Waterborne Diseases of the Ocean, Enteric Viruses

  • Jacquelina W. WoodsEmail author


Human enteric viruses pose a significant health threat in the aquatic environment since they are transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Human activities such as faulty septic systems, agricultural runoff, urban runoff, sewage outfall, and wastewater discharge from vessels are ways enteric viruses are introduced into the environment. There are approximately 140 enteric viruses found in humans, and approximately one billion per gram of feces where at least 10% of the population can shed these viruses at any given time [1]. Enteric viruses can be transferred throughout the environment by attaching to particulates in groundwater, estuarine water, seawater and rivers, estuaries, shellfish grown in contaminated waters, and by aerosols emitted from sewage treatment plants [2]. The fate of these enteric viruses can take many routes, such as rivers, lakes, sewage, land runoff, estuaries, and groundwater. Humans can be exposed to enteric viruses through various routes: crops grown in land irrigated with wastewater or fertilized with sewage, shellfish grown in contaminated water, sewage-polluted recreational waters, and contaminated drinking water. In a waterborne disease outbreak study between 1946 and 1980, water system deficiencies that contributed to these outbreaks were categorized under five major headings: (1) use of contaminated untreated surface water, (2) use of contaminated untreated groundwater, (3) inadequate or interrupted treatment, (4) distribution network problems, and (5) miscellaneous [3]. Deficiencies in treatment and distribution of water contributed to more than 80% of the outbreaks.


Enteric Virus Human Adenovirus Contaminate Drinking Water Human Enteric Virus Secondary Attack Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



To reduce or weaken a pathogen.


The ability of viruses to replicate under ideal conditions.

Enteric virus

Viral particle associated with human feces. Enteric viruses range in size of 20–80nm and contain RNA or DNA enclosed by a protein capsid.

Environmental stability (microorganism)

The ability of an organism to withstand degradation when exposed to environmental factors, such as temperature and sunlight.


The study of the causes, distribution, and patterns of health and illness in a population.


Inflammation of the stomach and large and small intestines.


Related viruses within a genus.


Having a geometric structure that contains 20 identical equilateral triangular faces, 30 edges, and 12 vertices.

Open reading frame (ORF)

A DNA sequence that does not contain a stop codon. ORFs are presumptive genes.


Distinct antigenic variations within a subgroup or subspecies of bacteria or viruses.


The presence of viruses in the blood spread through primary and secondary transmission.


Primary Literature

  1. 1.
    Griffin DW, Donaldson KA, Paul JH, Rose JB (2003) Pathogenic human viruses in coastal waters. Clin Microbial Rev 16:129–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bosch A (1998) Human enteric viruses in the water environment: a minireview. Int Microbial 1:191–196Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lippy EC, Waltrip SL (1984) Waterborne disease outbreaks 1946–1980: a thirty-five year prospective. J Am Water Works Assoc 76:60–67Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bofill-Mas S, Pina S, Girones R (2000) Documenting the epidemiologic patterns of polyomaviruses in human populations by studying their presence in urban sewage. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:238–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brauniger S, Peters J, Borchers U, Kao M, Borchers U (2000) Further studies of thermal resistance of bovine parvovirus against moist and dry heat. Int J Hyg Environ Health 203:71–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Engelbrecht RS, Weber MJ, Salter BL, Schmidt CA (1980) Comparative inactivation of viruses by chlorine. Appl Environ Microbiol 40:249–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kocwa-Haluch R (2001) Waterborne enteroviruses as a hazard for human health. Pol J Environ Stud 10:485–487Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Haas CN, Rose JB, Gerba CP, Regli R (1993) Risk assessment of viruses in drinking water. Risk Anal 13:545–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    World Health Organization (2010) Guidelines for drinking-water quality. Recommendations, 3rd edn. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Beuret C, Kohler D, Baumgartner A, Luthi TM (2002) Norwalk-like virus sequences in mineral waters: one year monitoring of three brands. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:1925–1931PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Daniels NA, Bergmire-Sweat DA, Schwab KJ, Hendricks KA, Reddy S, Monroe SA, Fankhauser RL, Monroe SS, Atmar RL, Glass RI, Mead P (2000) A foodborne outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with Norwalk-like viruses: first molecular traceback to deli sandwiches contaminated during preparation. J Infect Dis 181:1467–1470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Munnoch S, Ashbolt R, Coleman DJ, Walton N, Beers-Debble MY, Taylor R (2004) A multi-jurisdictional outbreak of hepatitis A related to a youth camp-implications for catering operations and mass gatherings. Commun Dis Intell 28:521–527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Adler J, Zickl R (1969) Winter vomiting disease. J Infect Dis 119:668–673PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Atmar R, Estes MK (2001) Diagnosis of noncultivatable gastroenteritis viruses, the human caliciviruses. Clin Microbiol Rev 14:15–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kapikian AZ, Wyatt RG, Dolin R, Thornhill TS, Kalica AR, Chanock RM (1972) Visualization by immune electron microscopy of a 27-nm particle associated with acute gastroenteritis. J Virol 10:1075–1081PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rippey SR (1994) Infectious disease associated with molluscan shellfish consumption. Clin Microbiol Rev 7:419–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ando T, Monron SS, Gentsch JR, Jin Q, Lewis DC, Glass RI (1995) Detection and differentiation of antigenically distinct small round structured viruses (Norwalk-like viruses) by reverse transcription-PCR and southern hybridization. J Clin Microbiol 33:64–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zheng D, Ando T, Fankhauser RL, Beard RS, Glass RI, Monroe SS (2006) Norovirus classification and proposed strain nomenclature. Virology 346:312–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Duizer E, Schwab KJ, Neil FH, Atmar RL, Koopmans MPG, Estes MK (2004) Laboratory efforts to cultivate noroviruses. J Gen Virol 85:79–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Straub TM, Honer zu Bentrup K, Orosz-Coghlan P, Dohnalkova A, Mayer BK, Bartholomew A, Valdez CO, Bruckner-Lea CJ, Gerba C, Abbazadegan CM, Nickerson CA (2007) In vitro cell culture infectivity assay for human noroviruses. Emerg Infect Dis 13:396–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dolin R, Blacklow NR, Dupont H, Formal S, Buscho RF, Kasel JA, Buscho RF, Kasel JA, Chames RP, Hornick R, Channock RM (1971) Transmission of acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis to volunteers by oral administration of stool filtrates. J Infect Dis 123:307–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Teunis PF, Moe CL, Liu P, Miller SE, Lindesmith L, Baric RS, Le Pendu J, Calderone RL (2008) Norwalk virus: how infectious is it? J Med Virol 80:1468–1476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wu HM, Fornek M, Schwab K, Chapin AR, Gibson K, Schwab E, Spencer C, Henning K (2005) A norovirus outbreak of a long-term-care facility: the role of environmental surface contamination. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 26:802–810PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cohen JL, Rosenblum B, Ticehurst JR, Daemer RJ, Feinstone SM, Purcell RH (1987) Complete nucleotide sequence of an attenuated hepatitis A virus: comparison with wild-type virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:2497–2501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lemon SM, Jansen RW, Brown EA (1992) Genetic, antigenic, and biological differences between strains of hepatitis A virus. Vaccine 10(suppl 1):S40–S44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Robertson BH, Janson RW, Khanna B, Totsuka A, Nainan OY, Siegl G, Widell A, Margolis HS, Isomura S, Ito K, Ishizu T, Moritsugu Y, Lemon SM (1992) Genetic relatedness of hepatitis A virus strains recovered from different geographical regions. J Gen Virol 73:1365–1377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hutin YJ, Pool E, Cramer EH, Nainan OV, Weth J, Williams LT, Goldstein ST, Gensheimer KF, Bell BP, Shapiro CN, Alter MJ, Margolis HS (1999) A multistate, foodborne outbreak of hepatitis A. National hepatitis A investigation team. N Engl J Med 340:595–602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nainan OV, Armstrong GL, Han X, Williams I, Bell BP, Margolis HS (2005) Hepatitis A molecular epidemiology in the United States, 1996–1997: sources of infection and implications of vaccination policy. J Infect Dis 191:957–963PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lednar WM, Lemon SM, Kirkpatrick JW, Redfield RR, Fields ML, Kelly PW (1985) Frequency of illness associated with epidemic hepatitis A virus infections in adults. Am J Epidemiol 122:226–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Glikson M, Galum E, Owen R, Tur-Kaspa R, Shouval D (1992) Relapsing hepatitis A: a review of 14 cases and literature survey. Medicine (Baltimore) 71:14–23Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fujiwara K, Yokosuka O, Fukai K, Imazeki F, Saisho H, Omata M (2001) Analysis of full-length hepatitis A virus genome in sera from patients with fulminant and self-limited acute type hepatitis A. J Hepatol 35:112–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Flehmig B (1980) Hepatitis A-virus in cell culture I. Propagation of different hepatitis A-virus isolates in a fetal rhesus monkey kidney cell line (FRhK-4). Med Microbiol Immunol 168:239–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Daemer RJ, Feinstone SM, Gust LL, Purcell RH (1981) Propagation of human hepatitis A virus in African green monkey kidney cell culture: primary isolation and serial passage. Infect Immun 32:388–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Feinstone SM, Kapikian AZ, Purcell RH (1973) Hepatitis A detection by immune electron microscopy of a virus-like antigen associated with acute illness. Science 182:1026–1028PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jothikumar N, Cromeans TL, Sobsey MD, Robertson B (2005) Development and evaluation of a broadly reactive Taqman assay for rapid detection of hepatitis A virus. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:3359–3363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hollinger FB, Emerson SU (2001) Hepatitis A virus. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM (eds) Fields virology, 4th edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, New York, pp 799–840Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rajtar B, Majek M, Polanski L, Polz-Dacewicz M (2008) Enteroviruses in water environment – a potential threat to public health. Ann Agric Environ Med 15:199–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Khetsuriani N, Lamonte-Fowlkes A, Oberst S, Pallansch MA (2006) Centers for disease control and prevention: enterovirus surveillance-United States, 1970–2005. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 55:1–20Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Colbere-Garapin F, Christodoulou C, Crainic R, Pelletier I (1989) Persistent poliovirus infection of human neuroblastoma cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:7590–7594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Howard RS (2005) Poliomyelitis and the postpolio syndrome. Br Med J 330:1314–1318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fong T, Lipp EK (2005) Enteric viruses of human and animals in aquatic environments: health risks, detection, and potential water quality assessment tools. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 69:357–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Amvrosieva TV, Paklonskaya NV, Biazruchka AA, Kazinetz ON, Bohush ZF, Fisenko EG (2006) Enteroviral infection outbreak in the Republic of Belarus: principal characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of etiological agents. Cent Eur J Public Health 14:67–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jubb G (1915) The third outbreak of epidemic poliomyelitis at West Kirby. Lancet 1:67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jiang X, Wang M, Wang K, Estes MK (1993) Sequence and genomic organization of Norwalk virus. Virology 195:51–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wigand R, Adrian T (1986) Classification and epidemiology of adenoviruses. In: Doerfler W (ed) Adenovirus DNA. Martinus Nijhoff, BostonGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Stewart PL, Fuller SD, Burnett RM (1993) Difference imaging of adenovirus – bridging the resolution gap between X-ray crystallography and electron-microscopy. EMBO J 12:2589–2599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Friefeld BR, Lichy J, Field J, Gronostajski RM, Guggenheimer RA, Krevolin MD, Nagata K, Hutwitz J, Horowitz MS (1984) The in-vitro replication of adenovirus DNA in the molecular biology of adenoviruses. In: Doerfler W (ed) Current topics in microbiology and immunology. Springer, Berlin, pp 221–225Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rowe WP, Huebner RJ, Gilmore LK, Parrot RH, Ward TG (1953) Isolation of a cytopathogenic agent from human adenoids undergoing spontaneous degeneration in tissue culture. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 84:570–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2005) Adenoviruses. CDC, Atlanta [Ref Type: Pamphlet]Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2007) Acute respiratory disease associated with adenovirus serotype 14 – four states, 2006–2007. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 56:1181–1184Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Carter MJ (2005) Enterically infecting viruses: pathogenicity, transmission and significance for food and waterborne infection. J Appl Microbiol 98:1354–1380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Pina S, Puig M, Lucena F, Jofre J, Girones R (1998) Viral pollution in the environment and in shellfish human adenovirus detection by PCR as an index of human viruses. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:3376–3382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Goyal SM (2006) Viruses in food. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Grimwood K, Buttery JP (2007) Clinical update: rotavirus gastroenteritis and its prevention. Lancet 370:302–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Martinez-Laso J, Roman A, Head J, Cervera I, Rodrigues M, Rodrigues-Avial I, Picazo J (2009) Phylogeny of G9 rotavirus genotype: a possible explanation of its origin and evolution. J Clin Virol 44:52–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Grassi T, Bagordo F, Idolo A, Lugoli F, Gabutti G, De Donno A (2010) Rotavirus detection in environmental water samples by tangential flow ultrafiltration and RT-nested PCR. Environ Monit Assess 164:199–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Abad FX, Pinto RM, Bosch A (1994) Survival of enteric viruses on environmental fomites. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:3704–3710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gratacap-Cavallier B, Genoulza O, Brengel-Pese K, Soule H, Innocenti-Francillard R, Bost M, Gofit L, Zmirou D, Seigneurin M (2000) Detection of human and animal rotavirus sequences in drinking water. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:2690–2692PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ooi W, Gawoski JM, Yarbough PO, Pankey GA (1999) Hepatitis E seroconversion in United States travelers abroad. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61:822–824PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Casares-Clemente P, Pina S, Buti M, Jardi R, Martin M, Bofill-Mass S, Girones R (2003) Hepatitis E virus epidemiology in industrialized countries. Emerg Infect Dis 9:448–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Engle RE, Yu C, Emerson SU, Meng XJ, Purell RH (2002) Hepatitis E virus (HEV) capsid antigens derived from viruses of human and swine origin are equally efficient for detecting anti-HEV by enzyme immunoassay. J Clin Microbiol 40:4576–4580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Li T-C, Saito M, Ogura G, Ishibashi O, Miyamura T, Takeda N (2006) Serological evidence for hepatitis E virus infection in mongoose. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74:932–936PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Emerson SU, Purcell RH (2003) Hepatitis E virus. Rev Med Virol 13:145–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Purcell RH (1994) Hepatitis virus: changing patterns of human disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:2401–2406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Labrique AB, Thomas DL, Stoszek SK, Nelson KE (1999) Hepatitis E: an emerging infectious disease. Epidemiol Rev 21:162–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Isaacson M, Frean J, He J, Seriwatana J, Innis BL (2000) An outbreak of hepatitis E in northern Namibia, 1983. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62:619–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Farrah SR, Goyal SM, Gerba CP, Wallis C, Melnick JL (1977) Concentration of enteroviruses from estuarine water. Appl Environ Microbiol 33:1192–1196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rao VC, Seidel KM, Goyal SM, Metcalf TG, Melnick JL (1984) Isolation of enteroviruses from water, suspended solids, and sediments from Galveston Bay; survival of poliovirus and rotavirus adsorbed to sediments. Appl Environ Microbiol 48:404–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Chonmaitree T, Ford C, Sanders C, Lucia H (1985) Comparison of cell cultures for rapid isolation of enteroviruses. J Clin Microbiol 26:2576–2580Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Caro V, Guillot S, Delpeyroux F, Crainic R (2001) Molecular strategy for ‘serotyping’ of human enteroviruses. J Gen Virol 82:79–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Croci L, Medici DD, Morace G, Fiore A, Scalfaro C, Beneduce F, Toti L (1999) Detection of hepatitis A virus in shellfish by nested reverse transcription-PCR. Int J Food Microbiol 48:67–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Chapron CD, Ballester NA, Fontaine JH, Frades CN, Margolin AB (2000) Detection of astroviruses, enteroviruses, and adenovirus types 40 and 41 in surface waters collected and evaluated by the information collection rule and an integrated cell culture-nested PCR procedure. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:2520–2525PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gibson UE, Heid CA, Williams PM (1996) A novel method for real time quantitative RT-PCR. Genome Res 6:995–1001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mackay IM, Arden KE, Nitsche A (2002) Real-time PCR in virology. Nucleic Acids Res 30:1292–1305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Donaldson KA, Griffin DW, Paul JH (2002) Detection, quantitation of enteroviruses from surface waters and sponge tissue from the Florida Keys using real-time RT-PCR. Water Res 36:2505–2514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Heim A, Ebnet C, Harste G, Pring-Akerblom R (2003) Rapid and quantitative detection of human adenovirus DNA by real-time PCR. J Med Virol 70:228–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kageyama T, Kojima S, Shinohara M, Uchida K, Fukushi S, Hoshino FB, Takeda N, Katayama K (2003) Broadly reactive and highly sensitive assay for Norwalk-like viruses based on real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. J Clin Microbiol 41:1548–1557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Logan C, Leary JJ, O’Sullivan N (2006) Real-time reverse transcription PCR detection of norovirus, sapovirus and astrovirus as causative agents of acute viral gastroenteritis. J Clin Microbiol 44:3189–3195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Reynolds KA, Gerba CP, Abbaszadegan M, Pepper LL (2001) ICC/PCR detection of enteroviruses and hepatitis A in environmental samples. Can J Microbiol 47:153–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Burkhardt W, Woods JW, Calci KR (2005) Evaluation of wastewater treatment plants’ efficiency to reduce viral loading using real-time RT-PCR. In: 105 general meeting (ASM Abstract)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Symonds EM, Griffin DW, Breitbart M (2009) Eukaryotic viruses in wastewater samples from the United States. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:1402–1409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Books and Reviews

  1. Berg G (1983) Viral pollution of the environment. CRC Press Boca Raton, FL, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Cox P, Griffith M, Angles M, Derre D, Ferguson C (2005) Concentration of pathogens and indicators in animal feces in the Sydney watershed. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:5929–5934PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gerba CP, Smith JE Jr (2005) Sources of pathogenic microorganisms and their fate during land application of wastes. J Environ Qual 34:42–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Greenberg HB, Valdesuso JR, Kalica AR, Wright RG, McAuliffe VJ, Kapikian AZ, Chanock RM (1981) Proteins of Norwalk virus. J Virol 37:994–999PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Hurst CJ (2000) Viral ecology. Academic, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  6. Jiang SC (2006) Human adenoviruses in water: occurrence and health implications: a critical review. Environ Sci Technol 40:7132–7140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Koopmans M (2005) Outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis: what’s new in 2004? Curr Opin Infect Dis 18:295–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Koopmans M, Duizer E (2004) Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem. Int J Food Microbiol 90:23–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Leclerc H, Schwartzbrod L, Dei-Cas E (2002) Microbial agents associated with waterborne diseases. Crit Rev Microbiol 28:371–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lund E (1982) Waterborne virus disease. Ecol Dis 1:27–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Rheinheimer G (1992) Aquatic microbiology, 4th edn. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  12. Varnam AH, Evans MG (2000) Environmental microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.US Food and Drug AdministrationCenter for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Gulf Coast Seafood LabDauphin IslandUSA

Personalised recommendations