Biomarkers and Metabolomics, Evidence of Stress

Chapter

Abstract

To evaluate the biological effect(s) of a stress, it is necessary to identify and characterize the stressor(s). In general, stressors can be classified as toxicants, pathogens, and physical stimulants. Although the reactions and the degree of response may vary, stressors frequently induce extensive metabolic changes in a living organism. Comparative research on a large set of metabolites at different stress states can provide detailed insights into specific biochemical reactions and metabolic networks. Such information can be used for diagnosis of a disease or toxic effect, development of therapeutic remedies to relieve the stress or its detrimental effect, etc.

Keywords

Toxicity Mercury Glutathione Cortisol Fructose 

Glossary

Stress

Any change(s) in physiology and biochemical process that causes deviation from a normal state of an organism and requires an adjustment to return to the normal state.

Stressor

An agent, condition, or other stimulus that causes stress.

Biomarker

A biological chemical or macromolecule used as an indicator of a biological state that is often reflected by changes in its concentration.

Toxicity

Degree of poisoning or damage caused by a substance to an exposed organism.

Metabolome

The whole set of metabolites, forming an extensive network of metabolic reactions, in a biological system (e.g., an organism, organ, or cell).

Metabolomics

Comprehensive study of a metabolome or a set of metabolites in which one metabolite from a specific pathway affects one or more biochemical reactions, or a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of all metabolites.

Omics

Comprehensive study of a biological system. Omics fields include genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and transcriptomics.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported in part by grants from the US Fish and Wildlife Service and Hawaii Energy and Environmental Technologies Initiative Award No. N00014-09-1-0709. We thank Adam Baker and Margaret R. Ruzicka for comprehensive review of this chapter.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Applied Life SciencesKonkuk University, College of Life and Environmental ScienceSeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural BiotechnologySeoul National UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of Molecular Biosciences and BioengineeringUniversity of HawaiiHonoluluUSA

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