(153):227–238Google Scholar
- 27.Mikolajewicz U, Vizcaíno M, Jungclaus J, Schurgers G (2007) Effect of ice sheet interactions in anthropogenic climate change simulations. Geophys Res Lett 34(L18706). doi: 10.1029/2007GL031173
- 29.Pattyn F, Huyghe A, Brabander SD, Smedt BD (2006) The role of transition zones in marine ice sheet dynamics. J Geophys Res 111(F02004). doi: 10.1029/2005JF000394
- 30.Pattyn F et al (2008) Benchmark experiments for higher-order and full stokes ice sheet models (ISMIP-HOM). The Cryosphere 2:95–108Google Scholar
- 32.Price SF, Conway H, Waddington ED, Bindschadler RA (2008) Model investigations of inland migration of fast-flowing outlet glaciers and ice streams. J Glaciol 54:49–60Google Scholar
- 33.Oerlemans J, Anderson B, Hubbard A, Huybrechts P, Jóhannesson T, Knap WH, Schmeits M, Stroeven AP, van de Wal RSW, Wallinga J, Zuo Z (1998) Modelling the response of glaciers to climate warming. Clim Dyn 14:267–274Google Scholar
- 34.Blatter H (1995) Velocity and stress fields in grounded glaciers: a simple algorithm for including deviatoric stress gradients. J Glaciol 41:333–344Google Scholar
- 36.Schneeberger C, Albrecht O, Blatter H, Wild M, Hock R (2001) Modelling the response of glaciers to a doubling in atmospheric co2: a case study of storglaciaren, northern Sweden. Clim Dyn 17(11):825–834Google Scholar
- 37.Pattyn F (2002) Transient glacier response with a higher-order numerical ice-flow model. J Glaciol 48(162):467–477Google Scholar
- 39.Rutt IC, Hagdorn M, Hulton NRJ, Payne AJ (2009) The glimmer community ice sheet model. J Geophys Res 114(F02004). doi: 10.1029/2008JF001015
- 40.Coon MD, Maykut GA, Pritchard RS, Rothrock DA, Thorndike AS (1974) Modeling the pack ice as an elastic–plastic material. AIDJEX Bull 24:1–105Google Scholar
- 41.Coon MD (1980) A review of AIDJEX modeling. In: Pritchard RS (ed) Sea ice processes and models. University of Washington Press, Seattle, pp 12–27Google Scholar
- 42.Hibler WD (1980) Modeling pack ice as a viscous-plastic continuum: some preliminary results. In: Pritchard RS (ed) Sea ice processes and models. University of Washington Press, Seattle, pp 163–176Google Scholar
- 45.Untersteiner N (1961) On the mass and heat budget of arctic sea ice. Arch Meteorol Geophys Bioklimatol Ser A 12:151–182Google Scholar
- 48.Washington WM, Meehl GA (1989) Climate sensitivity due to increased CO2: experiments with a coupled atmosphere and ocean general circulation model. Clim Dyn 8:211–223Google Scholar
- 56.Goodrich LE (1978) Some results of a numerical study of ground thermal regimes, vol 1. National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, pp 29–34Google Scholar
- 57.Goodrich LE (1978) Efficient numerical technique for one-dimensional thermal problems with phase change. Int J Heat Mass Transf 21:615–621Google Scholar
- 58.Jordan R (1991) A one-dimensional temperature model for a snow cover. Special Report 91–16, Technical report. Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, 49ppGoogle Scholar
- 60.Douville H, Royer JF, Mahfouf JF (1995) A new snow parameterization for the Météo-France climate model. 1. Validation in stand-alone experiments. Clim Dyn 12:21–35Google Scholar
- 62.Yang ZL, Pitman AJ, McAvaney B, Sellers AH (1995) The impact of implementing the bare essentials of surface transfer land surface scheme into the BMRC GCM. Clim Dyn 11:279–297Google Scholar
- 63.Slater AG, Pitman AJ, Desborough CE (1998) The validation of a snow parameterization designed for use in general circulation models. Int J Clim 18:595–617Google Scholar
- 64.Slater AG, Pitman AJ, Desborough CE (1998) Simulation of freeze-thaw cycles in a general circulation model land surface scheme. J Clim 103:11,303–11,312Google Scholar
- 66.Oleson KW et al (2010) Technical description of version 4.0 of the community land model version (CLM). NCAR/TN-478+STR. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, USA. http://www.cesm.ucar.edu/models/cesm1.0/clm/CLM4_Tech_Note.pdf
- 68.Paterson WSB (1994) The physics of glaciers, vol 3. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- 69.Duval P (1981) Creep and fabrics of polycrystalline ice under shear and compression. J Glaciol 27:129–140Google Scholar
- 70.Mellor M, Cole DM (1982) Deformation and failure of ice under constant stress or constant strain-rate. Cold Reg Sci Technol 5:201–219Google Scholar
- 73.Alley RB (1992) Flow-law hypotheses for ice-sheet modelling. J Glaciol 38:245–256Google Scholar
- 75.Thorsteinsson T, Waddington ED, Taylor KC, Alley RB, Blankenship DD (1999) Strain-rate enhancement at dye 3, Greenland. J Glaciol 45:338–345Google Scholar
- 79.Paterson WSB (1991) Why ice-age ice is sometimes ‘soft’. Cold Reg Sci Technol 20(1):75–98Google Scholar
- 80.Bindschadler RA (1983) The importance of pressurised subglacial water in separation and sliding at the glacier bed. J Glaciol 29:3–19Google Scholar
- 82.Iken A, Bindschadler RA (1986) Combined measurements of subglacial water pressure and surface velocity of Findelengletscher, Switzerland: conclusions about drainage system and sliding mechanism. J Glaciol 32(110):101–119Google Scholar
- 84.Copland L, Sharp MJ, Nienow P (2003) Links between short-term velocity variations and the subglacial hydrology of a predominantly cold polythermal glacier. J Glaciol 49:337–348Google Scholar
- 87.Alley RB (2000) Water pressure coupling of sliding and bed deformation. Space Sci Rev 92:295–310Google Scholar
- 90.Clark PU, Alley RB, Pollard D (1999) Northern hemisphere ice-sheet influences on global climate change. Science 286:1104–1111Google Scholar
- 91.Marshall SJ, Björnsson H, Flowers GE, Clarke GKC (2005) Modeling Vatnajökull ice cap dynamics. J Geophys Res 110(F03009). doi: 10.1029/2004JF000262
- 92.Flowers GE, Marshall SJ, Björnsson H, Clarke GKC (2005) Sensitivity of Vatnajökull ice cap hydrology and dynamics to climate warming over the next two centuries. J Geophys Res 110(F02011). doi: 10.1029/2004JF000200
- 93.Ritz C, Fabre A, Letréguilly A (1997) Sensitivity of a Greenland ice sheet model to ice flow and ablation parameters: consequences for the evolution through the last glacial cycle. Clim Dyn 13:11–24Google Scholar
- 94.Kamb B, Echelmeyer KA (1986) Stress-gradient coupling in glacier flow: I. Longitudinal averaging of the influence of ice thickness and surface slope. J Glaciol 32:267–279Google Scholar
- 96.MacAyeal DR, Bindschadler RA, Scambos TA (1995) Basal friction of Ice stream E, west Antarctica. J Glaciol 41:247–262Google Scholar
- 98.Flowers GE, Clarke GKC (2002) A multicomponent coupled model of glacier hydrology. 1. Theory and synthetic example. J Geophys Res 107(B11). doi: 10.1029/2001JB001122
- 99.Johnson J, Fastook JL (2002) Northern hemisphere glaciation and its sensitivity to basal melt water. Quat Int 95–96:65–74Google Scholar
- 101.Conway H, Hall BL, Denton GH, Gades AM, Waddington ED (1999) Past and future grounding-line retreat of the west Antarctic ice sheet. Science 286:280–283Google Scholar
- 104.Ridley JK, Gregory J, Huybrechts P, Lowe J (2010) Thresholds for irreversible decline of the Greenland ice sheet. Clim Dyn 35(6):1049–1057Google Scholar
- 105.Vizcaíno M, Mikolajewicz U, Gröger M, Maier-Reimer E, Schurgers G, Winguth AME (2008) Long-term ice sheet-climate interactions under anthropogenic greenhouse forcing simulated with a complex earth system model. Clim Dyn 31:665–690Google Scholar
- 112.Flato GM, Hibler WD III (1995) Ridging and strength in modelling the thickness distribution of Arctic sea ice. J Geophys Res C9:18,611–18,626Google Scholar
- 113.Dennis JM, Tufo HM (2008) Scaling climate simulation applications on the IBM blue gene/L system. IBM J Res Dev Appl Massively Parallel Syst 52(1/2):117–126Google Scholar
- 115.Fettweis X, Hanna E, Gallee H, Huybrechts P, Erpicum M (2008) Estimation of the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance for the 20th and 21st centuries. The Cryosphere 2:117–129Google Scholar
- 118.Kwok R (2001) Deformation of the Arctic ocean sea ice cover between November 1996 and April 1997: a qualitative survey. In: Dempsey J, Shen H, Shapiro L (eds) IUTAM scaling laws in Ice mechanics and ice dynamics. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp 315–322Google Scholar
- 124.Arrigo KR, Worthen DL, Lizotte MP, Dixon P, Dieckmann G (1997) Primary production in Antarctic sea ice. Science 276:394–397Google Scholar
- 128.Bitz CM, Ridley JK, Holland MM, Cattle H (in press) Global climate models and 20th and 21st century arctic climate change. In: Lemke P (ed) Arctic climate change – the ACSYS decade and beyond. SpringerGoogle Scholar
- 129.Greve, Blatter (2009) Dynamics of ice sheets and glaciers, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 287Google Scholar