Human Bacterial Diseases from Ocean

  • Darrell Jay GrimesEmail author
  • Lisa W. Plano
  • Okechukwu Ekenna


Several bacteria that cause human disease can be found in the ocean. The actual incidence of bacterial disease that results from seawater or seafood is not precisely known but is thought to be relatively low in the USA, although some diseases are on the rise. Bacterial disease from the ocean is more prevalent worldwide, especially in developing countries and in countries that derive most of their protein from seafood. Compared to the viruses, bacteria account for a much lower incidence of disease emanating from the ocean, both in the USA and worldwide. However, it is important to understand and mitigate bacterial disease from the ocean, because of such environmental pressures as global warming, antibiotic resistance, pollution, breakdowns in sanitation (e.g., Haiti after the earthquake) and tourism.


Marine Mammal Necrotizing Fasciitis Bottlenose Dolphin Enteric Virus Foodborne Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Exogenous, alien or nonindigenous; arising from another source or medium.


Being of the surrounding area or environment.


One of three domains on Earth, including the Bacteria and Eukarya. Archaea are prokaryotes that do not have peptidoglycan cell walls; they lack membrane-bound organelles (e.g., nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, chloroplasts), possess 70 S ribosomes and have ether-linked lipids in their membranes.


Indigenous, native, arising from within.


One of three domains on Earth, including the Archaea and Eukarya. Bacteria are prokaryotes that possess peptidoglycan cell walls; they lack membrane-bound organelles (e.g., nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, chloroplasts), possess 70 S ribosomes and have ester-linked lipids in their membranes.


The richness or complexity of life forms in an ecosystem, biome or on Earth itself.

Commensal organism

An organism participating in a symbiotic relationship in which one species derives some benefit while the other is unaffected.


An organism that controls body temperature through external means.


The lipid component (lipid A) of the outer membrane lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of all gram-negative bacteria. Endotoxin is released into a host or the environment when the cell lyses and its outer membrane breaks up.


The incidence of disease above the normal or endemic incidence.


One of three domains on Earth, including the Bacteria and Archaea. Eukarya possess membrane-bound organelles (e.g., nuclei, mitochondria, chloroplasts), histones associated with their DNA and 80 S ribosomes in their cytoplasm. Plants and animals are eukaryotic.


Any toxin that is secreted into the cell’s immediate environment. Most exotoxins are proteins, and they are made by both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.

Facultative organism

An organism that is capable of growth both in the presence and absence of oxygen.

Foodborne disease

A disease that is caused by the ingestion of pathogens conveyed by food.

Food intoxication

Illness caused by the ingestion of food that contains a toxic substance.


A proteolytic enzyme that lyses red blood cells.

Lysogenic conversion

Insertion of bacterial virus (bacteriophage) DNA into the chromosomal DNA of its bacterial host thereby conferring one or more new traits on the host.


Infections (and disease) that are acquired in clinical settings (e.g., hospitals, outpatient clinics, emergency rooms, physician offices).

Opportunistic pathogen

Any pathogen that accidently acquires entrance to a host and then only causes disease if one or more risk factors are present in the host.


An epidemic of world-wide proportions.


The production or development of a disease, specifically the cellular reactions and other pathologic mechanisms occurring in the progression of the disease.


The ability of a species to cause disease. However, because pathogenesis is typically caused by one or more than one virulence factors produced by one or more genes, any given pathogenic species will often display different degrees of pathogenesis.

Pathogenicity island

A cluster of virulence genes (and sometimes cryptic genes and other small genetic elements) flanked by direct repeats, insertion sequences or tRNA genes such that the clusters are easily transmitted to other bacteria via a process called horizontal gene transfer.


A circular, double-stranded DNA molecule containing specialty genes that, in general, are not essential for survival of the host bacterium or genes that are cryptic (unknown). Plasmids can replicate autonomously or integrate into and replicate with the chromosome. Plasmids are smaller than the chromosome, on average 5% the size of the chromosome.

Point source

A single, identifiable localized source of something.

Quorum sensing

A chemical mechanism used by bacteria to measure their population density. When the chemical signals reach a certain level, special genes are expressed.


An indicator whose presence is directly related to a particular quality in its environment at a given location.


The order of nucleotides in a specific length of DNA or RNA.


The degree of pathogenicity. Virulence is a compilation of toxins, hemolysins, proteases and lipases that may not be possessed by all strains of a pathogenic species.

Waterborne disease

A disease that is transmitted by water.


An animal disease transmissible to humans under natural conditions or a human disease transmissible to animals.


Primary Literature

  1. 1.
    Abdelzaher AM, Wright ME, Ortega C, Solo-Gabriele HM, Miller G, Elmir S, Newman X, Shih P, Bonilla JA, Bonilla TD, Palmer CJ, Scott T, Lukasik J, Harwood VJ, McQuaig S, Sinigalliano C, Gidley M, Plano LR, Zhu X, Wang JD, Fleming LE (2010) Presence of pathogens and indicator microbes at a non-point source subtropical recreational marine beach. Appl Environ Microbiol 76:724–732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abeyta C, Deeter FG, Kaysner CA, Stott RF, Wekell MM (1993) Campylobacter jejuni in a Washington state shellfish growing bed associated with illness. J Food Prot 56:323–325Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alonso JL, Alonso MA (1993) Presence of Campylobacter in marine waters of Valencia, Spain. Water Res 27:1559–1562Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baya AM, Brayton PR, Brown VL, Grimes DJ, Russek-Cohen E, Colwell RR (1986) Coincident plasmids and antimicrobial resistance in marine bacteria isolated from polluted and unpolluted Atlantic Ocean samples. Appl Environ Microbiol 51:1285–1292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beleneva IA (2011) Incidence and characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes from the Japan and South China seas. Mar Pollut Bull 62(2):382–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boerlin P, Boerlin-Petzold F et al (1997) Typing Listeria monocytogenes isolates from fish products and human listeriosis cases. Appl Environ Microbiol 63(4):1338–1343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bortolussi R (2008) Listeriosis: a primer. CMAJ 179(8):795–797PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brock TD (1999) Robert Koch, a life in medicine and bacteriology. ASM Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Castro-Escarpulli G, Figuerasb MJ, Aguilera-Arreolaa G, Solerb L, Ferna´ndez-Rendo´na E, Aparicioa GO, Guarrob J, Chaco´n MR (2003) Characterisation of Aeromonas spp. isolated from frozen fish intended for human consumption in Mexico. Int J Food Microbiol 84:41–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1999) National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system report: data from 1997–1999, Atlanta, GAGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    CDC (1996) Invasive infection due to Streptococcus iniae – Ontario, 1995–1996. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 45:650–653Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    CDC (1998) Outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections associated with eating raw oysters – Pacific Northwest, 1997. MMWR 47:457–462Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    CDC (2001) Diagnosis and management of foodborne illnesses: a primer for physicians. MMWR 50(RR02):1–69Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    CDC (2005) Rapid health response, assessment, and surveillance after a tsunami – Thailand, 2004–2005. MMWR 54:61–64Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    CDCb (2006) Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections associated with consumption of raw shellfish – three states, 2006. MMWR 55:1–2Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    CDCa (2006) Two cases of toxigentic Vibrio cholerage O1 infection after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita – Louisiana, October 2005. MMWR 55(02):31–32Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    CDC (2009) Preliminary FoodNet data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food – 10 states, 2008. MMWR 58:333–337Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    CDC (2010) Preliminary foodnet data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food – 10 states, 2009. MMWR 59:418–422Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Charoenca N, Fujioka R (1993) Assessment of staphylococcus bacteria in Hawaii marine recreational waters. Water Sci Technol 27:283–289Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Charoenca N, Fujioka RS (1995) Association of staphylococcal skin infections and swimming. Water Sci Technol 31:11–17Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chen C-Y, Wu K-M, Chang Y-C, Chang C-H, Tsai H-C, Liao T-L, Liu Y-M, Chen H-J, Shen AB-T, Li J-C et al (2003) Comparative genome analysis of Vibrio vulnificus, a marine pathogen. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, pp 2577–2587Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Colwell RR, West PA, Maneval D, Remmers EF, Elliot EL, Carlson NE (1984) Ecology of the pathogenic vibrios in Chesapeake Bay. In: Colwell RR (ed) Vibrios in the environment. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chowdhury NR, Chakraborty S, Ramamurthy T, Nishibuchi M, Yamasaki S, Takeda Y, Nair GB (2000) Molecular evidence of clonal Vibrio parahaemolyticus pandemic strains. Emerg Infect Dis 6:631–636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cole AM, Tahk S, Oren A, Yoshioka D, Kim YH, Park A, Ganz T (2001) Determinants of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 8:1064–1069PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Colwell RR (1996) Global climate and infectious disease: the cholera paradigm. Science 274:2025–2031PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Colwell RR, Huq A, Islam MS, Aziz KMA, Yunus M, Khan NH, Mahmud A, Sack RB, Nair GB, Chakraborty J, Sack DA, Russek-Cohen E (2003) Reduction of cholera in Bangladeshi villages by simple filtration. Proc Natl Acad Sci 100:1051–1055PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Colwell RR (2006) A global and historical perspective of the genus Vibrio. In: Thompson FL, Austin B, Swings J (eds) The biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC, pp 3–11Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Constantin de Magny G, Murtugudde R, Sapiano MRP, Nizam A, Brown CW, Busalacchi AJ, Yunus M, Nair GB, Gil AI, Lanata CF, Calkins J, Manna B, Rajendran K, Bhattacharya MK, Huq A, Sack RB, Colwell RR (2008) Environmental signatures associated with cholera epidemics. Proc Natl Acad Sci 105:17676–17681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cook DW, Ruple AD (1989) Indicator bacteria and Vibrionaceae multiplication in post-harvest shellstock oysters. J Food Prot 52:343–349Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Croci L, Suffredini E, Cozzi L, Paniconi M, Ciccaglioni G, Colombo MM (2007) Evaluation of different polymerase chain reaction methods for the identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated by cultural methods. J AOAC Int 90:1588–1597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dalgaard P, Vancanneyt M et al (2003) Identification of lactic acid bacteria from spoilage associations of cooked and brined shrimps stored under modified atmosphere between 0 degrees C and 25 degrees C. J Appl Microbiol 94(1):80–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    DePaola A, Kaysner CA, Bowers J, Cook DW (2000) Environmental investigations of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oysters after outbreaks in Washington, Texas, and New York (1997 and 1998). Appl Environ Microbiol 66:4649–4654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    DePaola A, Nordstrom JL, Bowers JC, Wells JG, Cook DW (2003) Seasonal abundance of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Alabama oysters. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:1521–1526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    DePaola A, Jones JL, Woods J, Burkhardt W III, Calci KR, Krantz JA, Bowers JC, Kasturi K, Byars RH, Jacobs E, Williams-Hill D, Nabe K (2010) Bacterial and viral pathogens in live oysters: 2007 United States survey. Appl Environ Microbiol 76:2754–2768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    DeLong EF, Pace NR (2000) Environmental diversity of bacteria and archaea. Syst Biol 50:470–478Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Destro MT (2000) Incidence and significance of Listeria in fish and fish products from Latin America. Int J Food Microbiol 62(3):191–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dibrov P (2005) The sodium cycle in Vibrio cholerae: riddles in the dark. Biochemistry (Mosc) 70:150–153Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Diep BA, Carleton HA et al (2006) Roles of 34 virulence genes in the evolution of hospital- and community-associated strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Infect Dis 193(11):1495–1503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Eckburg PB, Lepp PW, Relman DA (2003) Archaea and their potential role in human disease. Infect Immun 71:591–596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Edelstein H (1994) Mycobacterium marinum skin infections. Report of 31 cases and review of the literature. Arch Intern Med 154(12):1359–1364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Eldar A, Bejerano Y, Bercovier H (1994) Streptococcus shiloi and Streptococcus difficile: two new streptococcal species causing a meningoencephalitis in fish. Curr Microbiol 28:139–143Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Elmir SM, Wright ME, Abdelzaher A, Solo-Gabriele HM, Fleming LE, Miller G, Rybolowik M, Peter Shih MT, Pillai SP, Cooper JA, Quaye EA (2007) Quantitative evaluation of bacteria released by bathers in a marine water. Water Res 41:3–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Elmir SM, Shibata T, Solo-Gabriele HM, Sinigalliano CD, Gidley ML, Miller G, Plano LR, Kish J, Withum K, Fleming LE (2009) Quantitative evaluation of enterococci and Bacteroidales released by adults and toddlers in marine water. Water Res 43:4610–4616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    FAO (2010) FAO expert workshop on the application of biosecurity measures to control Salmonella contamination in sustainable aquaculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (ISBN 978-92-5-106553-2)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Faires MC, Gehring E et al (2009) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in marine mammals. Emerg Infect Dis 15(12):2071–2072PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Farmer JJ (1980) Revival of the name Vibrio vulnificus. Int J Syst Bacteriol 30:656Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Farmer JJI, Janda M, Brenner FW, Cameron DN, Birkhead KM (2005) Genus 1. Vibrio. In: Brenner DJ, Krieg NR, Staley JT, Garrity GM (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol 2, The proteobacteria, Part B. The gammaproteobacteria. Springer, New York, pp 494–546Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    FDA (2009) Bad bugs book: foodborne pathogenic microorganisms and natural toxins handbook.
  49. 49.
    Fisher K, Phillips C (2009) The ecology, epidemiology and virulence of Enterococcus. Microbiology 155(Pt 6):1749–1757PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fleisher JM, Fleming LE et al (2010) The BEACHES Study: health effects and exposures from non-point source microbial contaminants in subtropical recreational marine waters. Int J Epidemiol 39(5):1291–1298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Fleming L, Solo Gabriel H et al (2008) Final report on the pilot epidemiologic assessment of microbial indicators for monitoring recreational water quality in marine sub/tropical environments. The NSF NIEHS OHH Center, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Miami, MiamiGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Foster TJ (2004) The Staphylococcus aureus “superbug”. J Clin Invest 114(12):1693–1696PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Foster TJ (2005) Immune evasion by staphylococci. Nat Rev Microbiol 3(12):948–958PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Fujino T, Okuno Y, Nakada D, Aoyama A, Fukai K, Mukai T, Ueho T (1953) On the bacteriological examination of shirasu-food poisoning. Med J Osaka Univ 4:299–304Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gefen O, Mumcuoglu M, Engel G, Balaban NQ (2008) Single-cell protein induction dynamics reveals a period of vulnerability to antibiotics in persister bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci 105:6145–6149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gil AL, Louis VR, Rivera ING, Lipp E, Huq A, Lanata CF, Taylor DN, Russek-Cohen E. Choopun N, Sack RB, Colwell RR (2004) Occurance and distribution of Vibrio cholerae in the coastal environment of Peru. Environ Microbiol 6:699–706PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Goodwin KD, Pobuda M (2009) Performance of CHROMagar Staph aureus and CHROMagar MRSA for detection of Staphylococcus aureus in seawater and beach sand–comparison of culture, agglutination, and molecular analyses. Water Res 43:4802–4811PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Grimes DJ, Singleton FL, Stemmler J, Palmer LM, Brayton P, Colwell RR (1984) Microbiological effects of wastewater effluent discharge into coastal waters of Puerto Rico. Water Res 18:613–619Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Grimes DJ, Mills AL, Nealson KH (2000) The importance of viable but nonculturable bacteria in biogeochemistry. In: Colwell RR, Grimes DJ (eds) Nonculturable microorganisms in the environment. ASM Press, Washington, DC, pp 209–227Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Guvener ZT, McCarter LL (2003) Multiple regulators control capsular polysaccharide production in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J Bacteriol 185:5431–5441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hara-Kudo Y, Saito S, Ohtsuka K, Yamasaki S, Yahiro S, Nishio T, Iwade Y, Otomo T, Konuma H, Tanaka H, Nakagawa H, Sugiyama K, Sugita-Konishi Y, Kumagai S (2010) Decreasing Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections and analysis of seafood contamination in Japan. Vibrios in the Environment-2010, Biloxi, MS (Abstracts)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Harth E, Matsuda L, Hernández C, Rioseco ML, Romero J, González-Escalona N, Martínez-Urtaza J, Espejo RT (2009) Epidemiology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus outbreaks, southern Chile. Emerg Infect Dis 15:163–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Harwood VJ, Whitlock J, Withington V (2000) Classification of antibiotic resistance patterns of indicator bacteria by discriminant analysis: use in predicting the source of fecal contamination in subtropical waters. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:3698–3704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    He H, Wang Q, Sheng L, Liu Q, Zhang Y (2010) Functional characterization of Vibrio alginolyticus twin-arginine translocation system: Its roles in biofilm formation, extracellular protease activity, and virulence towards fish. Curr Microbiol. doi: 10.1007/s00284-010-9844-6
  65. 65.
    Hensel M (2004) Evolution of pathogenicity islands of Salmonella enterica. Int J Med Microbiol 294:95–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ho PL, Tang WM, Lo KS, Yuen KY (1998) Necrotizing fasciitis due to Vibrio alginolyticus following an injury inflicted by a stingray. Scand J Infect Dis 30:192–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Honda T, Iida T (1993) The pathogenicity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and the role of thermostable direct haemolysin and related haemolysins. Rev Med Microbiol 4:106–113Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Huq A, Sack RB, Nizam A, Longini IM, Balakrish Nair G, Ali A, Morris JG Jr, Khan MNH, Siddique AK, Yunus M, Albert MJ, Sack DA, Colwell RR (2005) Critical factors influencing the occurrence of Vibrio cholerae in the environment of Bangladesh. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:4645–4654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Jacobs-Reitsma W (2000) Campylobacter in the food supply. In: Nachamkin I, Blaser MJ (eds) Campylobacter, 2nd edn. ASM Press, Washington, DC, pp 467–480Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Jaffres E, Sohier D et al (2009) Study of the bacterial ecosystem in tropical cooked and peeled shrimps using a polyphasic approach. Int J Food Microbiol 131(1):20–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jensen AE, Cheville NF, Thoen CO, MacMillan AP, Miller WG (1999) Genomic fingerprinting and development of a dendrogram for Brucella spp. isolated from seals, porpoises, and dolphins. J Vet Diagn Invest 11:152–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Jia A, Woo NY, Zhang XH (2010) Expression, purification, and characterization of thermolabile hemolysin (TLH) from Vibrio alginolyticus. Dis Aquat Organ 90:121–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Johnson CN, Flowers AR, Young VC, Gonzalez-Escalona N, DePaola A, Grimes DJ (2009) Genetic relatedness among tdh + and trh + Vibrio parahaemolyticus cultured from Gulf of Mexico oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and surrounding water and sediment. Microb Ecol 57:437–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Johnson CN, Flowers AR, Noriea NF III, Zimmerman AM, Bowers J, DePaola A, Grimes DJ (2010) Relationships between environmental factors and pathogenic vibrios in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Appl Environ Microbiol 76:7076–7084PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Joseph SW, Daily OP, Hunt WS, Seidler RJ, Allen DA, Colwell RR (1979) Aeromonas primary wound infection of a diver in polluted waters. J Clin Microbiol 10:46–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kaper JB, Morris JG, Levine MM (1995) Cholera. Clin Microbiol Rev 8:48–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kitao T, Aoki T, Sakoh R (1981) Epizootic caused by beta-hemolytic Streptococcus species in cultured freshwater fish. Fish Pathol 19:173–180Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Klevens RM, Morrison MA, Nadle J, Petit S, Gershman K, Ray S, Harrison LH, Lynfield R, Dumyati G, Townes JM, Craig AS, Zell ER, Fosheim GE, McDougal LK, Carey RB, Fridkin SK (2007) Invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in the United States. JAMA 298:1763–1771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kluytmans J, van Belkum A, Verbrugh H (1997) Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus: epidemiology, underlying mechanisms, and associated risks. Clin Microbiol Rev 10:505–520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kusuda R (1992) Bacterial fish diseases in marineculture in Japan with special emphasis on streptococcosis. Isr J Aquacult 44:140Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lappi VR, Ho A et al (2004) Prevalence and growth of Listeria on naturally contaminated smoked salmon over 28 days of storage at 4 degrees C. J Food Prot 67(5):1022–1026PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lappi VR, Thimothe J et al (2004) Longitudinal studies on Listeria in smoked fish plants: impact of intervention strategies on contamination patterns. J Food Prot 67(11):2500–2514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lappi VR, Thimothe J et al (2004) Impact of intervention strategies on Listeria contamination patterns in crawfish processing plants: a longitudinal study. J Food Prot 67(6):1163–1169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Lau SK, Woo PC et al (2003) Invasive Streptococcus iniae infections outside North America. J Clin Microbiol 41(3):1004–1009PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Lauková A, Juris P (1997) Distribution and characterization of Enterococcus species in municipal sewages. Microbios 89:73–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Li XC, Xiang ZY, Xu XM, Yan WH, Ma JM (2009) Endophthalmitis Caused by Vibrio alginolyticus. J Clin Microbiol 47:3379–3381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lianou A, Sofos JN (2007) A review of the incidence and transmission of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat products in retail and food service environments. J Food Prot 70(9):2172–2198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Linell F, Norden A (1954) Mycobacterium balnei, a new acid-fast bacillus occurring in swimming pools and capable of producing skin lesions in humans. Acta Tuberc Scand Suppl 33:1–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Liu D (ed) (2008) Handbook of Listeria monocytogenes. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Louis VR, Russek-Cohen E, Choopun N, Rivera ING, Gangle B, Jiang SC, Rubin A, Patz JA, Huq A, Colwell RR (2003) Predictability of Vibrio cholerae in Chesapeake Bay. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:2773–2785PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Makino K, Oshima K, Kurokawa K, Yokoyama K, Uda T, Tagomori K, Iijima Y, Najima M, Nakano M, Yamashita A, Kubota Y, Kimura S, Yasunaga T, Honda T, Shinagawa H, Hattori M, Iida T (2003) Genome sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus a pathogenic mechanism distinct from that of V. cholerae. Lancet 361:743–749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Manero A, Blanch AR (1999) Identification of Enterococcus spp. with a biochemical key. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:4425–4430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Maquart M, LeFleche P, Foster G, Tryland M, Ramisse F, Djønne B, Al Dahouk S, Jacques I, Neubauer H, Walravens K, Godfroid J, Cloeckaert A, Vergnaud G (2009) MLVA-16 typing of 295 marine mammal Brucella isolates from different animal and geographic origins identifies 7 major groups within Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis. BMC Microbiol 9:145. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-9-145 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    McCarter LL (2006) Motility and chemotaxis. In: Thompson FL, Austin B, Swings J (eds) The biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC, pp 115–132Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    McDonald WL, Jamaludin R, Mackereth G, Hansen M, Humphrey S, Short P, Taylor T, Swingler J, Dawson CE, Whatmore AM, Stubberfield E, Perrett LL, Simmons G (2006) Characterisation of a Brucella sp. strain as a marine-mammal type despite isolation from a patient with spinal osteomyelitis in New Zealand. J Clin Microbiol 44:4363–4370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    McLaughlin JB, DePaola A, Bopp CA, Martinek KA, Napolilli NP, Allison CG, Murray SL, Thompson EC, Bird MM, Middaugh JP (2005) Outbreak of Vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis associated with Alaskan oysters. N Engl J Med 353:1463–1470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Mead PS, Slutsker L, Dietz V, McCaig LF, Bresee JS, Shapiro C, Griffin PM, Tauxe RV (1999) Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 5:607–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Meador CE, Parsons MM, Bopp CA, Gerner-Smidt P, Painter JA, Vora GJ (2007) Virulence gene- and pandemic group-specific marker profiling of clinical Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates. J Clin Microbiol 45:1133–1139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Mejlholm O, Kjeldgaard J et al (2008) Microbial changes and growth of Listeria monocytogenes during chilled storage of brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Int J Food Microbiol 124(3):250–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Morris PJ, Johnson WR et al (2011) Isolation of culturable microorganisms from free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the southeastern United States. Vet Microbiol 148(2–4):440–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Mukherjee J, Chios K, Fishwild D, Hudson D, O’Donnell S, Rich SM, Donohue-Rolf A, Tzipori S (2002) Human Stx2-specific monoclonal antibodies prevent systemic complications of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. Infect Immun 70(2):612–619PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Nishibuchi M (2006) Miscellaneous human pathogens. In: Thompson FL, Austin B, Swings J (eds) The biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC, pp 367–381Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Noriea NF III, Johnson CN, Griffitt KJ, Grimes DJ (2010) Distribution of type III secretion systems in Vibrio parahaemolyticus from the Northern Gulf of Mexico. J Appl Microbiol 109:953–962PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Oliver JD (2006) Vibrio vulnificus. In: Thompson FL, Austin B, Swings J (eds) The biology of Vibrios. ASM Press, Washington, DC, pp 349–366Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    O’Mahony R, Abbott Y et al (2005) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from animals and veterinary personnel in Ireland. Vet Microbiol 109(3–4):285–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    O’Neill KR, Jones SH, Grimes DJ (1992) Seasonal incidence of Vibrio vulnificus in the Great Bay Estuary of New Hampshire and Maine. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:3257–3262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Oshiro R, Fujioka R (1995) Sand, soil, and pigeon droppings – sources of indicator bacteria in the waters of Hanauma Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Water Sci Technol 31:251–254Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Panos GZ, Betsi GI, Falagas ME (2006) Systematic review: are antibiotics detrimental or beneficial for the treatment of patients with Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection? Aliment Pharmacol Ther 24(5):731–742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Paranjpye RN, Strom MS (2005) A Vibrio vulnificus Type IV pilin contributes to biofilm formation, adherence to epithelial cells, and virulence. Infect Immun 73:1411–1422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Paranjpye RN, Johnson AB, Baxter AE, Strom MS (2007) Role of Type IV pilins in persistence of Vibrio vulnificus in Crassostrea virginica oysters. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:5041–5044PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Parenti DM, Symington JS et al (1995) Mycobacterium kansasii bacteremia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis 21(4):1001–1003PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Park K-S, Iida T, Yamaichi Y, Oyagi T, Yamamoto K, Honda T (2000) Genetic characterization of DNA region containing the trh and ure genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Infect Immun 68:5742–5748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Peir GB, Madin SH (1976) Streptococcus iniae sp. nov., a beta-hemolytic streptococcus isolated from an Amazon freshwater dolphin, Inia geoffrensis. Int J Syst Bacteriol 26:545–553Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Pellett S, Bigley DV, Grimes DJ (1983) Distribution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a riverine ecosystem. Appl Environ Microbiol 45:328–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Perera RP, Johnson SK, Collins MD, Lewis DH (1994) Streptococcus iniae associated with mortality of Tilapia nilotica and T. aurea hybrids. J Aquat Anim Health 6:335–340Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Petersen A, Dalsgaard A (2003) Species composition and antimicrobial resistance genes of Enterococcus spp, isolated from integrated and traditional fish farms in Thailand. Environ Microbiol 5(5):395–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Phillips AMB, DePaolo A, Bowers J, Ladner S, Grimes DJ (2007) An evaluation of the use of remotely sensed parameters for prediction of incidence and risk associated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Gulf Coast oysters (Crassostrea virginica). J Food Prot 70:879–884PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Plano LR, Garza AC et al (2011) Shedding of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from adult and pediatric bathers in marine waters. BMC Microbiol 11(1):5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Plano LRW, Shibata T et al (2011) Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus and community associated MRSA at a recreational marine beach in South Florida. J Antimicrob Chemother (in review)Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Posfay-Barbe KM, Wald ER (2009) Listeriosis. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 14(4):228–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Qasem JA, Sameer A-Z, Salwa A-M, Samee A-A, Ahmed A-M, Al-Sharifi Faisal A-S (2008) Molecular investigation of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from environmental samples and fish specimens during a massive fish kill in Kuwait Bay. Pakistan J Biol Sci 11:2500–2504Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Rallis E, Koumantaki–Mathioudaki E (2007) Treatment of Mycobacterium marinum cutaneous infections. Expert Opin Pharmacother 8(17):2965–2978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Reichelt JL, Bauman P, Bauman L (1979) Study of genetic relationships among marine species Beneckea and Photobacterium by means of DNA/DNA hybridization. Arch Microbiol 1110:101–120Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Rice EW, Messer JW et al (1995) Occurrence of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in environmental isolates of enterococci. Appl Environ Microbiol 61(1):374–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Rivas AL, Gonzalez RN, Wiedmann M, Bruce JL, Cole EM et al (1997) Diversity of Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus ribotypes recovered from New York dairy herds. Amer J Vet Res 58:482–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Rivers B, Steck TR (2001) Viable but nonculturable uropathogenic bacteria are present in the mouse urinary tract following urinary tract infection and antibiotic therapy. Urol Res 29:60–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Roushan MRH, Mohraz M, Hajiahmadi M, Ramzani A, Valayati AA (2006) Efficacy of Gentamicin plus Doxycycline versus Streptomycin plus Doxycycline in the treatment of Brucellosis in humans. Clin Infect Dis 42:1075–1080Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Saubolle M (1989) Nontuberculous mycobacteria as agents in human disease in the United States. Clin Microbiol Newslett 11:113–117Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Schaefer AM, Goldstein JD et al (2009) Antibiotic-resistant organisms cultured from Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting estuarine waters of Charleston, SC and Indian River Lagoon, FL. Ecohealth 6(1):33–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Shime-Hattori A et al (2006) Two type IV pili of Vibrio parahaemolyticus play different roles in biofilm formation. FEMS Microbiol Lett 264:89–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Sinigalliano CD, Fleisher JM et al (2010) Traditional and molecular analyses for fecal indicator bacteria in non-point source subtropical recreational marine waters. Water Res 44(13):3763–3772PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Skalsky K, Yahav D, Bishara J, Pitlik S, Leibovici L, Paul M (2008) Treatment of human brucellosis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. BMJ 336(7646):701–704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Soge OO, Meschke JS, No DB, Roberts MC (2009) Characterization of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp isolated from US West coast public marine beaches. J Antimicrob Chemother 64:1148–1155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Sun B, Zhang XH, Tang X, Wang S, Zhong Y, Chen J, Austin B (2007) A single residue change in Vibrio harveyi hemolysin results in the loss of phospholipase and hemolytic activities and pathogenicity for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). J Bacteriol 189:2575–2579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Takeda T, Peina Y, Ogawa A, Dohi S, Abe H, Nair GB, Pal SC (1991) Detection of heat-stable enterotoxin in a cholera toxin gene-positive strain of Vibrio cholerae O1. FEMS Microbiol Lett 64:23–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Tauxe R, Seminario L, Tapia R, Libel M (1994) The Latin American epidemic. In: Wachsmuth IK, Blake PA, Olsvik O (eds) Vibrio cholerae and cholera: molecular to global perspectives. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Thompson FL, Hoste B, Vandemeulebroecke K, Swings J (2003) Reclassification of Vibrio hollisae as Grimontia hollisae gen. nov., comb. Nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:1615–1617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Tokuda H, Unemoto T (1982) Characterization of the respiration-dependant Na+ pump in the marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus. J Biol Chem 257:10007–10014PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Tsai YH, Kung H-F, Lee T-M, Lin G-T, Hwang D-F (2004) Histamine-related hygienic quantities and bacteria found in popular commercial scombroid fish fillets in Taiwan. J Food Prot 67:407–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Uh Y, Park JS, Hwang GY, Jang IH, Yoon KJ, Park HC, Hwang SO (2001) Vibrio alginolyticus acute gastroenteritis: a report of two cases. Clin Microbiol Infect 7:104–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Ulitzer S (1975) The mechanism of swarming of Vibrio alginolyticus. Arch Microbiol 104:67–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    USEPA (2000) Improved enumeration methods for the recreational water quality indicators: Enterococci and Escherichia coli. EPA/821/R-97/004, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Valdivia E, Martin-Sanchez I et al (1996) Incidence of antibiotic resistance and sex pheromone response among enterococci isolated from clinical human samples and from municipal waste water. J Appl Bacteriol 81(5):538–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Vally H, Whittle A, Cameron S, Dowse GK, Watson T (2004) Outbreak of Aeromonas hydrophila wound infections associated with mud football. Clin Infect Dis 38:1084–1089PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Vivekanandhana G, Hathab AAM, Lakshmanaperumalsamy P (2005) Prevalence of Aeromonas hydrophila in fish and prawns from the seafood market of Coimbatore, South India. Food Microbiol 22:133–137Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Von Eiff C, Becker K, Machka K, Stammer H, Peters G (2001) Nasal carriage as a source of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Study Group. N Engl J Med 344:11–16Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Wade TJ, Pai N et al (2003) Do U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water quality guidelines for recreational waters prevent gastrointestinal illness? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect 111(8):1102–1109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Waldor MK, Mekalanos JJ (1996) Lysogenic conversion by a filamentous phage encoding cholera toxin. Science 272:1910–1914PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Wang SX, Zhang XH, Zhong YB, Sun BG, Chen JX (2007) Genes encoding the Vibrio harveyi haemolysin (VHH)/thermolabile haemolysin (TLH) are widespread in vibrios. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao 47:874–881PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Weinstein MR, Litt M, Kertesz DA, Wyper P, Rose D, Coulter M, McGeer A, Facklam R, Ostach C, Willey BM, Borczyk A, Low DE et al (1997) Invasive infections due to a fish pathogen, Streptococcus iniae. N Engl J Med 337:589–594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Wendt JR, Lamm RC et al (1986) An unusually aggressive Mycobacterium marinum hand infection. J Hand Surg Am 11(5):753–755PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Whatmore AM, Dawson CE, Groussaud P, Koylass MS, King AC, Shankster SJ, Sohn AH, Probert WS, McDonald WL (2008) Marine mammal Brucella genotype associated with zoonotic infection. Emerg Infect Dis 14:517–518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    WHO (World Health Organization) (2010) Cholera, 2009. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 85:293–308Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Wilson IG, McAfee GG (2002) Vancomycin-resistant enterococci in shellfish, unchlorinated waters, and chicken. Int J Food Microbiol 79(3):143–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Wolinsky E (1992) Mycobacterial diseases other than tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis 15(1):1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Wong CS, Jelacic S, Habeeb RL, Watkins SL, Tarr PI (2000) The risk of the hemolytic-uremic syndrome after antibiotic treatment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections. N Engl J Med 342(26):1930–1936PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Yakushi T, Maki S, Homma M (2004) Interaction of PomB with the third transmembrane segment of PomA in the Na+-driven polar flagellum of Vibrio alginolyticus. J Bacteriol 186:5281–5291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Yamahara KM, Walters SP et al (2009) Growth of enterococci in unaltered, unseeded beach sands subjected to tidal wetting. Appl Environ Microbiol 75(6):1517–1524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Zimmerman AM, Rebarchik DM, Flowers AR, Williams JL, Grimes DJ (2009) Escherichia coli detection using mTEC agar and fluorescent antibody direct viable counting on coastal recreational water samples. Lett Appl Microbiol 49:478–483PubMedGoogle Scholar

Books and Reviews

  1. Belkin S, Colwell RR (eds) (2005) Pathogenic microorganisms in the sea. Kluwer/Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Colwell RR, Grimes DJ (eds) (2000) Nonculturable microorganisms in the environment. ASM Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  3. Walsh PJ, Smith SL, Fleming LE, Solo-Gabriele HM, Gerwick WH (eds) (2008) Oceans and human health: risk and remedies from the sea. Elsevier, St. LouisGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Darrell Jay Grimes
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lisa W. Plano
    • 2
  • Okechukwu Ekenna
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Coastal SciencesThe University of Southern MississippiOcean SpringsUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Pediatrics & Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Miller School of MedicineUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA
  3. 3.Singing River Health SystemPascagoulaUSA
  4. 4.University of South AlabamaMobileUSA

Personalised recommendations