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Tropical Health and Sustainability

  • J. Kevin BairdEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Tropical health may be considered relevant to the range of human maladies that occur either predominantly in the tropics or become exacerbated by poorly resourced healthcare delivery systems typical of many nations in the tropics. More often, it is both of those factors, as with malaria. Sustainability implies the introduction of novel interventions aimed at mitigating the burdens and risks of such maladies by improving or replacing existing instruments that may be inadequate or suboptimal. Sustainability further implies a design of those instruments amenable to the capacities of those left to use them, following the inevitable retreat of sponsors and their fiscal and technical resources. Further, the instrument must prove effective in mitigating the problem at which it aims. The research and development (R&D) of sustainable technologies against tropical infections represents a relentlessly urgent task, often linked to preventable deaths in very substantial numbers.

Keywords

Falciparum Malaria Vivax Malaria G6PD Deficiency Verbal Autopsy Malaria Vaccine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Glossary

ACT

Artemisinin-combined therapies, a large class of paired drugs that represent the front-line treatments for malaria globally.

BCMS

Board for the Coordination of Malaria Studies, a US government entity established during World War II and later dissolved to coordinate management of the development of new antimalarial therapies.

BMGF

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

CFR

Case fatality rate, the percentage of patients with a given clinical condition not surviving.

DDT

Pesticide ((1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)ethane)), once often used in IRS applications.

G6PD

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, an inherited deficiency of which causes patients to be vulnerable to mild to severe drug-induced acute intravascular hemolysis.

GFATM

Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, a consortium of International donors committing resources to those health issues.

GMEC

Global Malaria Eradication Campaign of the 1950s and 1960s.

GMP

Good manufacturing practice, a high standard of manufacturing certified by experts.

IRS

Indoor residual spraying, in malaria control the practice of spraying the interior walls of homes with insecticide in order to attack mosquitoes that feed on humans.

ITN

Insecticide-treated net, or a net that covers a bed at night to protect sleeping people from mosquito bites and malaria infection.

Malaria

Infection by protozoan parasites (Plasmodium species) carried by mosquitoes, often serious and fatal.

MMV

Medicines for Malaria Venture, a public-private partnership committed to developing and licensing new antimalarials therapies.

North/south

Generally characterizes global geographic divide between so-called developed and developing nations.

R&D

Research and development, deliberate, systematic application of S&T in striving toward specific understanding or objectives.

RDT

Rapid diagnostic test, an immunochromatographic, point-of-care kit used at village level to diagnose pathogens (malaria) at low cost.

S&T

Science and technology, techniques for expanding understanding of the physical universe.

Sustainability

Technologies or systems that operate effectively in the absence of long-term external financial or technical assistance.

Tropical health

Health issues specific to the tropical zones, especially endemic infectious diseases and underdeveloped healthcare delivery.

WHO

World Health Organization.

WRAIR

The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research in Washington, DC, where development of antimalarials by the US government has been supported.

Notes

Acknowledgments

JKB is supported by the Wellcome Trust grant #B9RJIXO. Prof. Jeremy Farrar, Dr. Simon Hay, and Dr. Trevor Jones provided helpful reviews of the manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Eijkman–Oxford Clinical Research Unit, Jalan DiponegoroJakartaIndonesia
  2. 2.Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of MedicineUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

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