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Fossil Energy pp 489-526 | Cite as

Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers and Pollution Control

  • David K. Moyeda
Chapter

Abstract

Fossil fuels, such as coal, natural gas, and fuel oil, are used to generate electric power for industrial, commercial, and residential use. Due to its relatively low cost and abundance throughout the world, coal has historically played a significant role in energy production and approximately 41% of the world power generation was supplied by coal-fired power plants in 2008 [1]. While increased discoveries of natural gas and fuel oil resources, and growth in renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar, and geothermal energy is projected to reduce the use of coal for power generation, energy from coal will continue to be used to satisfy the world’s energy demands.

Keywords

Selective Catalytic Reduction Pulverize Coal Combustion Selective Catalytic Reduction System Dust Cake Boiler Design 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Glossary

Anthracite

Coal which typically contains 86–97% carbon. Anthracite is considered the highest rank of coal as it has the highest energy content of all coals.

Ash

Inorganic residues remaining after combustion.

Baghouse

See fabric filter.

Bituminous coal

Coal which typically contains 45–86% carbon. Bituminous coal lies between subbituminous coal and anthracite in terms of rank, and is commonly divided into additional subgroups dependent upon the content of volatile material.

Calorific value

Corresponds to the amount of heat per unit mass when combusted. Can be expressed as gross calorific value, which is the amount of heat liberated during combustion under standardized conditions at constant volume so that all of the water in the products remains in liquid form, or as net calorific value, which is the maximum achievable heat release obtainable in a furnace at constant pressure.

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

A heavy, colorless gas that results from the combustion of fossil fuels and from natural sources.

Carbon monoxide (CO)

A colorless, odorless gas produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels.

Coal

A solid fossil fuel consisting primarily of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. Coal also contains ash, minerals which do not burn, and moisture. Coal is typically classified or ranked by its volatile matter, fixed carbon content, and calorific value.

Dry FGD

A process that removes sulfur oxides from the flue gas and results in the formation of a dry product or waste.

Electrostatic precipitator (ESP)

A device for removing particulate from a gas stream based upon using an electric field to charge the particles in the gas and move them to a collecting surface.

Fabric filter

A device for removing particulate from a gas stream based upon filtering the gas through a filer media.

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD)

Technologies that are used to remove sulfur oxides from the flue gas.

Lignite

Coal which contains 25–35% carbon and which has a lower calorific value than subbituminous and bituminous coals and typically higher moisture and volatile content. Lignite is the lowest range of coal.

Low-NOX burners (LNB)

Technology for reducing NOX emissions by controlling fuel and air mixing in the flame.

Nitric oxide (NO)

A colorless gas resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels.

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)

A reddish-brown gas that can be emitted from the combustion of fossil fuels or is formed by atmospheric reaction of nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen (O2).

NOX

Refers to the total nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide NO2 concentration.

Overfire air (OFA)

Technology that reduces NOX emissions based upon air staging.

Reburning

Technology that reduces NOX emissions based upon staging fuel in a fashion that permits fuel fragments to reduce (or reburn) nitric oxide (NO) in the flue gas.

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)

Technology that reduces NOX emissions by mixing ammonia into the flue gas and reacting the ammonia with NOX over a catalyst.

Selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR)

Technology that reduces NOX emissions by mixing an amine-based reagent into the flue gas at a temperature which selectively promotes the reaction of amine (NH2) with nitric oxide to form molecular nitrogen (N2)

Subbituminous coal

Coal which typically contains 35–45% carbon and which typically has a lower calorific value than bituminous coal and higher moisture and volatile content.

Sulfur dioxide (SO2)

A colorless, irritating gas resulting from the combustion of sulfur contained in fossil fuels, particularly coal.

Sulfur oxides

Refers to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3).

Volatile matter

Non-moisture component of coal that is liberated at high temperature in the absence of air.

Wet FGD

A process that removes sulfur oxides from the flue gas and results in the formation of a product or waste that is a solution or slurry.

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.GE EnergyIrvineUSA

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