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Waterborne Diseases of the Ocean, Enteric Viruses

  • Jacquelina W. WoodsEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Human enteric viruses pose a significant health threat in the aquatic environment since they are transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Human activities such as faulty septic systems, agricultural runoff, urban runoff, sewage outfall, and wastewater discharge from vessels are ways enteric viruses are introduced into the environment. There are approximately 140 enteric viruses found in humans, and approximately one billion per gram of feces where at least 10% of the population can shed these viruses at any given time [1]. Enteric viruses can be transferred throughout the environment by attaching to particulates in groundwater, estuarine water, seawater and rivers, estuaries, shellfish grown in contaminated waters, and by aerosols emitted from sewage treatment plants [2]. The fate of these enteric viruses can take many routes, such as rivers, lakes, sewage, land runoff, estuaries, and groundwater. Humans can be exposed to enteric viruses through various routes: crops grown in land irrigated with wastewater or fertilized with sewage, shellfish grown in contaminated water, sewage-polluted recreational waters, and contaminated drinking water. In a waterborne disease outbreak study between 1946 and 1980, water system deficiencies that contributed to these outbreaks were categorized under five major headings: (1) use of contaminated untreated surface water, (2) use of contaminated untreated groundwater, (3) inadequate or interrupted treatment, (4) distribution network problems, and (5) miscellaneous [3]. Deficiencies in treatment and distribution of water contributed to more than 80% of the outbreaks.

Keywords

Enteric Virus Human Adenovirus Contaminate Drinking Water Human Enteric Virus Secondary Attack Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Glossary

Attenuate

To reduce or weaken a pathogen.

Cultivate

The ability of viruses to replicate under ideal conditions.

Enteric virus

Viral particle associated with human feces. Enteric viruses range in size of 20–80nm and contain RNA or DNA enclosed by a protein capsid.

Environmental stability (microorganism)

The ability of an organism to withstand degradation when exposed to environmental factors, such as temperature and sunlight.

Epidemiology

The study of the causes, distribution, and patterns of health and illness in a population.

Gastroenteritis

Inflammation of the stomach and large and small intestines.

Genogroup

Related viruses within a genus.

Icosahedral

Having a geometric structure that contains 20 identical equilateral triangular faces, 30 edges, and 12 vertices.

Open reading frame (ORF)

A DNA sequence that does not contain a stop codon. ORFs are presumptive genes.

Serotype

Distinct antigenic variations within a subgroup or subspecies of bacteria or viruses.

Viremia

The presence of viruses in the blood spread through primary and secondary transmission.

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.US Food and Drug AdministrationCenter for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Gulf Coast Seafood LabDauphin IslandUSA

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