River Fate and Transport
Rivers are naturally flowing waterbodies. Small rivers are also called streams or brooks. Rivers are a watershed’s self-formed gutter system and usually empty into an ocean, lake, or another river. This chapter describes the characteristics of rivers and the fate and transport in rivers. The mathematical description of river processes and the modeling of rivers are also described here.
KeywordsHydrolysis Phosphorus Phytoplankton Respiration Sedimentation
The horizontal transport by flows that move patches of material around but do not significantly distort or dilute them.
The breakdown of a compound by enzyme-mediated transformation primarily due to bacteria, and to a lesser extent, fungi.
The mixing of water properties in rivers.
- Henry’s law
A law which states that at a given temperature, the solubility of a gas is proportional to the pressure of the gas directly above the water.
A graph showing time variation in flow rate or stage (depth) of water in a river.
The reaction of a chemical with water in which splitting of a molecular bond occurs in the chemical and there is formation of a new bond with either the hydrogen component (H+) or the hydroxyl component (OH−) of a water molecule.
- Manning equation
An empirical formulation relating velocity (or flow rate) depth, slope, and a channel roughness coefficient in a river.
The process by which a dissolved organic substance is converted to dissolved inorganic form.
- Nonpoint SOURCE
A pollution source that cannot be traced to a specific spot.
The transformation of a compound that results directly from the adsorption of light energy.
- Point source
A pollution source that comes from a specific identifiable source such as a pipe.
- Residence time
The time required by a particle to cross a river reach.
A naturally flowing waterbody.
The process representing a chemical substance entering the atmosphere by evaporation from water.
- 1.USEPA (2000) National water quality inventory: 1998 report to Congress. EPA 841-R-00-001. US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- 2.CSCRMDE (1987) Sedimentation control to reduce maintenance dredging of navigational facilities in estuaries. Report and symposium proceedings. Committee on sedimentation control to reduce maintenance dredging in estuaries, National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- 3.Ji Z-G (2008) Hydrodynamics and water quality: modeling rivers, lakes, and estuaries. Wiley, Hoboken, 676 ppGoogle Scholar
- 5.Chow V (1964) Handbook of applied hydrology, a comparison of water-resources technology. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 6.Streeter HW, Phelps EB (1925) A study of the pollution and natural purification of the Ohio river. III: factors concerned in the phenomena of oxidation and reaeration. Bulletin Number 146, US Public Health ServiceGoogle Scholar
- 7.Brown LC, Barnwell TO (1987) The enhanced stream water quality models QUAL2E and QUAL2E-UNCAS: documentation and user manual. EPA/600/3-87-007. US Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GeorgiaGoogle Scholar
- 8.Hamrick JM (1992) A three-dimensional environmental fluid dynamics computer code: theoretical and computational aspects. The College of William and Mary, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Special Report 317, p 63Google Scholar
- 9.Schnoor JL (1996) Environmental modeling: fate and transport of pollutants in water, air, and soil. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
Books and Reviews
- Bowie GL, Mills WB, Porcella DB, Campbell CL, Pagenkopf JR, Rupp GL, Johnson KM, Chan PWH, Gherini SA (1985) Rates, constants, and kinetics formulations in surface water quality modeling, 2nd edn. USEPA, Environmental Research Laboratory, Athens. EPA/600/3-85/040Google Scholar
- Chapra SC (1997) Surface water-quality modeling. McGraw-Hill, New York, 844 ppGoogle Scholar
- Chapra SC, Canale RP (1998) Numerical methods for engineers, with programming and scientific applications. McGraw-Hill, New York, 839 ppGoogle Scholar
- Di Toro DM (2001) Sediment flux modeling. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Fischer HB, List EJ, Imberger J, Brooks NH (1979) Mixing in inland and coastal waters. Academic, New York, 483 ppGoogle Scholar
- Gill AE (1982) Atmosphere-ocean dynamics. Academic, New York, 662 ppGoogle Scholar
- Hutchinson GE (1957) A treatise on Limnology. In: Geography, physics and chemistry, vol I. Wiley, New York, p 1015Google Scholar
- Ji Z-G (2005) Water quality models: chemical principles. In: Water encyclopedia, vol 2, Water quality and resources development. Wiley, New Jersey, pp 269–273Google Scholar
- Ji Z-G (2005) Water quality modeling-case studies. In: Water encyclopedia, vol 2, Water quality and resources development. Wiley, New Jersey, pp 255–263Google Scholar
- Martin JL, McCutcheon SC (1999) Hydrodynamics and transport for water quality modeling. Lewis, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
- Morel F (1983) Principles of aquatic chemistry. Wiley, New York, 446 ppGoogle Scholar
- Park K, Kuo AY, Shen J, Hamrick JM (1995) A three-dimensional hydrodynamic-eutrophication model (HEM3D): description of water quality and sediment processes submodels. The College of William and Mary, Virginia Institute of Marine Science. Special Report 327, 113 ppGoogle Scholar
- Schumm SA (1977) The fluvial system. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Thomann RV, Mueller JA (1987) Principles of surface water quality modeling and control. Harper and Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- USEPA (1994) Water quality standards handbook, 2nd edn. US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC, EPA-823-B-94-005bGoogle Scholar
- USEPA (1998) Bacteria water quality standard status report. US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- USEPA (2000) Nutrient criteria technical guidance manual: rivers and streams. EPA-822-B-00-002. Office of Water, Office of Science and Technology, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Wezernak CT, Gannon JJ (1968) Evaluation of nitrification in streams. J Sanit Eng Div ASCE 94(SA5):883–895Google Scholar
- Wool AT, Ambrose RB, Martin JL, Corner EA (2003) Water quality analysis simulation program (WASP), Version 6: Draft users manual. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/athens/wwqtsc/html/wasp.html